KENNEDY VERSUS NIXON On September 26, 1960, the nation’s first televised debate between two presidential candidates aired live to millions of Americans While Nixon seemed anxious and ill before the debate, Kennedy was well-tanned from a campaign in California and well-rested; Kennedy was confident and suave, while Nixon seemed tense and indecisive Through the course of all the debates, it was shown that 3 million out of the 4 million people who viewed the debates voted for Kennedy One main reason John F. Kennedy won the election of 1960 over Richard Nixon was because of his success in televised debates
NEW FRONTIER Kennedy rode the mood of frustration found in the American people due to the launch of Sputnik He promised to re-uphold the failing economy and fix the educational system, health care, and civil rights issues This program was known as Kennedy’s “New Frontier”
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR In order to properly execute his foreign policy plans, Kennedy’s staff was heavily populated with academics and intellectuals Kennedy’s staff consisted of: Dean Rusk as Head of the State Department McGeorge Bundy as the National Security Advisor Robert McNamara as the Secretary of Defense
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR Unlike Eisenhower’s policy of massive retaliation, Kennedy’s plan, “flexible response”, wanted to balance out nuclear capability with conventional military strength This meant that the United States was able choose different plans in order to deal with the Soviet Union
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR Crisis in Berlin The Soviet leader whom Eisenhower and Kennedy both had to deal with was Nikita Khrushchev Khrushchev threatened to sign a peace treaty that would Berlin under the control of Germany On August 14 th, 1961, Soviets began to construct the Berlin Wall The building of the Berlin Wall was meant to keep East Germans from migrating to the West
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR Southeast Asia Kennedy advocated financial and technical assistance for Third World nations Due to Ngo Dinh Diem, elections were not held in Vietnam since 1956 Under Kennedy, the number of American advisers in Vietnam grew substantially
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR During his term as president, Kennedy wanted to succeed where Eisenhower did not One of these areas was foreign policy With the growing danger of communism in the world, Kennedy wanted an end to it Kennedy’s foreign policy crisis was found in Berlin, Soviet Union, Southeast Asia, and Cuba
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR The Bay of Pigs On April 17 th, 1961, fourteen hundred Cuban exiles moved ashore at the Bay of Pigs Kennedy insisted on covert action and cancelled an air strike on the beachhead Castro and his forces destroyed the invasion, killing almost 500 exiles and made the rest surrender The Bay of Pigs invasion was Kennedy’s most obvious foreign policy disaster
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR The Cuban Missile Crisis In the summer of 1962, Soviets initiated a massive arms build up in Cuba Khrushchev publicly denied any danger to American security from the missiles, but built 24 medium range and 18 intermediate range missiles American foreign policy hawks believed that the outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis justified a policy of nuclear superiority
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR During this time era, the government used propaganda in order to persuade the American people The Government used propaganda to spread cold war fear
KENNEDY INTENSIFIES THE COLD WAR The Cuban Missile Crisis There were four main consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis: A new maturity in John F. Kennedy’s foreign policy New negotiations regarding a reduction in nuclear testing The Soviet-American hotline A conviction that the Soviets only understood the language of force
THE NEW FRONTIER AT HOME Kennedy’s election brought the arrival of a new generation of leadership that was particularly attractive to young people. His cabinet marked this new atmosphere of youth and energy: Abraham Ribicoff as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Robert McNamara as Secretary of Defense Dean Rusk as Secretary of State Stuart Udall as Secretary of the Interior Arthur Goldberg as Secretary of Labor Kennedy’s most controversial decision was appointing his attorney general. He appointed his brother Robert to this position which drew the attention of many critics. The White House staff was just as important to his administration for there handling of domestic affairs The greatest asset of all was his personality.
Pres. Kennedy's Cabinet: (clockwise from lower left)Budget Director David E. Bell; Postmaster General Day, Vice President Johnson, Secretary of Defense McNamara, Secretary of Agriculture Freeman, Secretary of Labor Goldberg, Secretary of Commerce Hodges, Attorney General Kennedy, Secretary of State Rusk, Pres. Kennedy, Secretary of the Treasury Dillon, Secretary of the Interior Udall President Kennedy & Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy
CONGRESSIONAL OBSTACLE The largest domestic obstacle for Kennedy during his presidency was the U.S. Congress. Even with a presidential victory JFK’s New Frontier plan looked unachievable. Even though the Democrats retained a majority in the House and Senate, Northern Republicans and Southern Democrats opposed reforms. Kennedy gave up his fight for Health care reforms and settled for minimum wage increase and the passage of manpower training and area redevelopment legislation.
ECONOMIC ADVANCE One of Kennedy’s biggest priorities was the economy. He received opposing views on the issue. Some urged for manpower training and area- redevelopment while others agreed the improvement of public works. Appropriations for defense and space brought the actual stimulation to the economy. (Unemployment still remained high in older industrial areas) Kennedy ran into confrontation among the business community. When Roger Blough of the Steel Industry began raising prices, he became very frustrated. Kennedy took the unorthodox route of cutting taxes by $13.5 billion which led to sustained economic growth for the rest of the 60s.
MOVING SLOWLY ON CIVIL RIGHTS JFK wanted to launch an attack on segregation but he feared alienating southern democrats so he played down the civil rights legislation. He wanted to continue Eisenhower’s (but provide presidential leadership) efforts of getting African Americans the right to vote by working with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He also worked to help them gain employment opportunities. Kennedy succeeded in appointing Thurgood Marshall and Robert Weaver to prominent posts in the federal government.
FREEDOM RIDE In May 1962, a biracial group wanted to test a decision that the supreme court made in 1960 regarding the outlaw of segregation on buses and trains used in interstate commerce known as the Freedom Ride. The Civil Right Movement did not accept the indirect approach of JFK. The Freedom Rides were sponsored by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Upon arrival in Birmingham, Alabama, the group was attacked by a mob causing the deployment of hundreds of marshals to protect the freedom riders. The issues in transportation finally ended when the attorney general went to the ICC and issued a ban on the segregation.
“I HAVE A DREAM” Martin Luther King Jr. forced Kennedy to change to way he went about civil rights. He encouraged JFK to stop his cautious tactics and openly oppose racial injustice. In 1963, king started active protests in Birmingham that were met with harassment and arrests by the police. After the sight of the mistreatment, Kennedy was forced to intervene and he issued desegregation in public places and the right to vote.
THE SUPREME COURT AND REFORM The most important stimulus for social change in the early 1960s was the Supreme Court. Under Earl Warren the court ventured into new areas and a group of liberal judges led a fight against new activism. Kennedy appoints Arthur Goldberg to the Supreme Court. Now the Warren Court had a clear majority on judicial intervention and they issue a series of landmark decisions. The most far-reaching Warren Court decisions involved legislative reapportionment. (Baker V. Carr which brought redistribution of legislative seats in Tennessee.) The court was criticized for showing its protection of accused criminals. 1962 Engle V. Vitale banned prayer in schools. Even though it brought criticism, the Warren Court showed justice to the underprivileged.
MARCH ON WASHINGTON (1963) Over 200,000 gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial. Highlight of the day was MLK’s “I have a dream” speech. The issues highlighted in this event were addressed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
LET US CONTINUE November 22 nd 1963 would bring an end to Kennedy and his New Frontier program when he was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, Texas, leaving the world in shock. Kennedy’s vice president Lyndon B. Johnson would fill his position.
JOHNSON IN ACTION LBJ held a strong presence with individuals but lacked the ability to speak like JFK in front of crowds. He did have a great ability working with congress and was most powerful in the Senate. Johnson sought consensus. He moved away from Kennedy’s plans and focused on gas and oil conservation and concentrated on Kennedy’s tax and civil rights bills. Without the support of Republican Senator Everett Dirksen, Civil Rights legislation would probably have been filibustered to death in the Senate.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 The Civil Right Act included: Outlawing racial discrimination in employment Outlawing racial segregation in public facilities Protected the voting rights of African Americans Gender as an unacceptable basis for discrimination in hiring. Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
ELECTION OF 1964 Lyndon Johnson’s war on poverty was influenced by Michal Harrington’s book, The Other America. The three groups of poor were the African Americans, the aged and households ran by women. LBJ urged a program to fund programs to improve the problems and eventually decreased the ranks of the poor. Now labeled as a reformer, Johnson faced the challenge of Robert Kennedy and the Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. Emphasizing balanced budgets and fiscal orthodoxy Lyndon Johnson’s domestic program was called the Great Society. LBJ easily defeated Barry Goldwater
THE TRIUMPH OF REFORM Johnson needed to enact his Great Society plan and his two reforms included education and health care. In his health care program Johnson secured the establishment of the Medicare program for the elderly. One of his largest challenges was still civil rights but succeeded in passing the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which banned literacy tests. By fall of 1965, 89 bills had been passed. LBJ had become one of the most accomplished presidents at the time.
JOHNSON ESCALATES THE VIETNAM WAR The foreign policy of Lyndon Johnson was, in many respects, simply a continuation of Kennedy’s policies. Continued the policy of containment and shared Kennedy’s convictions against any spread of Communism Johnson offered covert aid against Brazilian communists and restrained rioting in Panama 1965 – Johnson sent 20,000 American troops to the Dominican Republic to prevent a Communist takeover Flimsy justifications for his actions (citing the need to protect American tourists, suspected communists among rebel leaders) alienated major critics of Johnson, such as Senator William Fulbright.
THE VIETNAM DILEMMA Lyndon Johnson’s political downfall resulted primarily from his obsession with the Vietnam War. In 1964, seven different governments ruled South Vietnam After being pressured by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Johnson continued JFK’s policy of economic and technical assistance added 7,000 military advisors and an additional $50 million in aid North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked an American destroyer in the Gulf of Tonkin Later on, American destroyers opened fire on North Vietnamese gunboats and Johnson ordered retaliatory air strikes on North Vietnamese naval bases, even though it was found that the Vietnamese had never launched a 2 nd attack. Johnson asked Congress to authorize him to take “all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression.” LBJ sought the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to demonstrate to the North Vietnamese, and his political opponents, his determination to take a tough stance in Vietnam. Congress granted the Resolution with an overwhelming majority – A costly victory for Lyndon Johnson. Enabled unlimited military intervention
LBJ SIGNING THE GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION http://tracesofreality.com/2013/08/12/obam a-nsa-gulf-of-tonkin-governing-as-lying/
ESCALATION As a solution to the increasingly hopeless situation in South Vietnam in 1965, Johnson’s key advisors urged American air strikes against North Vietnam American air attacks began to block North Vietnamese infiltration routes, lift South Vietnamese morale, and make Hanoi pay for its role. American bombing of North Vietnam failed to accomplish anything April, 1965 – Johnson authorized the use of American combat troops in South Vietnam to protect American air bases Secretary of Defense McNamara pushed Johnson to increase American combat forces, while Undersecretary of State George Ball warned against the national humiliation involvement would ultimately lead to Result - steady military escalation into a limited war to compel Hanoi to accept a compromise LBJ increased bombings, allowed for offensive operations, and approved the immediate dispatch of 50,000 troops and the future commitment of 50,000 more Although LBJ inherited many of the problems in Vietnam, he failed to confront the American people with the stark truth of war.
STALEMATE American tactics in the Vietnam War were ill-suited for the type of war being fought. Few industrial targets Soviet and Chinese arms flowed freely into the country The jungle hid North Vietnamese troops and shipments High civilian casualties during American air attacks swayed world opinion against the United States American military strategists counted heavily on the benefits of massive American firepower Americans devastated the countryside and slaughtered many South Vietnamese civilians Lieutenant William Calley Jr.’s company killed more than 200 unarmed villagers at My Lai. Nearly half a million American troops were in Vietnam by 1967, yet there was still a stalemate Public opinion turned against the war
Time Magazine 1969 http://www.amazon.com/TIME- William-Calley-Massacre- Montagnard/dp/B00EVUHVHA http://pictureshistory.blogspot.com/2010/07 /my-lai-massacre-during-vietnam-war.html
YEARS OF TURMOIL American youths embraced alternative lifestyles based on the belief that people are “sensitive, searching, poetic, and capable of love” rapid increase in college enrollment disenchantment with middle-class values and the materialism of the affluent
THE STUDENT REVOLT First sign of student rebellion - University of California at Berkeley students occupied administration buildings and blocked protester arrests after the university denied them a place to solicit volunteers and funds Protests fueled by student suspicion of the older, wealth-driven generation Many viewed higher education as a “servant of a corporate culture” Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) - more than 100,000 followers at 1,000 different universities sought salvation through the individual wanted to rid society of poverty, racism and violence Upper-middle class youths turned against the nation’s traditional values
PROTEST AT BERKELEY http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/pacificaviet.html
PROTESTING WAR Youthful protesting was seen in the protest of the Vietnam war. student sit-ins at the University of Michigan student draft deferments- which enabled most of those enrolled in college to avoid military service. As a result, the children of the well-to-do were able to escape the draft. Black and Hispanic men were more likely to get drafted due to the fact that they weren’t as well off As the fighting in Southeast Asia intensified in 1966 and 1967, the protests grew larger and the slogans more extreme. "Hey, Hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" the SDS and African American radicals at Columbia University joined forces in April. It took 8 days for the New York Police to take control of the protest. Their brutalness made protests elsewhere more intense At more than 100 colleges, students spawned a cultural uprising that transformed the manners and morals of America.
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Young people challenged the adult values in clothing, hairstyles, sexual conduct, work habits, and music Examples- Blue jeans to replace suits, long hair and unkempt beards for men, bare feet and bralessness for women In the 60’s, some families joined communes Former Harvard psychology professor Timothy Leary encouraged youth to join him in trying out the drug scene. As a result, people experimented with marijuana and LSD. Hippie movement took place, led by Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman.
BLACK POWER The civil rights movement, which had spawned the mood of protest in the 1960s, fell on hard times later in the decade. 1964-1967: Riots in northern cities, more than half of African Americans in the cities lived in poverty. The civil rights coalition fell apart as there was a rise of militant leaders. Black militants took over the leadership of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); they hated white help and were against MLK’s nonviolence.
MLK’s denunciation of the Vietnam War cost him some support from conservative groups and the Johnson Administration Assassinated in April In Memphis African Americans exploded in angry riots in 125 cities across the nation due to his murder Stokely Carmichael advocated “Black Power.” African Americans began to wear Afro hairstyles, emphasizing their African roots. Students began to demand new black studies programs at colleges http://www.biography.com/pe ople/martin-luther-king-jr- 9365086
ETHNIC NATIONALISM Native Americans decried the use of their identity as football mascots. Puerto Ricans demanded their history be included in school and college texts Polish, Italian, and Czech groups insisted on respect for their nationalities Congress acknowledged these demands with passage of the Ethnic Heritage Studies Act of 1972. 1965: Cesar Chavez organized National Farm Workers Association- poorly paid grape pickers and lettuce workers in California. There was a struggle and 95 percent of farm workers lost their homes, but Chavez succeeded in raising the hourly wage of farmworkers in California to $3.53 by 1977. Young activists began to call themselves Chicanos
Chicanos succeeded in establishing the first Mexican American studies program at California State College at Los Angeles Chicanos won federal mandate for bilingual education High schooler’s took part in walk outs http://depts.washington.ed u/civilr/Chicanomovement _part1.htm
WOMEN’S LIBERATION in some ways, the women’s position was worse than the 1920s. a lower Percentage of women were in college, still had “feminine” jobs, and stereotypical gender roles on TV 1963: Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique on grievance and discrimination- American home was a “comfortable concentration camp.” She claimed housewives had no self-esteem and no sense of identity. The 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal to discriminate in employment on the basis of gender. Women filed suit for equal wages, demanded that companies provide day care for their children, and entered politics to lobby against laws that were unfair to women
laws banning abortion were attacked campaign to toughen the enforcement of rape laws The moderate leadership of the National Organization for Women (NOW), founded by Betty Friedan in 1966, was challenged by those with more extreme views. Ti-Grace Atkinson and Susan Brownmiller attacked the family and the home. in 1972, Congress responded by voting to send the Equal Rights Amendment to the state legislatures for ratification
VIETNAM UNDERMINES LYNDON JOHNSON A controversial Vietcong offensive in early 1968 drove LBJ from office More than 40 percent of American infantry went to battle in northernmost provinces of South Vietnam because the North Vietnamese began a siege of an American marine base at Khe Sanh. Beginning on January 30, 1968, the Vietcong struck at thirty- six of the forty-four provincial capitals --Tet offensive Tet proved to be the turning point of the Vietnam War. Although the communists failed to win control of the cities, they still held on to most of the rural areas and had won a political victory.
President Johnson lied, saying victory was in sight The American experience in the Tet Offensive led Lyndon Johnson to begin an effort to open peace negotiations with the Communists. LBJ wanted to limit bombings. Johnson started listening to his Secretary of State, Clark Clifford LBJ decided not to run for another term Picture of Clark Clifford http://content.time.com/time/covers/0,1664 1,19480315,00.html
THE DEMOCRATS DIVIDE 1996 Rival Democrats… Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy (college students flocked to his campaign) Robert Kennedy-attracted strong support among blue-collar workers, and minorities, severe critic of the Vietnam War Party leaders favored Hubert Humphrey- Cold War liberal Sirhan Sirhan, assassinated Kennedy in a Los Angeles hotel Humphrey’s nomination looked strong, but his triumph was hurt by violence outside the convention hall. Radical groups had urged their members to come to Chicago to agitate, and police had brutally stopped the group.
THE REPUBLICAN RESURGENCE Richard Nixon benefitted from the Democratic debacle. He had failed at becoming the Governor of California in 1962, but through rebuilding himself, he became the frontrunner for the Republican nomination. Nixon reaped the benefit of discontent with the Vietnam War. He played the peace issue shrewdly, appearing to advocate an end to the conflict without ever taking a definite stand. He promised to bring the country together again. Humphrey was hounded by antiwar demonstrators George Wallace’s third party candidacy drew Democratic votes- he was a racist Nixon won the election with the smallest share of the popular vote of any winning candidate since 1916
CONCLUSION: THE END OF AN ERA A growing concern over psychedelic drugs, rock music, long hair, and sexual acceptance had offset the usual Democratic advantage on economic issues and led to the election of a Republican Nixon's election signaled a strong reaction against the growth of federal power. picture of electoral votes- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_ presidential_election,_1968