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Pollution: A Multi-Layered Issue Bosnia & Herzegovina.

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Presentation on theme: "Pollution: A Multi-Layered Issue Bosnia & Herzegovina."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pollution: A Multi-Layered Issue Bosnia & Herzegovina

2 Factors Factors Physical geography- site, topography and climate Industrial economy- former military industrial capital of Yugoslavia Effects of Bosnian War in 1990- the fragmentation of both physical and political infrastructure Pollution is the result of several geographic patterns distinct to Bosnia And the most impacted city is the capital, Sarajevo

3 Economic Reliance on Industry – 25% of GDP – 32.6% of Labor Force – Bosnian exports consist of 30% of their GPD. (U.S. 10%) Top Industries – Steel, Coal and Iron Industry In Bosnia Former Military Capital of Yugoslavia



6 Air Pollution Industrial causes, decreasing with current low output – Sulfur dioxide & carbon dioxide emissions Lack of government influence on environmental regulation & preservation Transportation – High density and population growth result in heavy traffic – Relatively old cars combined with unregulated gasoline Reliance on low-quality coal energy – Limited fuel supply – Use of ‘primitive’ heating methods like firewood and heating oil – 2011-2012: * Extremely cold winter plus shortage in Russian fuel supply resulted in excessive burning of oil and wood severely diminishing air quality – What will climate change bring? Health hazards – Chronic bronchitis – Pulmonary disease – Lung cancer Sarajevo : January 19 th 2011,


8 Tuzla Coal Mines

9 Bosnian War: 1990s Bosnia declares independence in 1992 – Ethnic make up of Bosnia in 92’: 43% Muslim, 31% Orthodox, 17% Catholic Washington Agreement signed between Bosnians and Croatians in 1994 Srebenica massacre July 1995 – 8,000 people killed in one day. Dayton Agreement signed in December 1995 Attack on Sarajevo was longest siege on a capital city in modern history – April 1992-Feburary 1996 Siege on Sarajevo

10 Legacy of the Siege on Sarajevo ‘Urbicide’ – targeted destruction of hospitals as well as government, media and military centers, etc. Destruction of transportation systems -Roads, rail lines, bridges Destruction of industrial capital -Electric & telephone lines damaged - Economic halt -Little to no output Lack of adequate housing & sanitation Fragmentation of physical infrastructure Fragmentation of cultural infrastructure Fractured government -Lack of central authority and inadequate policy City-wide psychological damage -High suicide & abortion rates Demographic crisis -Low birth rates, high death rates -High number of out migration -Refugees & IDPs MILITARY WASTE= water, air, & soil pollution

11 Deadly Pollution Military Waste: Deadly Pollution Includes both unexploded weapons (mine fields) -Nearly 3.68% of country is still mine- contaminated -1,520 deaths from unexploded mines have occurred since the war And exploded waste (shrapnel, shells, etc) - Problematic shrapnel embedded in trees *Deforestation & economic concerns

12 Rebuilding Sarajevo Sarajevo 2002 Sarajevo 2012

13 200320072012

14 Bosnia & Herzegovina’s Future Relating to Pollution With Croatia’s recent acceptance into the EU, and Bosnia’s economy heavily focused on exports, Croatia has required Bosnia’s health codes improve or else trade between the countries could end. Milk one of the main Bosnian products that Croatia is concerned about, and although they have a year to improve the conditions it may not be enough time. Croatia is extremely interested in joining the EU but if they continue to accept poor quality products their acceptance could be revoked, or they could simply discontinue their trade with Bosnia. While the health of Bosnian citizens has been negatively affected by air pollution, military pollution and more, the fact that a major part of their economy could be lost is just another reason to improve the quality of their products.

15 Final Thoughts Years after the war Bosnia is still in the process of rebuilding its infrastructure, culture and economy Environmental degradation is at the forefront of the country’s concerns, as it is a multi- faceted issue – Impending climate change – Geographic site and situation – Lasting effects of the war – Industrial and economic health – Governmental authority and strength

16 Sources goslav_Wars BA3B2F6581236449 BA3B2F6581236449 3/so2-2008- concentration/Airbase_2010_concentration_SO2.eps.75dpi.gif/at_download/image 3/so2-2008- concentration/Airbase_2010_concentration_SO2.eps.75dpi.gif/at_download/image 8322.2012.00851.x/asset/j.1467- 8322.2012.00851.x.pdf?v=1&t=h1x1cd9s&s=8328a5b79b56e04e4d715ef8f535bb434408 2866 8322.2012.00851.x/asset/j.1467- 8322.2012.00851.x.pdf?v=1&t=h1x1cd9s&s=8328a5b79b56e04e4d715ef8f535bb434408 2866 croatian-eu-bid croatian-eu-bid

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