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By: Shreya Mishra, Haritha Aribindi, and Annie Wang.

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1 By: Shreya Mishra, Haritha Aribindi, and Annie Wang

2  Louis Philippe, the King of France at this time, was an extremely unpopular ruler who, despite referring to himself as “liberal,” attempted to reconsolidate the power of the monarchy with support from extremist right-wing factions called the ultra-royalists.  Under Louis Philippe’s rule, the elite classes were favored above all else. Suffrage was limited to landowners, excluding much of the middle and working classes.  Food riots had risen across France due to price inflations created by the faltering European economy, which in turn had been caused by poor harvests.  Socialism became a popular belief among the working class just before this time period due to its concern towards worker’s issues, such as low wages, long hours and poor working conditions. Riots regarding these problems became common.

3 P.I.R.A.T.E.S for effects of the Revolution of 1848 Politics: The government structure after the revolution was extremely disorganized. The French revolution had brought around a more conservative government and the liberals were being suppressed. Evidence of this is the creation of an Executive Commission which had 5 co-presidents representing the state. Intellectual: The people did not have that many specific Intellectual advancements but the people did begin to use better lighting and also began to use gas instead of oil. Religion: The religion base remained Catholicism and did not change. There had been pressure in the past by the protestant reformers, but that pressure was ineffective and the country remained catholic even after the revolution. Art/Architecture: There was an advance of the city’s structure. The Haussmann created Paris as a beautiful town. Poor neighborhoods were swept and were replaced with museums. The Bourgeoisie also got beautiful homes to live in and there was the creation of boulevards. Technology: A military camp was opened up in Algeria during this time period because of the technological advancements of the military. Economy: The economy did experience some difficulty after the revolution but, after the arrival of yet another corrupt monarch which the public didn’t revolt against, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the French economy flourished. Society: Right after the French revolution, there were still some questions about social classes in place within France. The Bourgeoisie were a group of people who had lost their value but it was returning as the economy was bettering.

4  The French public invaded Versailles and captured Louis XVI and his family escorting them back to Paris.  September, Parisians are encouraged to massacre government officials especially the aristocracy and nobles.  A National Convention takes place which exterminates the French monarchy and establishes the first republic.  The National Convention voted for the death of Louis XVI with a majority of one in the assembly.  Napoleon is appointed commander of French Republican forces. The “Terror” develops leading to the execution of thousands of nobles.  Napoleon organizes a coup d’etat in France taking control of the government.  A violent revolution occurs in France removing Charles X from the throne.  A series of economic downfalls and crop failures led to starvation and discontent among the public.  France’s Second Republic is established by Louis Blanc and his revolutionaries who advocate for a democracy.  Conservatives took over France when political differences concerning nationalism split up the revolutionaries.  Louis Napoleon Bonaparte organizes a coup d’etat of the weak French government and becomes the emperor or the “President of France”. He ends the Second Republic of France.

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6 King Charles X was important during this time because he was the reason the people had any defiance toward the government whatsoever. He dissolved the lower house and limited the freedom of the press. This infuriated citizens and a revolution was in the making. Napoleon Bonaparte was important because he was the man chosen to lead France after the revolution was over.

7 Louis Blanc was a French man who was a member of the Socialist party. He was unhappy with the government. He had demands such as providing work for every person, and having competition so that everyone could grow, and not just the elitists. This man was a great orator and that was one of his strong points to helping with the revolution. He convinced people with the way he spoke.

8 Storming at the Bastille shows the disapproval of the citizens towards the nobles. This shows more unhappiness within French citizens. This image represents the balancing of the new monarch, Napoleon Bonaparte.

9 Before the Revolution France was a state controlled by a small elite with a monarch at the head. The monarch was supported by one party (the ultra royalists) while former Royalists, Republicans, and Socialists opposed him. Parliamentarism was frowned upon by the government, which meant less representation for the common people. After the Revolution Politics stayed fairly conservative. The President of the Second French Republic, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, launched a coup d'état in 1851 and proclaimed himself the Emperor of France. France was thus again under the rule of one powerful individual. Napoleon was notorious for his exile of Republicans and his dissolving of the newly-formed Parliament.

10  The Franco-Prussian War of 1871 ended with the defeat of France and the overthrowing of Napoleon and the Second French Empire.  The French Third Republic was established after the war in Versailles due to the unstable political climate in Paris.  Controversial financial laws created by the newly established republic that obliged the Prussians to leave France created growing resentment among the working class.

11 P.I.R.A.T.E.S for effects of the Revolution of 1871 Politics: After the Franco-Prussian wars, and the defeat of France, King Napoleon III was overthrown and the government began to be ruled by Louis Jules Trochu and Adolphe Thiers as the head of provisional government. Eventually a parliamentary monarchy was made. Intellectual: France was already advanced with technology and in the area of math's and sciences and not many enhancements came. One could say however, that the building of the Eiffel tower involved some enhancements on the part of physics, considering the French had to know a great deal of engineering to be able to do that. Religion: The Catholic church became deeply involved in the ongoing of the new French republic. Since France had a large network of colonies, the Catholic church became dedicated to teaching the people Christianity while adopting the language of the colonies themselves. Art/Architecture: The greatest advancement of the time would have to be the Eiffel Tower. The Eiffel Tower was built in 1887 and was finished by 1889 and was built in celebration of the French Revolution. Technology: The French had become very advanced by this time since they had full fleshed militaries and several colonies. All these colonies also had some French people there and the French had outstanding equipment to reach to their colonies. Economy: The Economy in France was flourishing after the revolution. Since there were many colonies to trade with, there was a great increase in trade for France with imports that helped revive their economy. Society: There was an advance for all peasants since they were “modernized”. There was also an increase in railroad building and children going to school from all social classes.

12  The regime of Napoleon the Third is called the Second French Empire.  Napoleon III established the French Constitution which was against a strong Parliament and gave all executive power to the Emperor. A Legislative branch was elected by the French people; however, it was very restricted.  November 24, Napoleon established the freedom of press by allowing the press to report parliamentary decisions and by granting an annual address given by the Legislative branch in response to the Emperor.  Napoleon also granted the Legislative Branch the power to vote on budgetary decisions.  Napoleon III modernized France, constructed the Eiffel Tower, built the Suez Canal, and emerged as the victor in the Crimean War.  Napoleon III embarked on The Mexican Adventure hoping to establish French power in the country. This feat, however, ultimately failed.  Chancellor Otto von Bismarck moves toward the throne of Prussia in hopes of uniting the Kingdom and Spain. This is heavily opposed by the French.  Napoleon III’s opposition towards this issue eventually led to anti-French attitudes and the Franco-Prussian War began. The French army was severely defeated and Napoleon III was captured.  With the news of French defeat, the citizens of the country revolted and destroyed the Second Empire. The Third Republic was then established by the Government of National Defense led by the President, General Louis Jules Trochu: however, the French soon surrendered to the Prussians and a unified Germany was established.

13 General Louis Jules Trochu was important to this revolution because he was the leader of France after the Revolution had ended. Adolphe Thiers was important because he was titled head of provisional government before a set structure of government was formed in France.

14 This man contributed to the French Revolution even though he wasn’t French. He was a German General and he had a lot of political pressure on the French to push them towards becoming a republic, liberal state.

15 This represents the French invasion into Mexico, which became a French colony. This represents the French and Prussian Wars and the changing boundaries over time.

16 Before the Revolution Napoleon III was the sole ruler of France, having established a new king-like position after launching a coup d'état in Napoleon’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian Wars created political chaos, wherein the French Third Republic was roughly established. The idea of a constitutional monarchy was proposed, but was eventually rejected by the French National Assembly. After the Revolution The Radicalist-Socialist Party that was formed against the early Third French Republic fell apart in the matter of months, due to heavy struggles among the Socialists, liberals, Republicans, and conservatives within the party leadership. The government expanded into colonies in Africa and Southeast Asia- struggles against French rule often ended in crushing defeat. The government did not stay stable- controversies between parties often collapsed it repeatedly through the republic’s seventy-year existence.

17  Shreya: Parts 2 and second part of 3 and putting it together  Annie: Parts 1 and 4  Haritha: First part of 3


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