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Moving Westward: 1850-1890 Libertyville HS.

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Presentation on theme: "Moving Westward: 1850-1890 Libertyville HS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Moving Westward: Libertyville HS

2 Westward Movement By 1850s frontier had moved to 100th Meridian
Area beyond = “Great American Desert” North = Canada West = Great Plains & Rocky Mountains South = Texas Barriers to settlement Extremes of weather Lack of trees (fuel, construction, food) Native Americans

3 The Indian Barrier N.A. were masters of their environment
Indian advantages Horsemanship Weapons Knowledge of their terrain White disadvantages Unknown environment Slow loading weapons

4 Changing Circumstances
Use of the revolver Telegraph (“singing wires”) Introduction of alcohol Diseases Disappearance of buffalo Introduction of the railroad Ex – Union & Central Pacific “Plenty wagon, no horse”

5 The Transcontinental Railroad
Transcontinental Railroad – why? Quick transport across country for goods, people Congress: land grants to RR companies, as incentive to build Trunk line + subsidiary lines Effects Open up interior to settlement Hastened defeat of Indians Buffalo slaughter Political development of W states

6 “America’s Second Civil War” 1865-1886
Combat between encroaching whites, Plains Indians Dilemma: what to do with defeated Indians? Americanize them!

7 Highlights of “Second Civil War”
1876 Little Big Horn (Custer’s “Last Stand”) 1877 Crazy Horse surrendered 1877 Chief Joseph & Nez Perce fled to Canada 1882 Oklahoma becomes “Indian Territory” 1883 Sundance prohibited by the Secretary of Interior 1886 Geronimo surrendered Custer Crazy Horse Chief Joseph Geronimo

8 Assimilation of Native Americans
Bureau of Indian Affairs Manage assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream culture Confined Indians to reservations Teach white culture Christianize Break up tribes Disperse family units Force individual property ownership

9 Political Timeline of Assimilation
1887 Dawes Act (Indian Homestead Act) 160 acres from government Late 1880s, 90s Return of Sitting Bull Popularity of Ghost Dance 1889 Ghost Dance reached Pine Ridge Res 1890 Wounded Knee (massacre of Indians) 1904 Burke Act (Indian homesteads) 640 acres & potential citizenship Sitting Bull

10 The Cattle Kingdom (1865-85) “Open Range” Railheads & “cattle towns”
Cattle business – McCoy linked to Chicago meat packing business Texas ‘longhorns’ “Long drive” to railheads Railheads & “cattle towns” Trails = Goodnight-loving, Western Chisholm, Shawnee Cattle towns = Wichita, Dodge City, Abilene Joseph McCoy

11 Cattle Kingdom Advances of Cattle Kingdom Joseph Glidden Ned Buntline
Barbed wire (“devil’s hat band”) Ned Buntline Dime novels (paperbacks) John Deere Steel edged plow Joseph Glidden John Deere

12 Cattle Kingdom: End of an Era
Over production Drought (1886) & blizzards ( ) ended Cattle Kingdom Sod busters & “range wars” Result Ranches and fences Big business

13 Miner’s Frontier There were approximately two dozen major “mining rushes” (mining rush = discovery of gold or silver) 1849 – Sacramento, CA 1859 – Pike’s Peak 1859 – Nevada (Comstock Lode - silver) 1874 – Black Hills, SD (Sioux Res, sacred land – Army sent in to protect miners) (Homestake Mine – gold) Pike’s Peak Mining Silver mine

14 Miner’s Frontier: Black Hills War
George Custer & the 7th Cavalry Crazy Horse and the Sioux “Custer’s Last Stand” Custer, 200 troopers march 30+ miles Attack Sioux warriors! Cavalry killed, to the man Only survivor…

15 Mining Town Life Mining towns in territories = little law / justice
New vocabulary “vigilantes” “posse” “suspended sentence” “necktie parties” “Winchester litigation” End of Boom times Mining becomes just another big business

16 End of the Frontier: Farmers
Initial settlement of West Oregon Fever, 1840s CA Gold Rush, 1849 Post CW settlement of “American Desert” Dislocation due to Civil War Homestead Act of 1862 160 acres free, if developed (later increased to 640 acres) 1.6 million “freeholds” est. 270 million acres, 10% of all US land Free RR transport to W

17 Barriers to Farmers in West
Solution Housing Fuel Plowing Fencing Water “Sod busting” “Buffalo chips” Deere plow Barbed wire Windmills to pump well water to irrigate

18 Settlement of West Last Land Rush: Oklahoma, 1889 (“89ers”)
“Sooners” = those who entered early Boomers = those who legally entered – cannon boom 1890 census: officially ended the “frontier” as a part of USA

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