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MOVING WESTWARD: 1850-1890 Libertyville HS. Westward Movement  By 1850s frontier had moved to 100 th Meridian  Area beyond = “Great American Desert”

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Presentation on theme: "MOVING WESTWARD: 1850-1890 Libertyville HS. Westward Movement  By 1850s frontier had moved to 100 th Meridian  Area beyond = “Great American Desert”"— Presentation transcript:

1 MOVING WESTWARD: Libertyville HS

2 Westward Movement  By 1850s frontier had moved to 100 th Meridian  Area beyond = “Great American Desert”  North = Canada  West = Great Plains & Rocky Mountains  South = Texas  Barriers to settlement  Extremes of weather  Lack of trees (fuel, construction, food)  Native Americans

3 The Indian Barrier  N.A. were masters of their environment  Indian advantages  Horsemanship  Weapons  Knowledge of their terrain  White disadvantages  Unknown environment  Slow loading weapons

4 Changing Circumstances  Use of the revolver  Telegraph (“singing wires”)  Introduction of alcohol  Diseases  Disappearance of buffalo  Introduction of the railroad  Ex – Union & Central Pacific  “Plenty wagon, no horse”

5 The Transcontinental Railroad TTranscontinental Railroad – why? QQuick transport across country for goods, people CCongress: land grants to RR companies, as incentive to build TTrunk line + subsidiary lines EEffects OOpen up interior to settlement HHastened defeat of Indians BBuffalo slaughter PPolitical development of W states

6 “America’s Second Civil War”  Combat between encroaching whites, Plains Indians  Dilemma: what to do with defeated Indians? Americanize them!

7 Highlights of “Second Civil War”  1876 Little Big Horn (Custer’s “Last Stand”)  1877 Crazy Horse surrendered  1877 Chief Joseph & Nez Perce fled to Canada  1882 Oklahoma becomes “Indian Territory”  1883 Sundance prohibited by the Secretary of Interior  1886 Geronimo surrendered Chief Joseph Geronimo CusterCrazy Horse

8 Assimilation of Native Americans  Bureau of Indian Affairs  Manage assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream culture  Confined Indians to reservations  Teach white culture  Christianize  Break up tribes  Disperse family units  Force individual property ownership

9 Political Timeline of Assimilation  1887 Dawes Act (Indian Homestead Act)  160 acres from government  Late 1880s, 90s  Return of Sitting Bull  Popularity of Ghost Dance  1889 Ghost Dance reached Pine Ridge Res  1890 Wounded Knee (massacre of Indians)  1904 Burke Act (Indian homesteads)  640 acres & potential citizenship Sitting Bull

10 The Cattle Kingdom ( )  “Open Range”  Cattle business – McCoy linked to Chicago meat packing business  Texas ‘longhorns’  “Long drive” to railheads  Railheads & “cattle towns”  Trails = Goodnight-loving, Western Chisholm, Shawnee Trails  Cattle towns = Wichita, Dodge City, Abilene Joseph McCoy

11 Cattle Kingdom  Advances of Cattle Kingdom  Joseph Glidden  Barbed wire (“devil’s hat band”)  Ned Buntline  Dime novels (paperbacks)  John Deere  Steel edged plow John Deere Joseph Glidden

12 Cattle Kingdom: End of an Era  Over production  Drought (1886) & blizzards ( ) ended Cattle Kingdom  Sod busters & “range wars”  Result  Ranches and fences  Big business

13 Miner’s Frontier  There were approximately two dozen major “mining rushes” (mining rush = discovery of gold or silver)  1849 – Sacramento, CA  1859 – Pike’s Peak  1859 – Nevada (Comstock Lode - silver)  1874 – Black Hills, SD (Sioux Res, sacred land – Army sent in to protect miners) (Homestake Mine – gold) Silver mine Pike’s Peak Mining

14 Miner’s Frontier: Black Hills War  George Custer & the 7 th Cavalry  Crazy Horse and the Sioux  “Custer’s Last Stand”  Custer, 200 troopers march 30+ miles  Attack Sioux warriors!  Cavalry killed, to the man  Only survivor…

15 Mining Town Life  Mining towns in territories = little law / justice  New vocabulary  “vigilantes”  “posse”  “suspended sentence”  “necktie parties”  “Winchester litigation”  End of Boom times  Mining becomes just another big business

16 End of the Frontier: Farmers  Initial settlement of West  Oregon Fever, 1840s  CA Gold Rush, 1849  Post CW settlement of “American Desert”  Dislocation due to Civil War  Homestead Act of 1862  160 acres free, if developed (later increased to 640 acres)  1.6 million “freeholds” est.  270 million acres, 10% of all US land  Free RR transport to W

17 Barriers to Farmers in West HHousing FFuel PPlowing FFencing WWater  “Sod busting”  “Buffalo chips”  Deere plow  Barbed wire  Windmills to pump well water to irrigate BarrierSolution

18 Settlement of West  Last Land Rush: Oklahoma, 1889 (“89ers”) Last Land Rush  “Sooners” = those who entered early  Boomers = those who legally entered – cannon boom  1890 census: officially ended the “frontier” as a part of USA


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