3Background Information on the Creeks Also know as the MuscogeeName came from the shortening of the “Ocheese Creek” (Ocmulgee River)Union of several tribes confederacyMember tribes called tribal towns political autonomyGeographic DivisionsUpper Creeks- Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers- traditional way of lifeLower Creeks-Chattahoocee and Flint Rivers-more intermarriage with the whites- huge impact on political and social order
4Town Make UpItalwa- large permanent towns Talofa- smaller outlying villages (associated with larger town) Pascova- plazas (open areas) 1. Used for dancing, religious ceremonies and games 2. Location of town councils 3. Surrounding the pascova were the homes of the Indians.
5Creek Indian Townspeople in the town, town would split, with about half moving to a nearby siteThe new towns would have a “mother-daughter” relationship with the original town (how confederacies were formed)Matrilineal society- mother is the main authority in the family
6Creek Indian Wars Oconee War During the late 1700’s, white settlers began to push into Creek lands, bad feelings started to arise along the Oconee River.-White settlers began to shoot Creeks on siteCreek Chief that intervened and supported the Creeks in their effort to keep the land was Alexander McGillivray
7Alexander McGillivray Creek Indian ChiefGrew up in Creek and white society (mom was Creek, dad was white)Initiated reforms within the Creek society-created centralized power in Creek nationUsed trade to increase his own position on the Southern frontier.Used European influence to protect Creek interests- Treaty of New York (1790)
8The Treaty of New York (1790) McGuillivray met with George Washington to discuss a peace negotiation over the Oconee WarsWhat did it do?Creeks gave up land east of the Oconee RiverU.S. promised no settlers West of the Oconee River*Both sides ignored the treaty*
9Georgia’s War of 1812 (Creek Indian Civil War) Red Stick Creeks (warring Creeks) vs. White Stick Creeks (peaceful Creeks) Fort Mims Massacre Battle of Horseshoe Bend
10The Fort Mims Massacre (1813) 1000 Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims (Alabama) killing settlers , army officers, and White SticksThe Red Sticks’ victory spread panic throughout the Southeastern United States frontierMade the Creek Civil War a war between the United States and the Red Stick warriors of the Upper Creek Nation. (Why is this?)
11The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814) Located on the Tallapoosa RiverJackson, with the help of Lower Creek and Cherokee Indians as well as his own forces gained control of the barricade and slaughtered the Red Creek Indians that were thereVideo: ewjackson/video/
13Battle of Horseshoe Bend’s Significance Upper Creek power was brokenCreek Civil War came to a closeCreeks were forced to give up more than 23 million acres of their homeland and move farther westThe land taken from them was good for growing cotton which helped to further the need for slavery-antebellum periodAndrew Jackson became a legend
14The Monroe Doctrine (1823)The Western Hemisphere was off limits to further colonizationThe United States would not be involved in internal European affairs* ISOLATIONISM*-not interfering in other countries affairs.*James Monroe (5th president)
15Why the Need for the Monroe Doctrine? In the early 1800’s, a number of colonies in Latin America gained independence from their European controllers.United States President James Monroe believed that by making connections with the new nations, both the political and economic influence of the U.S. would increase. (Spheres of Influence) (This relates to what theory we learned about last unit?)Wars in Europe- Monroe did not want to get the United States involved in these matters
16Analyzing Political Cartoons- The Monroe Doctrine What things stick out to you in this picture?Who do you think each person in the cartoon represents?What do you feel the cartoon is attempting to say to the viewer?Does this political cartoon represent the Monroe Doctrine? Why or why not?
171. What is happening in the cartoon? 2. Who does the figure in the foreground represent?3. Who are the figures in the background? See if you can read the names of nations.4. What is the message of the cartoon?
181. Describe what is happening in this cartoon. 2. Who is the figure on the right?3. Who are the two figures on the left?4. What is the figure on the right pointing to?5. What is the message of the cartoon?
19Cartoon #1 Answers1. A rooster is guarding a chicken coop by marching back and forth in front of it.2. The United States3. European nations, Italy, Germany, England, France.4. The U.S. has locked up the European nations with the Monroe Doctrine, whichstates that the Western Hemisphere is off limits to European settlement.Cartoon #2 Answers1. A man is stopping two men from crossing a line.2. Uncle Sam, representing the U.S.3. Great Britain and Germany.4. The line which says “Monroe Doctrine”.5. European nations need to stay behind the line of the Monroe Doctrine whichblocks their entry into Latin America.
21References- Horseshoe Bend nal_parks/Horseshoe_Bend_map.jpgessons/54horseshoe/54images/54cover.jpgulletins/nrb40/bat7.jpg
22References- Monroe Doctrine npgallery.jpg onroe_doctrine.jpg Political Cartoons: /2009/06/monroe-doctrine-cartoons.pdf
23Creek Indian Treaties and the Indian Removal Act
24Review of Yesterday Creek Indian society background - composition of the Creek society- Creek Indian townsCreek Indian Wars- Oconee War- Alexander McGillivray- Treaty of New York (1790)Creek Indian Civil War-Fort Mims Massacre-Significance- Battle of Horseshoe Bend- SignificanceThe Monroe Doctrine
26The Treaty of Indian springs (1825) William McIntoshLower Creek chief“White Warrior”Mother was Creek and father was whiteSupported the U.S.’s attempts to gain Indian landWell connected in the government of Georgia (many relatives were high officials)
27The Treaty of Indian spring (1825) George TroupCousin of William McIntoshGovernor of Georgia during this treatyAggressive policy towards Indian removal
28The treaty of Indian Springs (1825) Chief William McIntosh and Governor George Troup (cousins) arranged to have Creek lands given to GASold all of the remaining Creek land (southwest Georgia)Many Creeks were unhappy with the selling of the landMcIntosh was murdered in his home in Carroll County.
29The Treaty of Washington (1826) Nullified the “false” Treaty of Indian SpringsGave all Creek land on the east of the Chattahoochee River to the United StatesTreaty was broken almost immediately (frontiersmen burned and looted Indian homes)The army intervened and aided the removal to OklahomaThe end of Creeks in Georgia
31The Dahlonega Gold Rush 1828Almost 20 years before the California Gold Rush (1849)Gold found by Benjamin ParksLand owned by the CherokeeAuraria- first gold mining center in the United States.Push to forced Cherokee off that land
32Andrew Jackson Elected in 1828 Very proud man (often got into fights in order to defend his honor)War hero“Represented the common man”Thought of the Indians as “…children in need of guidance.”Known for his involvement in Indian Removalname=americanhistory&bcpid= &bclid= &bctid=Andrew Jackson 7th President
33The Indian Removal Act (1830) Authorized Jackson to transfer Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River to the western territories (Oklahoma) promised to them5 GroupsCherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and SeminoleThe removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditionsamerica-under-andrew-jackson-the-indian- removal-act-video.htm
34Key Individuals and events Prior to The trail of tears
35Missionaries to Georgia Samuel Worcester and Elizur Butler Preacher to the CherokeesKnown as “The Messenger”Good friends with Elias Boudinot- Developed the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper with BoudinotSought to use the Cherokee Phoenix to promote a Cherokee NationElizur ButlerPreacher and physician to the Creek IndiansInvolved in the Hawais mission1830- Georgia passed a law stating that any white person could not live on Indian land without taking an “oath of allegiance”*Worcester and Butler were arrested for failing to take the oath*
36Chief Justice John Marshall Worester vs. Georgia (1832)The arrests of Worcester and Butler were the basis for this caseGeorgia ignored the Supreme Court’s decisionPresident Jackson did not support the ruling either, and pressed for the Cherokees to remove themselves from the land“John Marshall has rendered his decision; now let him enforce it!” –JacksonChief Justice John Marshall
41Cherokee Indian Society Matrilineal SocietyConfederacy of States made up the nationThe Cherokee settlements looked very much like a ‘fort’ or ‘town’ with several ‘log cabins’, small gardens, fruit trees, and a central ‘long house’ on a raised mound for gatherings and decision making. The Long House, or Council House, was also used for religious functions, such as weddings and festivals. 1800s- began to adopt white culture- Government- Dress- Home building techniques- Farming techniquesHothouses- dome shaped houses (winter houses)
42Cherokee Attempts to Co-Exist with Settlers 1. Large Scale FarmingA. Adopted European methods of growing cropsB. Used modern equipment2. Americanized EducationA. Young Cherokee sent to eastern boarding schoolsB. Learned English and many other common subjects3. Adopted ChristianityA. Missionaries4. Written ConstitutionA. 1827B. Declared their status as a sovereign nation5. Written language and newspaperA. Cherokee syllabaryB. Only Indian tribe with a written languageC Cherokee Phoenix published
43QuestionWhen you get home from school today, the authorities tell you and your family that you have to leave your home immediately. The reason you have to leave is because the government wants your home. You can take nothing but the clothes you have on your back. Question: How would this make you feel? Do you think this would be a just reason in forcing you to leave your home? Why or why not?
46Chief John Ross First and only elected Chief of the Cherokee Nation Fought against Indian removalHelped to organize the Cherokee nation- Wrote Constitution- Election of a Principal ChiefProtested to the national government selling Cherokee lands in the 1832 land lottery- won but was not enforcedProtested the Treaty of New Echota but was ignored by Jackson
47The Treaty of New Echota (1835) Cherokees refused to leave their homes when the Indian Removal Act was signedA select group of Cherokees (Major and John Ridge, Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie (Ridge’s nephews)) signed the Treaty of New EchotaThe treaty exchanged the title to all Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi for $5 million and a large piece of land in Oklahoma.PROBLEM: There were only a select few that signed the treaty, not the majority of the Cherokee death warrantRidge and his followers left (2000) stayed Trail of Tears
48Treaty of New Echota Traitors John RidgeMajor RidgeElias BoudinotStand Watie
49The Trail of TearsGeneral Winfield Scott ordered to remove the remaining 15,000 CherokeePlaced in stockades where hundreds died of illness (internment camps)Two routes takenCrowded boats using a river passage800 mile walk to new Indian territory- Food was scare- Starvation and illnessEmigrated-move out or away fromANuna-da-ut-sun’y- “The trail where they cried”
51Trail of Tears Movie http://video.pbs.org/video/1101800846/ Start at 15 and let it run
52Trail of Tears Quotes and Primary Experiences “I fought through the Civil War and have seen men shot to pieces and slaughtered by thousands, but the Cherokee removal was the cruelest work I ever knew.” – Georgia militiaman who participated in the “roundup” of the Cherokee IndiansSamuel’s MemoryDescribe their experience (What happened to him and his family)How did they feel?Cherokee Indian legend of the Cherokee Rose
53Essay Question Write 5-7 sentences answering the question below Do you think the United States was justified in removing the Creek and Cherokee Indians? Why or why not?In your answer think about the societies of each tribe..were they peaceful/warrior, did they adopt white culture, etc.You must have 3 supporting ideas from your notes in this essay (Maps, documents, treaties, white/Indian conflicts, Trail of Tears, etc.)If it helps, write your essay from the point of view of either an Indian, or a white settler.
54ReferencesCherokee Society:Map of Cherokee Lands:Trail of Tears Picture: tc.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/images/4tear44b.jpgJohn Ross:Winfield Scott:Cherokee Rose: tateflowers/georgiastateflowers/georgia-state-flower.jpg