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The French & Indian War. What you need to know Why French settled Quebec Causes of French & Indian War How Treaty of Paris impacted: –Britain –France.

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Presentation on theme: "The French & Indian War. What you need to know Why French settled Quebec Causes of French & Indian War How Treaty of Paris impacted: –Britain –France."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French & Indian War

2 What you need to know Why French settled Quebec Causes of French & Indian War How Treaty of Paris impacted: –Britain –France –Native Americans Proclamation of 1763 How British financial problems hurt colonies

3 British & French Rivalry 1700s—Britain and France struggled to be world’s strongest empire Each had colonies all over the world One place they fought over was Ohio River Valley

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5 French Colonies in America 1608—French set up Quebec colony 1 year after Jamestown Became very wealthy from fur trading In 1600s—French ended up claiming all of Mississippi River valley Named it Louisiana (for King Louis XIV)

6 French Colonies in America New France was very different from British colonies Fur trappers & traders Priests to convert natives Friendly with local native tribes Didn’t build big cities – big difference in population (F – 70,000 vs. B – 1,000,000)

7 British & French Rivalry Both Brits & French expanded toward each other’s territory They both wanted fur trading rights VERY PROFITABLE

8 The 1 st battle – 1754 French built Ft. Duquesne (modern Pittsburgh) on land VA had claimed VA sent troops to defend land claims led by 22 y/o Col. George Washington

9 The 1 st battle – 1754 Washington built Ft. Necessity 40 miles from Ft. Duquesne Attacked the French They fought, French won

10 The 2 nd battle – yr later British Gen Ed Braddock’s troops attacked Ft. Duquesne French & their Native allies ambushed them, British ran away

11 French and Natives Many native tribes helped French Added big numbers to French army Knew land better Taught guerrilla warfare (nobody fought that way in Europe) French win battles for 2 years

12 British colonies react British colonists question strength of British army New Brit Prime Minister – William Pitt Enough is enough – began to win battles Some native tribes began helping Brits 1759—Brits take Quebec—basically ends war

13 Treaty of Paris 1763 Brits get all land E of Mississippi R French get land W of Mississippi R And some Caribbean islands Natives biggest losers in war Easier for them when French were there

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15 Native revolts Chief Pontiac led battle against British forts – took over 8 forts British asked for negotiation As peace offering, British gave natives blankets w/smallpox on them Disease wiped out, British finished off

16 Proclamation of 1763 Attempt to avoid battles with natives British banned settlement W of Appalachians Colonists wanted the land—they ignored the rule

17 Colonial resentment Colonists hated Proclamation British fighting colonial expansion – colonists felt the British did not care about them? British cracked down on smuggling Searched homes, businesses & ships

18 British financial issues British send 10,000 troops to America Defend against natives & former French Colonists were scared that army would actually suppress them British were increasing spending on military – financial problems

19 Sugar Act Cut tax on sugar Hoping colonists will buy legal sugar from British colonies Increase penalties for smuggling Criminals tried in British courts instead of colonial courts Colonists hated rule placed on them from outside

20 What you need to know Why French settled Quebec Causes of French & Indian War How Treaty of Paris impacted: –Britain –France –Native Americans Proclamation of 1763 How British financial problems hurt colonies

21 The Stirrings of Rebellion

22 What you need to know Stamp Act Colonial responses to Stamp Act –Stamp Act Congress –Sons of Liberty –1 st Continental Congress Boston Massacre Committees of Correspondence Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts 1 st Continental Congress Lexington and Concord

23 Britain’s financial problems Arrangement British always had with the colonies: Colonies send raw goods to Britain, creating a profit British army & navy protect colonies Colonies pay taxes to colony only No taxes paid to London

24 Britain’s financial problems After F&I War, Britain was in debt War cut into British profits Costs lots of money for war supplies War shuts down farms & industry

25 Britain’s financial problems Britain decided to change its arrangement with the colonies Need to set up new taxes to pay debt

26 The Stamp Act Required a stamp on all paper documents Legal documents (contracts, licenses, etc) Newspapers & magazines Dice & playing cards Affected all colonists—rich & poor

27 The colonists react Colonists become angry because: British citizens elect reps to Parliament Parliament establishes taxes with people’s consent Colonies didn’t get reps in Parliament They shouldn’t have to pay taxes unless they get to elect reps too

28 The colonists react Massachusetts Sons of Liberty Secret org of Boston men led by Samuel Adams (rich & poor) Harassed anyone who collected tax money or enforced the tax Caused many people who were tired of harassment to resign

29 The colonists react Virginia House of Burgesses Led by Patrick Henry Colonial legislature voted that only Virginia colony could tax Virginians (basically just a symbolic vote—not as if British Parliament really cared)

30 Stamp Act Congress Reps from 9 colonies met in NYC Sent Parliament the Declaration of Rights & Grievances “no taxation w/o representation” Very significant; first time colonies really worked together as a unit

31 Regular colonists react Colonial merchants refused to import British goods Regular colonists boycotted anything British Began to see selves as citizens of the colony more than of Britain

32 Townshend Acts Taxes sponsored by British politician Charles Townshend Taxes on specific goods that were imported from Britain Glass / Lead / Paint / Paper / TEA

33 Townshend Acts response Most colonists participate in boycott Samuel Adams led revolts Women participated in boycott: Wove cloth instead of buying it Made tea from bark (?)

34 The Liberty Ship owned by John Hancock British looking for imported (smuggled) wine seized ship Angered citizens of Boston—riots British used soldiers to clamp down on Boston

35 Boston Massacre—1770 British soldiers patrolled streets Colonists not used to being watched Soldiers allowed to get jobs on the side for extra money Employers scared to say no to them Cost regular people jobs

36 Boston Massacre—1770 Fight began over soldiers taking jobs away from colonists Colonists taunted soldiers Soldiers fired into crowd, killed 5 Sam Adams & others publicized event

37 Crispus Attucks First person to die in Massacre Worked on the docks in Boston Was in crowd taunting soldiers Thought to be ½ African ½ Native Not much known about him at all

38 Committees of Correspondence British ship hunting smugglers attacked by colonists from RI Colonists burn up the ship Suspects taken to London for trial

39 Committees of Correspondence Colonists angry suspects taken back to London for trial Groups set up (C of C) to communicate among all the colonies about British oppression

40 Tea Act Boycotts on tea caused sales to drop Tons of tea sitting in warehouses Tea had always been sold to importers in colonies in bulk amts Colonial importers would sell smaller amts for a profit

41 Tea Act Parliament allowed British East India Co. rights to sell tea directly to consumers Cut out middleman—cheaper product Would cost jobs Colonists reacted violently

42 Boston Tea Party—1773 Bostonians dressed as natives Boarded 3 BEI Co. ships in Boston harbor, dumped 18,000 lbs of tea

43 Coercive/Intolerable Acts Parliament punished colonists Closed down Boston harbor Quartering Act—soldiers can stay in peoples’ homes w/o their permission Massachusetts under martial law British called laws Coercive Acts Colonies called them Intolerable Acts

44 First Continental Congress Delegates from 12 colonies (not GA) Wrote declaration of colonial rights Decided they would defend each other if one colony was attacked

45 War approaches Colonies began to gear up for war Militias formed in many small towns Began to stockpile weapons

46 Lexington & Concord—1775 British Gen. Gage learned about minuteman activity Sent soldiers to Lexington to seize and destroy munitions there Also looking for Sam Adams and John Hancock to arrest

47 Lexington & Concord— British troops marched toward towns of Lexington & Concord Paul Revere warned minutemen of upcoming attack

48 Lexington & Concord—1775 Lexington 70 minutemen met British, refused to lay down arms British fired, 8 colonists died

49 Lexington & Concord—1775 Concord British found empty arsenal They started to walk back to Boston, got ambushed by militia

50 What you need to know Stamp Act Colonial responses to Stamp Act –Stamp Act Congress –Sons of Liberty –1 st Continental Congress Boston Massacre Committees of Correspondence Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts 1 st Continental Congress Lexington and Concord


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