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Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid
You are taking notes on a Power point Lecture today. There will not be a quiz but there is a test on Thursday. Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid

2 Early History A Time Line
1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope 1867 – Discovery of Gold 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers) 1948 – The beginning of apartheid 1990’s – The end of apartheid The discovery of diamond and gold increased wealth of new settlers and increased immigration to the area. The discovery also intensified subjugation of native inhabitants. After the Boer War, the Union of South Africa was created and operated under a policy of apartheid.

3 South Africa Twice the size of Texas

4 Population Statistics
Reasons for Low Population Growth Rate: Life expectancy = 46 years 50% live below poverty 20% of adults have AIDS 1996 Population 40, 583, 611 2003 Population 42, 768, 678 Population Growth Rate = .01%

5 Population by Race “Colored” is a term used for mixed black, Malayan, and white descent Asian population is mainly Indian ancestry

6 South African Cities Capitals Pretoria Cape Town – legislative center
Bloemfontein – judicial center

7 World’s Largest Producer…
Gold Platinum Chromium Diamonds

8 Apartheid Apartheid = “Separateness”
The separation of races Policy began in 1948 by the National Party

9 Hendrik Verwoerd Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966 “Architect of Apartheid”

10 Policies of Apartheid: “policy of good neighbourliness”
Moved apartheid to “separate development” 13% of S. Africa’s land = HOMELANDS The remaining = major mineral areas and cities were reserved for the Afrikaan population

11 Rural vs. Urban Group Acts of 1950 & 1986
1.5 Million Africans were forced from urban areas to rural reservations 1961 – Pressure from UN caused South Africa to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations

12 Homelands “Reservations” or “Bantustans”
Verwoerd established 9 African groups Each was to become a nation within its own homeland Africans had rights and freedoms Outside the homelands, treated as aliens Poor quality land with erosion Completely incapable of supporting large populations

13 Houses in Soweto, a black township.

14 Called "a black spot" because it is in a "white" area.
Eventually demolished and the inhabitants forced to move to identically numbered houses in "resettlement" villages in their designated "homelands.“ Millions of black South Africans were forcibly "resettled" in this way. Umbulwana, Natal in 1982.

15 Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites
No right to vote No ownership of land No right to move freely No right to free speech No right to protest the government

16 How Apartheid was enforced
Laws that governed who could go where, be with who (including marriage), where you could work and live. Military would “shoot on sight” Police organizations would use violence Only white people could vote so only those politicians that supported Apartheid were elected.

17 Images of Apartheid

18 Images of Apartheid

19 Apartheid separated the whites from the non-whites





24 The Pass Book Needed special permits to live outside of reservations, but not with family Lived in Townships (the city’s perimeter) Curfew regulations Passbook raids Failure to meet curfew or have passbook = subject to arrest



27 Resistance and Protests
Apartheid is Challenged

28 Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela peacefully fought to end apartheid. He served 27 years in prison for such “treason.” Thousands of other South African non-whites were imprisoned and executed for their resistance against apartheid.

29 1960 Sharpeville Massacre In 1960, during a peaceful protest in the city of Sharpeville, 69 people were killed This massacre ignited additional demonstrations and protests against the unfair treatment of non-whites

30 Steve Biko A young Black leader
Grave in King Williams Town, South Africa. Died in police detention in During the inquest into his death, strong evidence was presented that he suffered violent and inhumane treatment during his detention.

31 1985 Demonstration In an International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination was organized. The demonstration was held at Langa Township in Uitenhage. The day commemorates the anniversary of the March 21, 1960 massacre.

32 “Freedom in Our Lifetime!”
1985 Demonstration The message was simple: “Freedom in Our Lifetime!”

33 Who was fighting Apartheid?
Foreign governments (U.S., Britain, France) Young people (just like civil rights and women rights in U.S.A.) The minority population (95% of the population were black or Indian) Progressive South African politicians like F.W. De Klerk.

34 F.W. De Klerk He was the 7th and final “state” President of South Africa. He freed Nelson Mandela from prison and formally apologized to Mandela on behalf of the South African government. He negotiated the end of Apartheid, the “state” government and ushered in South African democracy. He would later serve as a deputy President of South Africa during the presidency of Nelson Mandela (1997)


36 1994 Reservations abolished and territories reabsorbed into the nation of South Africa Apartheid caused major economic hardships on South Africa International sanctions Decreased labor force Cut investments from countries like U.S.A. First multiracial election Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa (1994 – 1999) (1994 marked the first democratic election in South African history)


38 Nelson Mandela Seen as the father of South Africa
Served as President from and established the 5-year precedent Spent a large part of his life in jail as a “terrorist.”

39 Longterm impacts of Apartheid
South African economy was hurt by boycotts of their goods from large western countries. The most obvious and longest lasting impact was the lost productivity and efficiency from having over half of the population being unused – think about what we learned in the Globalization unit.

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