Presentation on theme: "Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid You are taking notes on a Power pointLecture today. There will not be a quiz but there is a test on Thursday.Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid
2Early History A Time Line 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope1867 – Discovery of Gold1886 – Discovery of Diamonds1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers)1948 – The beginning of apartheid1990’s – The end of apartheidThe discovery of diamond and gold increased wealth of new settlers and increased immigration to the area. The discovery also intensified subjugation of native inhabitants.After the Boer War, the Union of South Africa was created and operated under a policy of apartheid.
4Population Statistics Reasons for Low Population Growth Rate:Life expectancy = 46 years50% live below poverty20% of adults have AIDS1996 Population40, 583, 6112003 Population42, 768, 678Population Growth Rate = .01%
5Population by Race“Colored” is a term used for mixed black, Malayan, and white descentAsian population is mainly Indian ancestry
6South African Cities Capitals Pretoria Cape Town – legislative center Bloemfontein – judicial center
7World’s Largest Producer… GoldPlatinumChromiumDiamonds
8Apartheid Apartheid = “Separateness” The separation of races Policy began in 1948 by the National Party
9Hendrik VerwoerdPrime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966“Architect of Apartheid”
10Policies of Apartheid: “policy of good neighbourliness” Moved apartheid to “separate development”13% of S. Africa’s land = HOMELANDSThe remaining = major mineral areas and cities were reserved for the Afrikaan population
11Rural vs. Urban Group Acts of 1950 & 1986 1.5 Million Africans were forced from urban areas to rural reservations1961 – Pressure from UN caused South Africa to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations
12Homelands “Reservations” or “Bantustans” Verwoerd established 9 African groupsEach was to become a nation within its own homelandAfricans had rights and freedomsOutside the homelands, treated as aliensPoor quality land with erosionCompletely incapable of supporting large populations
14Called "a black spot" because it is in a "white" area. Eventually demolished and the inhabitants forced to move to identically numbered houses in "resettlement" villages in their designated "homelands.“Millions of black South Africans were forcibly "resettled" in this way.Umbulwana, Natal in 1982.
15Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites No right to voteNo ownership of landNo right to move freelyNo right to free speechNo right to protest the government
16How Apartheid was enforced Laws that governed who could go where, be with who (including marriage), where you could work and live.Military would “shoot on sight”Police organizations would use violenceOnly white people could vote so only those politicians that supported Apartheid were elected.
24The Pass BookNeeded special permits to live outside of reservations, but not with familyLived in Townships (the city’s perimeter)Curfew regulationsPassbook raidsFailure to meet curfew or have passbook = subject to arrest
28Nelson MandelaNelson Mandela peacefully fought to end apartheid. He served 27 years in prison for such “treason.”Thousands of other South African non-whites were imprisoned and executed for their resistance against apartheid.
291960 Sharpeville MassacreIn 1960, during a peaceful protest in the city of Sharpeville, 69 people were killedThis massacre ignited additional demonstrations and protests against the unfair treatment of non-whites
30Steve Biko A young Black leader Grave in King Williams Town, South Africa.Died in police detention in During the inquest into his death, strong evidence was presented that he suffered violent and inhumane treatment during his detention.
311985 DemonstrationIn an International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination was organized. The demonstration was held at Langa Township in Uitenhage. The day commemorates the anniversary of the March 21, 1960 massacre.
32“Freedom in Our Lifetime!” 1985 DemonstrationThe message was simple:“Freedom in Our Lifetime!”
33Who was fighting Apartheid? Foreign governments (U.S., Britain, France)Young people (just like civil rights and women rights in U.S.A.)The minority population (95% of the population were black or Indian)Progressive South African politicians like F.W. De Klerk.
34F.W. De KlerkHe was the 7th and final “state” President of South Africa.He freed Nelson Mandela from prison and formally apologized to Mandela on behalf of the South African government.He negotiated the end of Apartheid, the “state” government and ushered in South African democracy.He would later serve as a deputy President of South Africa during the presidency of Nelson Mandela (1997)
361994Reservations abolished and territories reabsorbed into the nation of South AfricaApartheid caused major economic hardships on South AfricaInternational sanctionsDecreased labor forceCut investments from countries like U.S.A.First multiracial electionNelson Mandela elected president of South Africa (1994 – 1999) (1994 marked the first democratic election in South African history)
38Nelson Mandela Seen as the father of South Africa Served as President from and established the 5-year precedentSpent a large part of his life in jail as a “terrorist.”
39Longterm impacts of Apartheid South African economy was hurt by boycotts of their goods from large western countries.The most obvious and longest lasting impact was the lost productivity and efficiency from having over half of the population being unused – think about what we learned in the Globalization unit.