Presentation on theme: "Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid You are taking notes on a Power point Lecture today. There will not be a quiz but there is a test."— Presentation transcript:
Understanding the History of South Africa & Apartheid You are taking notes on a Power point Lecture today. There will not be a quiz but there is a test on Thursday.
Early History A Time Line 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope 1867 – Discovery of Gold 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers) 1948 – The beginning of apartheid 1990’s – The end of apartheid
South Africa Twice the size of Texas
Population Statistics 1996 Population 40, 583, Population 42, 768, 678 Population Growth Rate =.01% Reasons for Low Population Growth Rate: Life expectancy = 46 years 50% live below poverty 20% of adults have AIDS
Population by Race “Colored” is a term used for mixed black, Malayan, and white descent Asian population is mainly Indian ancestry
South African Cities Capitals Pretoria Cape Town – legislative center Bloemfontein – judicial center
World’s Largest Producer… Gold Platinum Chromium Diamonds
Apartheid Apartheid = “Separateness” The separation of races Policy began in 1948 by the National Party
Hendrik Verwoerd Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 until his assassination in 1966 “Architect of Apartheid”
Policies of Apartheid: “policy of good neighbourliness” Moved apartheid to “separate development” 13% of S. Africa’s land = HOMELANDS The remaining = major mineral areas and cities were reserved for the Afrikaan population
Rural vs. Urban Group Acts of 1950 & Million Africans were forced from urban areas to rural reservations 1961 – Pressure from UN caused South Africa to withdraw from the Commonwealth of Nations
Homelands “Reservations” or “Bantustans” Verwoerd established 9 African groups Each was to become a nation within its own homeland Africans had rights and freedoms Outside the homelands, treated as aliens Poor quality land with erosion Completely incapable of supporting large populations
Houses in Soweto, a black township.
Umbulwana, Natal in Called "a black spot" because it is in a "white" area. Eventually demolished and the inhabitants forced to move to identically numbered houses in "resettlement" villages in their designated "homelands.“ Millions of black South Africans were forcibly "resettled" in this way.
Apartheid No Rights for Non-whites No right to vote No ownership of land No right to move freely No right to free speech No right to protest the government
How Apartheid was enforced Laws that governed who could go where, be with who (including marriage), where you could work and live. Military would “shoot on sight” Police organizations would use violence Only white people could vote so only those politicians that supported Apartheid were elected.
Images of Apartheid
Apartheid separated the whites from the non- whites
The Pass Book Needed special permits to live outside of reservations, but not with family Lived in Townships (the city’s perimeter) Curfew regulations Passbook raids Failure to meet curfew or have passbook = subject to arrest
Resistance and Protests Apartheid is Challenged
Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela peacefully fought to end apartheid. He served 27 years in prison for such “treason.” Thousands of other South African non- whites were imprisoned and executed for their resistance against apartheid.
1960 Sharpeville Massacre In 1960, during a peaceful protest in the city of Sharpeville, 69 people were killed This massacre ignited additional demonstrations and protests against the unfair treatment of non-whites
Steve Biko A young Black leader Grave in King Williams Town, South Africa. Died in police detention in During the inquest into his death, strong evidence was presented that he suffered violent and inhumane treatment during his detention.
1985 Demonstration In 1985 an International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination was organized. The demonstration was held at Langa Township in Uitenhage. The day commemorates the anniversary of the March 21, 1960 massacre.
1985 Demonstration The message was simple: “Freedom in Our Lifetime!”
Who was fighting Apartheid? Foreign governments (U.S., Britain, France) Young people (just like civil rights and women rights in U.S.A.) The minority population (95% of the population were black or Indian) Progressive South African politicians like F.W. De Klerk.
F.W. De Klerk He was the 7 th and final “state” President of South Africa. He freed Nelson Mandela from prison and formally apologized to Mandela on behalf of the South African government. He negotiated the end of Apartheid, the “state” government and ushered in South African democracy. He would later serve as a deputy President of South Africa during the presidency of Nelson Mandela (1997)
1994 Reservations abolished and territories reabsorbed into the nation of South Africa Apartheid caused major economic hardships on South Africa International sanctions Decreased labor force Cut investments from countries like U.S.A. First multiracial election Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa (1994 – 1999) (1994 marked the first democratic election in South African history)
Nelson Mandela Seen as the father of South Africa Served as President from and established the 5-year precedent Spent a large part of his life in jail as a “terrorist.”
Longterm impacts of Apartheid South African economy was hurt by boycotts of their goods from large western countries. The most obvious and longest lasting impact was the lost productivity and efficiency from having over half of the population being unused – think about what we learned in the Globalization unit.