Presentation on theme: "LAND CONFLICTS AND THE STATE IN RWANDA AND BURUNDI"— Presentation transcript:
1 LAND CONFLICTS AND THE STATE IN RWANDA AND BURUNDI Shinichi TAKEUCHIInstitute of Developing Economies – JETRO
2 Introduction Eruption of land disputes in peacebuilidng process. The nature of land problems depend substantially on the nature of the state.How has post-conflict statebuilding determined the nature of land problems in Rwanda and Burundi?
3 Importance of addressing land issues in peacebuilding Addressing land problems in the context of peacebuilding contributes toImprovement of people’s everyday security.Sustainable statebuilding through the improvement of land governance.
4 Rwanda and Burundi Rwanda Burundi Population density /Km2 444 334 % of rural population81%89%Major population movement(“Social revolution”. Tutsi refugees)(Civil war. Tutsi-led RPF took power. Tutsi Returnees, Hutu refugees)(Hutu returnees)1972 (Massacre against Hutu. Outflow of Hutu refugees)1993 (Civil war. Tutsi IDPs)2000 (Peace agreement. Hutu returnees)Present political regimeRPF-led government maintains political stability.CNDD-FDD (former Hutu rebel) strengthens its control under the power-sharing system.
5 Rwanda and BurundiSource：Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection
6 Central highlands and frontiers Central Rwanda: Thousands hillsSouthern Burundi near to Tanzania
7 Land conflicts caused by the recent refugee return BurundiHutu returnees confront secondary occupants in their homelands.Returnees and secondary occupants often have different ethnic affiliation.CNTB mediates the disputes.RwandaTutsi returnees were guided to be settled in the eastern part of the country and provided with lands of the Hutu original inhabitants (land sharing).
8 Conflict Resolution Mechanisms BurundiCNTB since 2006Recent change in the CNTBMuch stronger legal and political powerPro-returnee and pro-ruling party tendencyPoliticization and exacerbation of land disputesRwandaReduction of land disputes with returneesReorganization of conflict resolution mechanismsReluctance to voice the discontent
9 When you have a problem over land in Rwanda… “Justice process” “Mediations”Court (local, appeal,…)Abunzi (Cell)Executive Secretary in CellChief of umudugudu
10 Land Policies and their effectiveness Rwanda: active interventionismVillagizationRecognition of women’s land rightsLand consolidationLand registrationBurundi: lack of effective land policiesWomen’s right, land registration, conflict resolutionGrowing dissatisfaction about CNTB
11 Conclusion: land and the state Policies and practices over land indicate the state intentions and capabilities to control society.Rwanda: a series of the RPF’s attempts to strengthen and institutionalize its control.Burundi: weak capacity in policy implementation under the power-sharing system.
12 Challenges Rwanda Burundi The decrease of land conflicts with returnees does not mean that the problem has been resolved. It needs to promote pro-poor policies targeting on the land-scarce group.BurundiLack of effective land governance gives evil influence over the national politics. Developing the capability and restoring impartial conflict resolution mechanism are critically needed.