Presentation on theme: "LAND CONFLICTS AND THE STATE IN RWANDA AND BURUNDI Shinichi TAKEUCHI Institute of Developing Economies – JETRO"— Presentation transcript:
LAND CONFLICTS AND THE STATE IN RWANDA AND BURUNDI Shinichi TAKEUCHI Institute of Developing Economies – JETRO
Introduction Eruption of land disputes in peacebuilidng process. The nature of land problems depend substantially on the nature of the state. How has post-conflict statebuilding determined the nature of land problems in Rwanda and Burundi?
Importance of addressing land issues in peacebuilding Addressing land problems in the context of peacebuilding contributes to – Improvement of people’s everyday security. – Sustainable statebuilding through the improvement of land governance.
Rwanda and Burundi RwandaBurundi Population density /Km % of rural population81%89% Major population movement (“Social revolution”. Tutsi refugees) (Civil war. Tutsi-led RPF took power. Tutsi Returnees, Hutu refugees) (Hutu returnees) 1972 (Massacre against Hutu. Outflow of Hutu refugees) 1993 (Civil war. Tutsi IDPs) 2000 (Peace agreement. Hutu returnees) Present political regimeRPF-led government maintains political stability. CNDD-FDD (former Hutu rebel) strengthens its control under the power- sharing system.
Source ： Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection Rwanda and Burundi
Central highlands and frontiers Central Rwanda: Thousands hills Southern Burundi near to Tanzania
Land conflicts caused by the recent refugee return Burundi – Hutu returnees confront secondary occupants in their homelands. – Returnees and secondary occupants often have different ethnic affiliation. – CNTB mediates the disputes. Rwanda – Tutsi returnees were guided to be settled in the eastern part of the country and provided with lands of the Hutu original inhabitants (land sharing).
Conflict Resolution Mechanisms Burundi – CNTB since 2006 – Recent change in the CNTB Much stronger legal and political power Pro-returnee and pro-ruling party tendency – Politicization and exacerbation of land disputes Rwanda – Reduction of land disputes with returnees – Reorganization of conflict resolution mechanisms – Reluctance to voice the discontent
When you have a problem over land in Rwanda… “Justice process” “Mediations” Chief of umudugudu Executive Secretary in Cell Abunzi (Cell) Court (local, appeal,…)
Land Policies and their effectiveness Rwanda: active interventionism – Villagization – Recognition of women’s land rights – Land consolidation – Land registration Burundi: lack of effective land policies – Women’s right, land registration, conflict resolution – Growing dissatisfaction about CNTB
Conclusion: land and the state Policies and practices over land indicate the state intentions and capabilities to control society. Rwanda: a series of the RPF’s attempts to strengthen and institutionalize its control. Burundi: weak capacity in policy implementation under the power-sharing system.
Challenges Rwanda – The decrease of land conflicts with returnees does not mean that the problem has been resolved. It needs to promote pro-poor policies targeting on the land-scarce group. Burundi – Lack of effective land governance gives evil influence over the national politics. Developing the capability and restoring impartial conflict resolution mechanism are critically needed.