The earliest evidence of civilization in Lebanon dates back more than 7,000 years—predating recorded history.Lebanon was the home of the Phoenicians, a maritime culture that flourished for nearly 2,500 years (3000–539 BC). Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the five provinces that comprise modern Lebanon were mandated to France.The French expanded the borders of Mount Lebanon,which was mostly populated by Maronite Catholics and Druze, to include more Muslims. Lebanon gained independence in 1943, and established a unique political system, known as confessionalism, a power-sharing mechanism based on religious communities. French troops withdrew in 1946
Capital:Beirut Population:4.125.247 Oficial language:Arabic Spoken languages:Arabic,French,English,Armenian Ethnic groups:% 95 Arabs, %4 Armenian, %1 others Religious:% 59.7 Muslim, %39 Chiristian, %13 others Government:parlimentary republic, confessionalism Independence from France Declared: 26 November 1941 Recognized:22 November 1943
Goverment and Politics Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy, which implements a special system known as confessionalism. This system is intended to deter sectarian conflict and attempts to fairly represent the demographic distribution of the 18 recognized religious groups in government. Lebanon's national legislature is the unicameral Parliament of Lebanon. Its 128 seats are divided equally between Christians and Muslims.
The parliament elects the president for a non- renewable six-year term by a two-third majority. The president appoints the Prime Minister, following consultations with the parliament. The President and the Prime Minister form the Cabinet
Governorates and Districts Lebanon is divided into six governorates which are further subdivided into twenty-five districts. Beirut, Nabatieh, Beqaa, North, Mount Lebanon, South Governorates.
ECONOMY Although Lebanon is ideally suited for agricultural activities in terms of water availability and soil fertility she does not have a large agricultual sector. Industry ın Lebanon is mainly limited to small business that reassemble and package imported parts. Tourism and banking sector the most important pillar of the Lebannesse economy.
LEBANESE CİVİL WAR MAJOR MİLİTAS: 1-Chiristian militas 2-Shi’a militas 3-Sunni militas 4-Druze Progressive Socialist Party 5-Non-religious groups 6-Palestians
THE FİRST PHASE:1975-77 Secreterian violance and civilian massacres Karantina massacre Damour massacre Tel al Zaatar massacre Syrian intervention
THE SECOND PHASE:1977-82 Israel ıntervenes ın south Lebanon,1978 Operation Litani Security zone Conflicts between Syria and Phalange Israeli bombing of Beirut Israel-PLO securty situation
THİRD PHASE:1982-83 Israeli invasion of Lebanon Siege of Beirut Negotations for a cease fire International intervention Sabra and Shatalia massacre 17 May Agreement
FOURTH PHASE 1984-1990 Worsening conflict and political crisis Aoun government Aoun’s war of liberation Taif Agreement Infighting in East Beirut
SOUTH LEBANON CONFLİCT (1982–2000) The South Lebanon conflict refers to nearly 20 years of warfare between the Israel Defense Force and its Lebanese proxy militias with Lebanese muslim guerilla, led by Iranian-backed Hizbollah within what was defined by Israelis as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon South Lebanon conflict can be seen as a part of the Lebanese Civil War. A key difference is that the while the Civil War set Lebanese against other Lebanese, the majority of fighting in South Lebanon primarily pitted Lebanese Hizbollah fighting against the Israeli army
-In 1982 Israel occupied South Lebanon.She faced there a strong resistance of Hizbollah ha support from Syria and Iran.Both parties used more modern weaponary.So,Israel withdraw in 2000. -As a result of the withdrawal, Hezbollah had military and civil control of the southern part of Lebanon
CEDAR REVOLUTİON It was a chain of demonstrations in Lebanon triggered by the assosination of the former Lebannese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri on February 14,2005 The primary goals of the original activists were the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and the replacement of a government heavily influenced by Syrian interests with more independent leadership
Goals The main goal of the cedar revolution was the ending of the Syrian military occupation of Lebanon which had lasted about 30 years (since 1976). In addition, many Lebanese called for the return of former Prime Minister Michel Aoun, in exile since 1991, and the release of the imprisoned Lebanese Forces leader Samir Geagea as a goal of the revolution. Some goals whose accomplishment is sometimes cited in order for the revolution to end include: Uniting all Lebanese in their fight for freedom and independence Ousting Karami's Pro-Syrian regime Firing the six Lebanese commanders of the nation's main security services along with the State Prosecutor
Executing the complete withdrawal of the Syrian troops and their security services from Lebanon Unmasking the killers of former Prime Minister Rafik Ha riri Running free and democratic parliament elections in spring 2005 free from Syrian interference
2006 Lebanon War The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Isaeli military. The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon
2010 Israel–Lebanon Border Clash The 2010 Israel–Lebanon border clash occurred on August 3, 2010, when Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) snipers opened fire on an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) observation post when an IDF team attempted to cut down a tree on the Israeli side of the Blue Line