Presentation on theme: "1643 King Louis XIV takes thrown"— Presentation transcript:
1 1643 King Louis XIV takes thrown The Sun King1643 King Louis XIV takes thrown
2 ObjectiveSWBAT examine the rise of King Louis XIV and his reign as an absolute monarch
3 Which of the following statements do you agree most with? A government leader should never have absolute authority.A government leader can exercise absolute authority if it will help advance a country’s economyA government leader can exercise absolute authority when a country is under attackA government leader can exercise absolute authority whenever it will advance a country’s interests.State your reasoningDo Now 11/15/12
4 Henry IV Restores Order 1500’s religious wars tear France apartCatholics vs. Huguenots (French Protestants)St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre– massacred 3,000 HuguenotsSymbolized break down of order in FranceBy 1600s France was a strong, unified nation-state ruled by the most powerful monarch in Europe
5 Huguenot Prince Henry IV: 1589 Henry IV inherits the throneHuguenot – fights Catholic revolutions for 4 yearsEventually converted to Catholicism to end conflictEdict of Nantes granted Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms (civil unity)Repair France – “chicken in every pot” a good Sunday dinner for every peasant
6 Government of Henry IV Government reached every aspect of French life Administered justiceImproved roadsBuilt bridgesRevived agricultureBuilt a royal bureaucracy and reduced the influence of noblesLaid the foundations on which future French monarchs would build absolute power
7 Cardinal Richelieu 1610: Henry IV killed by an assassin Son – Louis XIII takes throne – 9 years oldNobles reasserted power1624: Cardinal Richelieu becomes chief ministerStrengthens the government over 18 yearsSought to destroy the power of the nobles and HuguenotsDestroyed private armies of nobles and destroyed their castlesDied 1642 leaving Mazarin as his successor
8 Louis XIV aka the “Sun King” Inherits age 5(rules for 72 years)Mazarin was in place to be chief minister (replaced Richelieu)Mazarin dies in 1661 Louis XIV takes over the government
10 L’etat, c’est moi“I am the state” L’etat, c’est moi.Believed in his divine right to ruleThe sun was a symbol of absolute power“Just as the sun stands at the center of the solar system, so the Sun King stands at the center of the nation.”Never called a meeting of the Estates General betweenRepresentatives from all 3 French social classes (clergy, nobles, townspeople)The Estates General played no role in checking royal power
11 “SEPARATE CLASSES” In your section 2 packet Open to page 151 Read about life in France in the 1600sAnswer the Thinking Critically questionsBe prepared to discuss!
23 ObjectiveSWBAT describe how Versailles was a symbol of royal power.
24 Political Systems Read the Political Systems handout Working in assigned groups of 3 answer the Thinking Critically question, #1Be prepared to present your answers to the class!
25 Estates GeneralEstates General: Equivalent of English Parliament (never met)Followed Richelieu’s politics to strengthen stateExpanded bureaucracy – appointed intendants – royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out policies in the provinces.Wealthy middle class men cemented ties between middle class and the monarchy
27 Versailles Louis XIII – hunting lodge Louis XIV redesigned to show the king at the heart of FranceGreatest architects of the dayLouis Le VauxJules Hardouin-MansartMasterpiece – Hall of MirrorsGlittering hall of crystal – royal and political events held thereUsed his wealth to display his power
30 Versailles Moved the capital of France from Paris to Versailles 1682: moved the court & government to VersaillesMoved to Versailles from Paris so no angry mob could easily attackThe building itself was a little over a third of a mile longgardens and over 1400 fountains employing the newest hydraulic technologies surrounded the outside.The inside was an altar to French military mightdecorated with paintings, tapestries, and statues celebrating French military victories, heroes, and, especially, French kings
31 Ruthless Monarchy You didn’t, you scratched… discreetly Louis instituted an elaborate system of court ritual – strict rulesHow many steps your could take and what you were allowed to wearEven how to knock on a doorYou didn’t, you scratched… discreetlyVersailles was a center of courtly etiquette and a setting for French literature and musicIt was also a ruthless absolute monarchyLettre de cachet – allowed him to send anyone to prison for no reason and without a trial
32 The Dauphin Louis XV Louis married Spanish princess Maria Theresa They had 6 children – only 1 survived to adulthoodLouis of France The DauphinLouis XVAlso had a mistress – Madame de MontespanWhen he would lose interest in her, she would dabble in black magic and poison to try to get him backHer plan became public – and resulted in about 34 executions
33 While you’re living it up, some of us are starving… Towards the end of the Thirty-Years War hunger and unrest were evidentFrance’s tax system: people with the least amount of money paid the highest taxesPeasantryTax riots broke out in 1662 and the king’s response was to privatize the tax collection systemGeneral Tax-Farm – people who collected taxes were permitted to raise the tax and pocket the differenceThis leads to great deal of trouble in the endMeanwhile, the 1690s and 1700s were years of terrible famine under the Sun King
34 Religious Implications Royal church had a fancy pew for kingCourtiers pews faced the king, not the altarSaw religion as a means of enhancing his own power1685 revoked the Edict of Nantes (issued by his grandfather Henry IV) gave religious toleration to HuguenotsProtestant pastors were given 15 days to leave the country.Huguenot community packed up and left for England and the Netherlands where they made important contributions to the economic status of their new homelands.
35 Using a Primary SourceWorking in assigned groups of 3 read the primary source written by Fenelon about Louis XIV’s reign as absolute monarchAnswer the questions with your group and be prepared to share your responses with the class!
36 Homework English Parliament Packet Read & take notes Answer Questions # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6question 1 – separate the “key terms” into categories given to you then write a sentence for each term as to WHY you placed it in that category.Period 1, 2, 5, 6 – Due Wednesday November 9Period 7 – Due Monday November 14