Presentation on theme: "Seeds of Revolution Mr. Webster’s Class. Vocabulary revenue – incoming money from taxes or other sources resolution – an official expression of opinion."— Presentation transcript:
Seeds of Revolution Mr. Webster’s Class
Vocabulary revenue – incoming money from taxes or other sources resolution – an official expression of opinion by a group effigy – a mocking figure representing an unpopular individual boycott – to refuse to buy items in order to show disapproval or force acceptance of one’s terms repeal – to cancel an act or law rebellion – open defiance of authority propaganda – ideas or information intentionally spread to harm or help a cause
Rivalry between the French and the British In the 1700s, Britain and France were leading European powers. They competed for wealth and empire in different parts of the world. In North America, both sides desired (and claimed) the Ohio River valley, which was rich in resources. To protect their claims, the French began building a chain of forts. One was Fort Duquesne (present-day Pittsburgh).
Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) ThenNow
George Washington / War Begins In 1754, the governor of Virginia sent a force to Ft. Duquesne to drive out the French. The force was led by a young Virginian named George Washington. When Washington’s force encountered the French, fighting ensued. This marked the beginning of the French and Indian War.
Native Americans in the French & Indian War As the conflict got underway, both the French and British sought help from the Native Americans. The French had a big advantage as they had many Native American allies. Native Americans generally distrusted the British and their hunger for land. In contrast, the French were more interested in fur trading than land, and French fur traders often married Native American women.
The French and Indian War The French enjoyed early success in the war. Their Native American allies carried out raids on the frontier. The turning point came in That year, William Pitt became prime minister of England. Pitt sent more trained British troops to fight in America, and to stop colonial complaints about the cost of the war, he decided Britain would pay for it. He knew that after the war, the British would raise the colonists’ taxes to help pay the large bill.
The Treaty of Paris (1763) The fall of Quebec and Montreal (in Canada) marked the end of fighting in North America. The French and Indian War formally ended with the Treaty of Paris in This treaty recognized Britain’s victory in the war, and it forced France to give up virtually all of their claims in North America. Great Britain also received Florida from France’s ally, Spain. Spain received Louisiana. The Treaty of Paris marked the end of France as a power in North America.
The French and Indian War - Results Following the French and Indian War, the British controlled everything in North America east of the Mississippi River. Spain controlled the land to the west. Native Americans now had to deal with the British, and many colonists began settling on Native American lands. Lastly, Britain found itself deeply in debt and began making plans to tax the colonies.
French & Indian War Visual Representation (worth 20 points) For this assignment, you are to create a visual representation of the French & Indian War. Your finished product should demonstrate an awareness of the war’s causes and effects, and you will need to indicate who fought who, and who won. You must also demonstrate the roles of each of the following: the British, the French, and Native Americans. This assignment is worth 20 points. I will be giving 10 points for accuracy, 5 points for creativity and effort, and 5 points for significance and relevance.
Colonial American Journal Assignment ( due 10/31 ) For this assignment, you are to pretend that you are a colonial American living in Boston during the 1760s and 1770s. You have decided to start keeping a journal, and in that journal, you record your life experiences, including what is going on in the world around you. Your first entry occurs in On that entry, you need to introduce yourself, and state your name, age, and any other personal information you may want to share (family, marital status, birthplace, etc.). You must then make at least one entry for each year up until 1776, and each entry must be at least 3 sentences. In your entries, you MUST make mention of current events (i.e. Stamp Act, Boston Massacre, Tea Party, Declaration of Independence, etc.), and you are encouraged to talk about how those events have influenced your everyday life. In total, you must have at least 14 entries. This assignment is worth 30 points. I will be giving 1 point for each completed entry, 8 points for significance and relevance of the entries, and 8 points for creativity and effort.
The Proclamation of 1763 Shortly after the war ended, King George III issued the Proclamation of This prohibited colonists from living west of the Appalachian Mountains. It was intended to keep peace between Native Americans and the English settlers, and also to keep the colonists under closer British authority. It was unpopular with the colonists.
Britain in Debt After the war, Britain needed revenue, or income, to pay for its debts from the French and Indian War. The king and Parliament felt the colonists should pay part of these costs. As a result, the British gov’t issued new taxes on the colonies. They also began enforcing old taxes more strictly. To avoid taxes, many colonists resorted to smuggling.
Sugar Act The Sugar Act was passed by Parliament in It imposed a tax on imported molasses, and it also allowed officers to barge into colonists’ homes and seize goods from accused smugglers. The act angered many colonists. They believed it violated their rights. The Sugar Act was eventually repealed in 1766.
Stamp Act The Stamp Act was passed in This law taxed almost all printed materials, such as newspapers, legal documents, and even playing cards. These items needed a stamp to show that the tax had been paid. The act outraged the colonists. They argued that only their own assemblies could tax them.
The Sons of Liberty In Boston, Samuel Adams helped form the Sons of Liberty. Its members took to the streets and burned effigies as an act of protest. Colonists also began boycotting British goods. In March 1766, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but then passed the Declaratory Act, stating it had the right to tax and make decisions for the British colonies “in all cases.”
Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts were passed by Parliament in 1767 These acts taxed imported goods, such as glass, tea, and paper. Protests began immediately. Many women protested this act by urging colonists to wear homemade fabrics rather than buying fabrics made in Britain. Some women called themselves the Daughters of Liberty.
Rebellion in Massachusetts In 1768, British officials received word that the colonies were on the brink of rebellion. Parliament sends troops to Boston to keep order. As angry colonists jeered, the “redcoats” set up camp in the center of the city. To make matters worse, the soldiers in Boston acted rudely. For many colonists, the British had gone too far.
Boston Massacre On March 5, 1770, violence erupted on the streets of Boston. An argument broke out between some Bostonians and soldiers. The angry townspeople began throwing sticks and stones at the soldiers. After one soldier was knocked down, the redcoats began to fire. They killed 5 colonists. The incident became known as the Boston Massacre.
Boston Massacre Site 18 th Century 21 st Century
After the Boston Massacre Colonial leaders used the Boston Massacre as propaganda. Paul Revere made an engraving that showed a British officer giving the order to open on an orderly crowd. Troubled by the growing opposition, Parliament repealed all of the Townshend Acts taxes, except the one on tea. In response, the colonists ended their boycotts, except on tea. Trade with Britain resumed. Clip
Boston Massacre Assignment (worth 20 points) The most well-known illustration of the Boston Massacre was created by Paul Revere, an ardent patriot. Revere’s engraving quickly became an effective piece of propaganda that was used to further the patriot (anti-British) cause. For this assignment, you are to consider the opposite perspective by pretending that you work for the London Chronicle, a London-based newspaper publication. It is your job to create a vivid account and/or illustration of the Boston Massacre, but you must do so by taking the British perspective. Your finished product can come in the form of a news report, eyewitness account, poem, illustration, or a combination of any of the above. If you choose to create an illustration though, it needs to be colorful. Your final product should take up an entire page. This assignment is worth 20 points, and I will be giving 5 points for each of the following: accuracy of content, focus, organization, and creativity and effort.
Committee of Correspondence In 1772, Samuel Adams formed the Committee of Correspondence. The group called for action against Britain. Soon committees of correspondence sprang up throughout the colonies, bringing together protestors opposed to British measures.
Tea Act In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act. This act gave the British East India Company nearly total control of the market for tea in the colonies. The Tea Act also removed some, but not all, of the taxes on tea, making it less expensive for the colonists. Still, the colonists remained angry. They did not want to pay ANY tax, and they did not want to be told what tea they could buy. Colonists called for a new boycott.
Boston Tea Party Despite warnings of trouble, the East India Company continued shipping tea to the colonies. In December 1773, colonists dressed as Native Americans boarded three ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. This is known as the Boston Tea Party. Clip
Intolerable Acts In 1774, Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing a series of laws. These laws were meant to punish the colonists for resisting British authority. The colonists detested these laws, and called them the Intolerable Acts.
The First Continental Congress In September 1774, fifty-five delegates gathered in Philadelphia. They set up a political body that would represent the American colonists and challenge British control. They called it the Continental Congress. The delegates voted to boycott British trade. They also called on the colonists to arm themselves against the British.
First Continental Congress ‘The distinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no more. I am not a Virginian, but an American.” - Patrick Henry
Colonial Militias / Minutemen As tensions grew between Britain and the colonies, towns began to form militias. They also began gathering and storing military supplies. Some militias were known as minutemen because they boasted they could be ready to fight at a minute’s notice.
Preparing for a Fight The British also got ready for a fight. By April 1775, several thousand British troops were in and around Boston, with more on the way. British general Thomas Gage had orders to seize the weapons from the Massachusetts militia and arrest the leaders. Gage learned that the arms and ammunition were being stored at Concord, a town about 20 miles from Boston. He then ordered 700 troops to seize and destroy the arms and ammunition.
On the Move On the night of April 18, 1775, British troops began marching out of Boston. Paul Revere and William Dawes, both Sons of Liberty, rode to Lexington (east of Concord), to spread the word that the British were coming. Revere galloped along the countryside, shouting his warning of the approaching troops. Both he and Dawes were later captured, and another rider carried the warning to Concord.
The Shot Heard Round the World At dawn on April 19, the redcoats approached Lexington. There they ran into about 70 waiting minutemen. The minutemen were badly outnumbered and were about to give way to the redcoats, when a shot was fired. No one knows who shot the first fire, but it is known as the “shot heard ‘round the world.” This happened at Lexington. The American Revolution had begun!
Lexington and Concord After shooting ended, 8 minutemen lay dead. The British continue on to Concord, where they were confronted by another group of minutemen. In a short battle, the British took heavy losses. As the soldiers made their way back to Boston, colonists hid behind trees and fired on the soldiers. Clip
Bunker Hill Following Lexington and Concord, more volunteers joined colonial militias while the British remained in control of Boston. In June 1775, colonial militias set up posts on Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill (across the harbor from Boston). A battle ensued. The Battle of Bunker Hill was technically a British victory, although they suffered heavy losses. After Bunker Hill, the British realized that defeating the Americans would not be quick or easy.