Presentation on theme: "Great diversity in Native American societies By 1865, end of Civil War means massive expansion in Midwest/Great plains Generally nomadic hunter- gatherers."— Presentation transcript:
Great diversity in Native American societies By 1865, end of Civil War means massive expansion in Midwest/Great plains Generally nomadic hunter- gatherers –Prior to domesticati on of horse (16 th century), Plains tribes were less dominant; by 19 th century, Sioux are powerful obstacle to expansion Spotted Tail, Brule Sioux Medicine Bear (Ma-To- Ican ) No Flesh, Brule Sioux A Pawnee Indian Arapaho Arikara Assiniboine Atsina Brule Cheyenne Chipewyan Cree Crow Dakota Hidatsa Kainah Mandan Oglala Osage Oto Pawnee Piegan Ponca Quapaw Sarsi Shawnee Siksika Teton Wichita Yanktonai
SHARED VALUES & BELIEFS –NOMADIC, SEASONAL MIGRATION SIOUX: BLACK HILLS, S.D. –DEEP EMPHASIS ON FAMILY –SUBSTANTIALLY MORE GENDER EQUITY THAN IN EUROPEAN/ AMERICAN SOCIETIES MATRILINEALISM: FAMILY LINES TRACED THROUGH MOTHERS WOMEN OFTEN HAD SOCIAL/POLITICA L INFLUENCE GREATER THAN IN EUR/AMER. SOCIETIES
STEWARDSHIP (CARE FOR LAND) OVER LAND OWNERSHIP POLYTHEISM (“MANY GODS”) –MOST NATIVE RELIGIONS = VERY ACTIVE, INVOLVED GODS –RITUALS=HELP IN EVERYDAY LIFE PRESTIGE IS VALUED OVER POSSESSION –INTERTRIBAL REPUTATION IS ESTEEMED OVER MATERIAL “WEALTH” WAR IS FREQUENT, STYLIZED IN MOST NATIVE SOCIETIES –“COUNTING COUP,” SCALPING “Counting coup,” a coup stick The Sun Dance
RANK THE SIX SHARED VALUES AND BELIEFS OF NATIVE AMERICAN SOCIETIES ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: How likely is this value/belief to cause conflict with the U.S. during the frontier period? NATIVE AMERICAN- U.S. CONFLICT, 1865-1890 1. NOMADIC/ HUNTER- GATHERER 2. MATRILINEAL /GENDER EQUITY 3. POLYTHEISM 4. LAND STEWARDSH IP OVER OWNERSHIP 5. PRESTIGE OVER POSSESSION 6. PREVALENC E OF VIOLENCE IN NATIVE SOCIETY
AMERICAN POLICIES TOWARDS INDIANS “CIVILIZE” THE INDIANS ORIGINALLY FAVORED BY REFORMERS; SAW INDIANS AS REDEEMABLE, “NOBLE SAVAGES” DESIRE FOR LAND, POST-CIVIL WAR, REDUCED THIS IMPULSE (TOO SLOW, TOO UNLIKELY TO SUCCEED) SUBDUE BY FORCE FRUSTRATED BY INDIAN RESISTANCE 1864--SAND CREEK MASSACRE 25O INDIANS KILLED BY U.S. TROOPS Maj. John Chivington, Sand Creek Massacre : “ Kill all, big and little…nits breed lice.” Black Kettle, Sioux chief at Sand Creek
From Lt. Joseph Cramer to Maj. Edward Wynkoop, Dec. 19, 1864: "This is the first opportunity I have had of writing you since the great Indian Massacre, and for a start, I will acknowledge I am ashamed to own I was in it...After the fight there was a sight I hope I may never see again...Bucks, woman and children, were scalped, fingers cut off to get the rings on them...little children shot, while begging for their lives...I told the Col. I thought it was murder to jump them friendly Indians. He says in reply; Damn any man or men who are in sympathy with them." From Lt. Silas Soule to Maj. Edward Wynkoop, Dec. 14, 1864: "The massacre lasted six or eight hours...it was hard to see little children on their knees have their brains beat out by men professing to be civilized....They were all scalped, and as high as a half a dozen [scalps] taken from one head. They were all horribly mutilated...You could think it impossible for white men to butcher and mutilate human beings as they did there, but every word I have told you is the truth, which they do not deny...I expect we will have a hell of a time with Indians this winter."
WAR WITH THE SIOUX 1863: GOLD DISCOVERED IN MONTANA 1865: GOLD MINERS INVADE SIOUX BLACK HILLS; MILITARY TRIES TO NEGOTIATE WITH SIOUX FOR EMIGRANT ROAD THROUGH BLACK HILLS, S.D. 1866-1868: “RED CLOUD’S WAR” 1866: SIOUX CHIEF RED CLOUD KILLS 82 U.S. SOLDIERS AT “FETTERMAN MASSACRE”/”BATTLE OF THE HUNDRED SLAIN” 1868: TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE; MILITARY POSTS ABANDONED, GREAT SIOUX RESERVATION ESTABLISHED IN BLACK HILLS Capt. William (“with 80 men I could ride through the entire Sioux nation”) Fetterman Red Cloud
WHY MIGHT THE INSCRIPTIO N ON THIS MEMORIAL MARKER BE CONSIDERE D OFFENSIVE TO NATIVE AMERICANS ?
RUMORS OF GOLD AGAIN IN 1874 SIOUX “HOSTILE” LEADERS SITTING BULL, CRAZY HORSE ESTABLISH ALLIANCE B/W CHEYENNE & LAKOTA SIOUX; U.S. GOV’T CONCERNED OVER POSSIBLE UPRISING JUNE 25, 1876: SIOUX DESTROY GEORGE CUSTER & 7TH CALVARY AT LITTLE BIGHORN/”CUSTER’S LAST STAND”/BATTLE OF THE GREASY GRASS” VICTORY DOOMS INDIAN NATIONS, AS U.S. DEMANDS REVENGE “Yellowhair,” “Son of the Morningstar,” “General” Custer himself Sioux memori al at Little Bighorn site, WY Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake), Hunkpapa Sioux Crazy Horse (Ta-sunko Witko), Oglala Sioux 1 st pic: 1877, disputed picture of Crazy Horse 2 nd pic: drawing from 1934, based on testimony from Crazy Horse’s sister Drawing of the battle by Sioux participant, Kicking Bear
WHAT WAS IT ABOUT THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIGHORN THAT PARTICULARLY ENRAGED AMERICANS?
BY 1877, MOST “HOSTILES” SURRENDER BY 1890, MOST SIOUX RELOCATED TO RESERVATIONS 1890: GHOST DANCE ON WOUNDED KNEE RESERVATION, S.D., REVIVES U.S. FEAR OF UPRISING WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE: 190 SIOUX KILLED BY U.S. TROOPS Sioux buried in mass grave Spotted Elk, dead in the snow Arapaho Ghost Dance, 1900 Soldiers pose with Hotchkiss guns used at Wounded Knee: Famous Battery "E" of the 1st Artillery. These brave men and the Hotchkiss guns that Big Foot's Indians thought were toys, Together with the fighting 7th what's left of Gen. Custer's boys, Sent 200 Indians to that Heaven which the ghost dancer enjoys. This checked the Indian noise, and Gen. Miles with staff Returned to Illinois."
RESERVATIONS Indian school, Carlisle, PA SOLUTIONS RESERVATION SYSTEM “CIVILIZE”/INTEGRATION (THROUGH INDIAN SCHOOLS) ACCULTURATION DAWES ACT, 1887: ELIMINATE TRIBAL SYSTEM/CULTURE, PROMOTE AGRICULTURE AMONG NATIVE AMERICANS
August 25, 2011: New York Stock Exchange NativeOne Institutional Trading, the first American Indian- owned firm to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, has partnered with Incapital Financial Group to provide financial services to its Native, First Nations and institutional clients. Laguna Indian Reservation, Laguna NM