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1789-1799. Stage One Spring and Summer of 1789 Meeting of the Estates- General Storming of the Bastille The Great Fear Stage Two 1789-1791 National Assembly.

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Presentation on theme: "1789-1799. Stage One Spring and Summer of 1789 Meeting of the Estates- General Storming of the Bastille The Great Fear Stage Two 1789-1791 National Assembly."— Presentation transcript:

1 1789-1799

2 Stage One Spring and Summer of 1789 Meeting of the Estates- General Storming of the Bastille The Great Fear Stage Two 1789-1791 National Assembly Declaration of the Rights of Man Constitution of 1791 Stage Three 1791-1792 Legislative Assembly Emergence of 3 political groups September Massacre Stage Four 1792-1795 National Convention Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety Thermodorian Reaction Stage Five 1795-1799 Directory Coup d’etat

3 Old Regime Left over feudal social system from the Middle Ages Third Estate (lowest class) heavily taxed No rights poor

4 Enlightenment Ideas Enlightened figures questioned why so few held so much power Ideas of equality, liberty, democracy spread among the Third Estate Inspired by the American Revolution

5 Economic Woes Once prosperous economy failing Population expanding rapidly Cost of living on the rise Heavy taxation Widespread crop failures Debt due to support of American Revolution

6 Weak Leader King Louis XVI indecisive “out to lunch” Married to Marie Antoinette “Madame Deficit” Wanted to tax 2 nd Estate to save economy

7 Estate=social class Three estates First Estate Catholic Church Clergy Types of jobs? Bishops, abbots, priests What was their % of France’s population? 1-2% of population Did they pay any taxes? No Paid “free gift” of 2% of income to the king

8 Second Estate Nobility What types of job? Military officials Court officers What % of population? 2% of the population Did they pay taxes? NO

9 Third Estate % of population? 97% of the population Did they pay taxes? All of France’s taxes Bourgeoisie Jobs? Doctors, lawyers, bankers, merchants Urban Working Class (sans-culottes) Jobs? Blacksmith, baker, servant, peddler Peasants Jobs? Farmers Homeless and poor Paid “corvee” Working tax

10 Calling of the Estates-General May 5, 1789 Topic: Should nobility pay taxes to reduce economic crisis? Voting System Each estate gets 1 vote total 1 st and 2 nd estates vote the same Third Estate demanded a direct vote—told no and eventually dismissed from meeting Estates-General voted against nobility paying taxes In protest, 3 rd Estate refuses to leave and locks themselves into Tennis Court to define their protest

11 Creation of the National Assembly June 17, 1789 Members of 3 rd Estate voted to end the absolute monarchy Intent on creating a representative government Signed their pact on June 20, 1789-Tennis Court Oath

12 Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789 Parisians storm the largest prison in France in protest to King Louis XVI’s placement of Swiss troops in Paris Parisians storm the prison’s magazine to gain ammunition and released all prisoners 7 political prisoners Symbolic event of French independence

13 The Great Fear Wave of panic sweeps over countryside Peasant fear noble terrorization so they lash out Burn noble’s homes Destroy nobles financial books

14 Woman’s March on Versailles Parisian women marched to Versailles to bring Louis and Marie back to Paris They were successful – Louis XVI and his family will never return to Versailles

15 Created in Fall of 1789 Created and lead by bourgeoisie members Wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Goal was to restructure French government Constitutional Monarchy Held elections for new representative body

16 Legislative Assembly made up of elected representatives Goals: implement and uphold the Constitution of 1791 Tackle food shortages, debt, cries for more freedoms Plagued with disagreements the Assembly splits into 3 political groups: Radicals Moderates Conservatives

17 RADICALS “ left-wing” Opposed the king and idea of a monarchy Wanted sweeping changes Proposed a Republic Used violence Peasants, intellectuals, urban working class MODERATES “centrists” Wanted some changes but not as many as radicals Believed power should not be in the hands of the masses Bourgeoisie CONSERVATIVES “right-wing” Upheld idea of limited monarchy Wanted few or no changes Bourgeoisie and some nobility

18 Monarchies around Europe feared revolutionary ideas may spread Austria states support for Louis XVI and threatened to invade Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria What is significant about the relationship of Louis XVI and the Austrian Emperor? France now has domestic and foreign conflicts

19 Radicals begin to dominate Legislative Assembly July 25, 1792: Radicals capture Louis XVI and family and put in a stone tower in Paris September Massacre (September 1792) French troops leaving Paris to fight Austrians Parisians fear less troops will allow captured nobles to escape and regain control Radicals lead raid on imprisoned nobles and clergy and kill 1000’s

20 Radicals take over Legislative Assembly Ends limited monarchy and Constitution of 1791 Louis XVI deposed as king Legislative Assembly dissolved

21 Takes over after Legislative Assembly-September 21, 1792 Made up of radical leaders from the Jacobin Club Supported a REPUBLIC 3 Main Leaders: Maximilien Robespierre – “The Incorruptible” Jean Paul Marat -writer, newspaper editor George Danton -great orator

22 CHANGES: Abolished monarchy and declared France a REPUBLIC All adult males could vote and hold office Louis XVI=common citizen Citizen Army 1793- First Coalition takes on France GB, Holland, Spain, Austria and Prussia National Convention holds a draft By 1794, 800,000 men and WOMEN fighting to protect France

23 “REPUBLIC OF VIRTURE” Goal: to create a republic based on the virtues of “LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY” To lead a “virtuous” life, one must change his ways… - No signs of monarchy allowed -no face cards in deck of cards -closed churches --- seen as a threat to authority -Changed calendar -eliminated Sundays -10 day weeks, 30 day months -changed names of months to represent climate -1789=year 1

24 REIGN OF TERROR “The first maxim of our politics ought to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror.” ~Robespierre Goal: use terror to enforce the Republic’s virtues Committee of Public Safety - created and lead by Robespierre -seek out enemies of the Republic -try and execute enemies of the Republic in an equal manner -3000 Parisians and 40,ooo executed by the guillotine alone; mostly 3 rd Estate Infamous executions : Louis XVI-King of France Marie Antoinette-Queen of France George Danton-a leader of National Convention

25 Guillotine Device created by Dr. Guillotin as a means to an enlightened execution without prejudice How might the guillotine be an enlightened form of execution?

26 Louis XVI-King of France Executed Jan 21, 1793 Said to have cried like a baby as he climbed the scaffolding Symbolic event signifying the emergence of a true radical republic

27 George Danton A leader of National Convention and close friend and confidant of Robespierre Executed by guillotine in spring of 1794 Considered not RADICAL enough!!

28 Marie Antoinette- Queen of France Executed on Oct. 16, 1793 Was never liked by the people of France Was executed as a traitor for conspiring against France with her brother the Emperor of Austria

29 Jean Paul Marat Writer and publisher of “The Friend of the People” Murdered in his bath tub on July 13, 1793 Murdered by woman that feared his ideas too radical Wanted an end to unnecessary violence

30 How does this cartoon depict the “arms” of the radicals? By the people represented in the cartoon…what might be the cartoonist’s opinion of the “radicals”?

31 Even the Radicals had enough National Convention leaders secretly organize the arrest and execution of Robespierre July 24, 1794- Thermodorian Reaction

32 After Robespierre’s execution, National Convention leaders rally to create a more “moderate” government structure. Convention remains in place until the new structure is created and new members elected This will become the 5 th and final stage… THE DIRECTORY

33 1795- members of defunct National Convention create new “moderate” government Still have many economic and social problems to tackle Made up of MODERATES, mostly bourgeoisie Corrupted; enriched themselves at the public’s expense Structure: 2 House Legislature 5 Executive members

34 Somewhat successful Created sense of order and stability throughout France Responsible for the rise of France’s greatest military mastermind… NAPOLEON BONAPARTE Napoleon will overthrow the Directory in November of 1799.

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