2 The Sugar Act - 1764 British Action Strictly enforced Halved duty on foreign molasses (Indirect Tax)Placed duties on certain imports (ie. lumber)Allowed smugglers to be tried in British courtsColonial ReactionAngered over economics not “Taxation w/o Representation”Written protestsOccasional boycotts
3 Stamp Act 1765 British Action First Direct Tax Taxed legal and commercial documents (licenses, newspapers, almanacs)Special “stamped” paper for legal docsDice and playing cardsColonial ReactionViolent protests (harass tax collectors)“Sons of Liberty”Colonies pass laws to evade the taxStamp Act Congress issues Declaration of Rights and GrievancesFurther boycotts
5 Quartering Act – 1765 and 1774 British Action Standing army after French and Indian WarRequired colonial assemblies to house and provision British soldiersSoldiers stayed in inns, stables, barns, etc.1774, Use private homes as necessaryColonial Reaction1765, Most colonial assemblies refused to pay for provisions1774, Wrote petition to King George
6 Declaratory Act - 1766 British Action Accompanied repeal of Stamp Act Statement of Parliament’s right to rule the colonies in any way it saw fitColonial ReactionPleased w/ repeal of Stamp ActContinued protest of other British imposed lawsScared that more punitive laws would follow
8 Townshend Acts - 1767 British Action Indirect tax on lead, paper, tea, paint and glass collected at portRevenue paid British officials in coloniesCreated customs commissionSuspended N.Y. assembly for failure to complyColonial Reaction“No Taxation without Representation” cries from colonistsResumed boycott of British goodsCut British exports to colonies by 38%
9 “No Taxation without Representation” The English Bill of Rights (1689) – “The crown cannot issue taxes without approval of Parliament”The colonists had no representation in Parliament. so they argued that they could not be taxed by ParliamentParliament argued that they have the right to speak for the interests of all British subjects not just the districts that elected them.
10 Boston Massacre - Background British agents in Boston seized John Hancock’s colonial ship LibertyCustoms inspector claimed suspicion of smugglingTriggered colonial riots in BostonBritish station 2,000 troops in BostonTroops were poorly paidCompeted for jobs w/ colonists
11 Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Afternoon, Fist fight over jobs That night, a mob gathered in front of customs houseArmed clash between colonists and guards3 colonists killed2 wounded
13 Tea Act - 1773 Created to save the failing British East India Co. Granted BEIC right to import tea free of tax that colonial merchants paidHoped colonists would buy the cheaper teaBostonians dressed as natives destroy a shipment of tea (Boston Tea Party)* 18,000 lbs. of tea dumped into Boston Harbor*
15 Intolerable Acts - 1774 British Action George III’s response to Boston Tea PartyGen. Gage new Governor Mass.Closes Boston HarborQuartering Act of 1774Places Boston Under martial lawColonial ReactionFirst Continental Congress:Representative colonial assembly – 56 representatives met in PhiladelphiaDeclaration of Colonial RightsAgreed to fight if attackedAgreed to reconvene in May 1775 if demands not met
16 III. Lexington and Concord To Concord, By the Lexington RoadCivilian militia or minutemen begin to stockpile firearms, 1775Resistance leaders John Hancock, Samuel Adams hide in LexingtonGage sent men along Lexington Road to seize and destroy all weapons & gunpowder
17 III. Lexington and Concord “The Regulars Are Coming!”700 redcoats sent to capture leaders, destroy munitions, April 1775Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott warn leaders, townspeopleRevere reached Adams & Hancock – continued his famous ride
18 III. Lexington and Concord “A Glorious Day for America”April 19, 1775 Battle of Lexington - British Soldiers attacked 70 minutemen – 8 killed and 10 woundedBritish continued on to Concord, found nothing & were heading back to Boston – 3000 to 4000 minutemen attackDozens killed they return to Boston after humiliating lossAdams says “this is a glorious day for America”
19 Review QuestionsList and explain three ways the colonies organized to resist British taxation?What were three events & what took place that increased tension before the outbreak of war?When, where and what happened at the Battles of Lexington and Concord?