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Crisis in the Colonies, 1745–1775 1. The French and Indian War How did the rivalry of Britain and France lead to war in North America? How did lack of.

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Presentation on theme: "Crisis in the Colonies, 1745–1775 1. The French and Indian War How did the rivalry of Britain and France lead to war in North America? How did lack of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crisis in the Colonies, 1745–1775 1

2 The French and Indian War How did the rivalry of Britain and France lead to war in North America? How did lack of unity and mistakes lead to British defeats early in the war? What turned the tide of war in Britain’s favor? How did British troops bring about the fall of New France? 2

3 Rivalry Between Britain and France Leads to War European powers competed for trade and colonies around the globe. France and England both claimed land in North America. English settlers pushing westward clashed with French fur traders in the Ohio Valley. 3

4 Rivalry Between Britain and France Leads to War Native Americans were caught up in the conflict. Algonquins and Hurons sided with the French. Iroquois supported the English. In 1754, France and Great Britain began to fight in the Ohio River Valley. English settlers called the fight against France and their Indian allies the French and Indian War. 4

5 How Britain Almost Lost the War Event Albany Plan of Union What Happened To get the colonists to work together to defeat the French, Franklin proposed this plan for “one general government” for the 13 colonies. Results The colonial assemblies turned the plan down. Fort NecessityWashington launched a surprise attack against the French. French and Indian forces outnumbered Washington’s forces. Washington surrendered. Fort DuquesneGeneral Braddock led British and colonial troops toward Fort Duquesne. The French launched a surprise attack and defeated Braddock’s troops. Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry The French succeeded in capturing these forts. Britain’s Indian allies began to doubt the British. 5

6 Who or What William Pitt What Happened Pitt became the new head of the British government. Pitt’s first goal was to win the war in North America. Results Pitt sent his best generals, money, and supplies to North America. LouisbourgWith the capture of the most important French fort in Canada, the tide of battle turned. Fort Duquesne Major General Amherst captured the fort in 1758. Fort Duquesne became Fort Pitt.The British seized it in 1758. Added to British success.Fort Niagra, Crown Point, Fort Ticonderoga The British seized them in 1759. The British and French troops fought on the Plains of Abraham, outside the city of Quebec. The British won. Quebec surrendered. Quebec, important city overlooking the St. Lawrence River In the dark, British troops led by General Wolfe quietly climbed the cliff and surprised the French. 6

7 The Treaty of Paris Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The treaty marked the end of French power in North America. Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans. France kept two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. France kept some sugar-growing islands in the West Indies. Spain gave up Florida to Britain. Spain received New Orleans and all French land west of the Mississippi. Spain kept its empire in Central and South America. 7

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9 Turmoil Over Taxation How did Britain attempt to ease growing tensions on the American frontier? How did the colonists react to new taxes imposed by Parliament? Which new colonial leaders emerged as the conflict with Britain escalated? What events led to the Boston Massacre? 9

10 Easing Tensions on the American Frontier After the war, British colonists headed west to claim land. British settlers clashed with the Native American nations in the Ohio Valley. Britain sent Amherst to keep order. He raised the price of trade goods to Indians and allowed settlers on Indian lands. British began taxing colonists to help pay for their expenses they incurred during their fight with the French and Indians 10

11 Easing Tensions on the American Frontier In Pontiac’s War, angry Indian nations joined in an attack on British forts in the Ohio country. When the French told the Indians they could no longer help, the Indian nations stopped fighting. The British issued the Proclamation of 1763, drawing an imaginary line along the Appalachians. Colonists were forbidden west of the line. The Proclamation was designed to protect the colonists and prevent a bloody Indian uprising. 11

12 Parliament Imposes New Taxes Sugar Act of 1764- Lowered the tax on molasses; made it easier for British officials to bring smugglers to trial Stamp Act of 1765- Placed new duties on legal documents; taxes newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and dice. colonists protested angrily Colonists coined the slogan “No Taxation Without Representation.” 12

13 Colonists united and sent delegates to meet in a Stamp Act Congress Congress drew up a petition to send to Parliament Colonists boycotted British goods Parliament repealed the Stamp Act 13

14 ----- Townshend Acts of 1767- Taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea Set up new ways to collect taxes, including writs of assistance, legal documents that allowed officers to inspect another person’s property without giving a reason. Colonial merchants and planters signed agreement to stop importing taxed goods. Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty, mock hangings, petitions, boycotts, threats. 14

15 Sequence of Acts 1.Stamp Act 1.Townsend Act 2.Boston Tea Party 3.Intolerable Acts 15

16 Colonial Leaders Samuel Adams of Massachusetts was a talented organizer. He arranged protests and stirred public support. John Adams of Massachusetts had a knowledge of British law that earned him respect. Mercy Otis Warren of Massachusetts wrote plays that made fun of British officials. Abigail Adams of Massachusetts wrote to spur colonists to action. George Washington of Virginia joined in protesting the Townshend Acts. Patrick Henry of Virginia gave speeches that stirred others to action. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia was a rising law student. 16

17 The Boston Massacre Britain sent soldiers to Boston to protect customs officials. Bostonians saw the British as bullies and insulted or even assaulted the British soldiers. On March 5, 1770, Bostonians gathered outside the Boston customs house, shouting insults and throwing things at the British guards. Suddenly, panicked soldiers fired into the crowd, killing some colonists. 17

18 Colonists protested the incident, calling it the Boston Massacre. The soldiers were tried, but John Adams defended them and was able to win light sentences for them. Samuel Adams formed a committee of correspondence, a group that regularly wrote letters and pamphlets reporting to other colonies on events in Massachusetts. 18

19 From Protest to Revolution How did a dispute over tea lead to tension between the colonists and the British government? How did Parliament strike back at the people of Boston? Why did fighting break out at Lexington and Concord? 19

20 How a Dispute Over Tea Led to Tension The British East India Company sold tea to colonial tea merchants. The tea merchants sold the tea to the colonists for a higher price. When the British East India Company had money troubles, Parliament passed the Tea Act. The act said British East India Company could sell directly to colonists. Colonists were not allowed a say in the tax on tea 20

21 How a Dispute Over Tea Led to Tension American merchants protested being cut out of the tea trade. Other colonists said it was a trick to force colonists to pay the tax on tea. Colonists boycotted tea. The Boston Sons of Liberty showed their displeasure by staging the Boston Tea Party. Disguised as Indians, they raided three ships and dumped their cargo of tea into Boston harbor. 21

22 Parliament Punished Massachusetts Colonists Intolerable Acts —passed to punish Massachusetts The port of Boston was closed. Massachusetts colonists could not hold town meetings more than once a year without the governor’s permission. Customs officers and other officials could be tried in Britain or Canada instead of in Massachusetts. A new Quartering Act said colonists must house British soldiers in their homes. These acts lead to rioting by the colonists which is an example of “civil disobedience” 22

23 Steps to Lexington and Concord After the Intolerable Acts First Continental Congress-Delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. Agreed to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain. Urged each colony to set up a militia, which is an army of citizens who serve as soldiers in an emergency. Agreed to meet again the next year. 23

24 Lexington-Village near Boston. Minutemen met British soldiers on the village green. Shots rang out. Colonists were killed. First shots of the Revolution 24

25 The American Revolution Fighting begins in the North 25

26 Peace or War The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia Objectives - Avoid a split with Britain - Remain loyal to the throne 26

27 Olive Branch Petition 1- Congress sent to King George III 2- Congress declared its loyalty to King 3- Requested repeal of the Intolerable Acts 27

28 King George’s Reaction 1- Angry 2- Sent more troops to colonies 28

29 Green Mountain Boys Band of Vermonters lead by Ethan Allen Took control of Fort Ticonderoga Took British cannons and gunpowder 29

30 Setting Up an Army 1- In June the Continental Army was formed 2- They were a makeshift group gathered around Boston 3- George Washington of Virginia was appointed commander 4- They would be fighting great odds 30

31 Advantages and Disadvantages of each side British- Advantages 1- well trained 2- experienced 3- world’s top navy 4- loyalist, American colonists who remained loyal to Britain Colonists (Patriots) who favored war 1- many owned rifles 2- fighting for home and property 3- Washington as commander 31

32 Advantages and Disadvantages of each side British- Disadvantages 1- far from home 2- had to wait on supplies 3- colonists knew the countryside Colonists 1- poorly organized 2- untrained 3- few cannons 4- no Navy 5- no long term commitment 32

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34 by Benjamin Franklin Cartoon in the Pennsylvania Gazette May 9, 1754 This cartoon shows a snake cut into eight pieces, each labeled with the name of one of the colonies. The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to The position of each colony in the snake corresponds to the geographic position of the colonies along the American coast, with the snake's tail pointing south and the head pointing north. 34

35 The colonies, from tail to head (south to north), are: South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England (New England referred to the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). The caption reads, "JOIN, or DIE." 35

36 The Colonies Declare Independence Main Idea In July 1776, the thirteen (13)colonies declared Independence from Britain 36

37 Common Sense Influenced the Colonies Thomas Paine wrote an essay- Common Sense- urging the colonies to declare independence Paine and other radicals began to think of creating their own nation. Radicals- people who want to make drastic changes in society 37

38 Reason Against Independence Many colonists felt loyal to Britain People felt they owed their allegiance to the king, these people were called “loyalist” and opposed the Declaration of Independence 38

39 Reasons for Independence Colonists did not owe loyalty to King George III or any other monarch Colonists did not owe anything to Britain. The British only helped for their own profit Staying under British rule would be harmful to the colonies 39

40 The Second Continental Congress Declares Independence Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution for independence The Second Continental Congress debated the resolution Many felt that the British would hang them as traitors Traitors, people who betray their country Congress appointed a committee to draw up a formal declaration of independence 40

41 Thomas Jefferson wrote the final document for the committee The declaration was read to Congress The delegates voted to accept the declaration The declaration was printed and signed Copies were distributed through the colonies This was the MOST important accomplishment of the Second Continental Congress 41

42 Chronology of Events 1776 June 7- Richard Henry Lee’s resolution calling for independence June 11- Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and John appointed to write a draft declaration June 12-27- Jefferson writes a declaration at the request of the committee June 28- A fair copy of the committee draft of the D.O.I. to Congress 42

43 July 1-4- Congress debates and revises the D.O.I. July 2- Congress declares independence as British fleet and Army arrive in New York July 4- Congress adopts D.O.I. John Dunlap prints the original Declaration of Independence penned by Timothy Matlack. Two (2) copies are known to exist today and in the Library of Congress. One was Washington’s personal copy 43

44 The Declaration of Independence This document was written with four separate sections. 1- Preamble 2- First Part- Natural Rights 3- Second Part- British wrongs 4- Third Part- Independence 44

45 The Declaration of Independence Preamble Introduction; explains that the declaration will tell why the colonies want to break from Great Britain. First part — Natural rights (unalienable) Rights that belong to all people from birth, such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Governments exist to protect people ’ s natural rights. 45

46 Second part — British wrongs Great Britain has committed many wrongs. King George III disbanded colonial legislatures, sent troops, and limited colonial trade. The colonists asked for justice but did not get it. Third- Declaration The colonies are now a free and independent nation — the United States of America. Signatures List of individuals who signed 46

47 With the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the Colonists gained respect and add a certain stature with other countries 47


49 America’s First Navy John Paul Jones is credited for founding the U.S. Navy during the American Revolution 49

50 Americans Capture Ft Ticonderoga 1775 American forces under Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured the British fort of Ticonderoga. The fort was captured without firing a shot. The capture was the first offensive action by the colonists, and the cannons captured there were invaluable. 50

51 Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 The Americans occupied Bunker Hill overlooking Boston on the evening of June 16th. The British, commanded by General Gage, had no choice but to attack the Americans 51

52 Battle of Bunker Hill 1775 On the afternoon of the 17th, Gage's forces attacked. In a hard fought battle, the Americans were forced to withdraw. While the British were victorious, they suffered heavy losses. British troops controlled Boston Colonial militia surrounded the city Across the river, minutemen fired on British ships from Bunker Hill Two times the colonists turned back the British attacks 52

53 The Battle of Bunker Hill Showed Americans could fight bravely The British would not be easy to defeat 53

54 How the Continental Army Gained Control of Boston Washington found 16,000 troops waiting in Boston when he arrived Washington began to train the troops The cannon that the Green Mountain Boys captured was placed on Dorchester Heights overlooking British ships British general Howe spotted the cannon and left Boston for Canada 54

55 Battle of Bennington- 1777 The British suffered a major defeat when New England militia men ambushed a large force of British soldiers attempting to forage for supplies. The British force was almost wiped out, losing 207 dead and 700 captured. 55

56 Saratoga—A Turning Point General John Burgoyne planned to defeat the Americans. Three British armies would march on Albany from different directions and crush American forces. General Howe was supposed to capture Philadelphia first, then march on Albany. Howe retired to Philadelphia instead. Two British armies marched toward Albany. Americans drove one of the British armies back at Fort Stanwix. 56

57 Only one British army was left to march on Albany. In the Battle of Saratoga, north of Albany, Americans defeated the British. Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire army. The victory boosted American spirits and led France to become one of America’s allies —nations that work together to achieve a common goal. 57

58 Hardships at Valley Forge Conditions at Valley Forge were harsh: Mid-winter snow, mud, and slush Damp, drafty huts; frozen ground Soldiers poorly clothed; some did not have shoes or coats. Soldiers suffered from frostbite and disease Poor food 58

59 Fighting for Liberty on Many Fronts What role did women play in the war? What choices did African Americans have? How was the war fought on the frontier and at sea? 59

60 Women Played a Role in the War Women took on added work at home. Some women joined their husbands at the front. Betsy Ross sewed flags for Washington’s army. A few women took part in battle, for example, Mary Ludwig Hays, known as Molly Pitcher. 60

61 African Americans Faced Hard Choices Some African Americans served in the United States Army. Some served in the newly formed United States Navy. Some were minutemen. Some enslaved African Americans looked for freedom by following British troops. 61

62 Winning the War in the South Why did Britain decide to start fighting in the South? How did the Americans and French defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown? What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris? What factors helped the Americans win the war? 62

63 The Battle of Yorktown Cornwallis planned to conquer Virginia. American troops under Lafayette kept Cornwallis from succeeding. Cornwallis was ordered to send part of his army to New York. Instead, he retreated to Yorktown peninsula. 63

64 A combined American and French army trapped Cornwallis on the peninsula. A French fleet kept Cornwallis from escaping by sea. The American and French armies laid siege to Cornwallis’s army, that is, they surrounded and blockaded the enemy position. The British lost the Battle of Yorktown. They surrendered. 64

65 The Treaty of Paris Congress ratified, or approved, the Treaty of Paris from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River and from the Great Lakes to Florida. Florida was returned to Spain. Americans agreed to ask states to pay Loyalists for property they had lost. on April 15, 1783. The British recognized the United States as an independent nation. The boundaries of the United States extended Did not require the British to close their forts in the West 65

66 Why Americans Won the War Geography Americans were fighting at home on familiar ground. The British were far from home in unknown territory. 66

67 Foreign Help Spanish and French forces fought with the Americans. France, the Netherlands, and Spain loaned money. German and Polish officers provided training. 67

68 Patriotism Patriots gained skill as soldiers. They didn’t give up. 68

69 Leaders George Washington’s leadership and military skills were so good that he was respected by Americans and British alike 69

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