TREATY OF FT. LARAMIE Signed on September 17, 1851 United States treaty commissioners and representatives of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Navajo Crow, Shoshone, Assiniboine, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara nations. Treaty sets forth traditional territorial claims of the tribes as among themselves The Indians guaranteed safe passage for settlers on the Oregon Trail in return for promises of an annuity in the amount of fifty thousand dollars for fifty years.
TREATY CONT. The Native American nations also allowed roads and forts to be built in their territories The treaty produced a brief period of peace Broken by the failure of the United States to prevent the mass emigration of settlers and miners
SAND CREEK MASSACRE November 29, 1864 Colorado militia led by Colonel John Chivington 110 Arapaho and Cheyenne women and children were killed Initially reported as a great victory over a mighty opponent Eventually, an official investigation took place No charges were brought against those who participated Ended Chivington’s shot at a political career
GEORGE A. CUSTER Leader of the 7 th Cavalry Division Assigned to protect surveyors of the Northern Pacific Railroad Gained the image back East as a famous Indian fighter Generally, his encounters with tribes were massacres
BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN AKA Custer’s Last Stand June 25-26, 1876 Near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory Most famous battle of the Great Sioux War Custer and his men were killed As years have passed, image of Custer has changed from hero to villain
CHIEF JOSEPH Leader of the Nez Perce Attempted to lead his people from being placed on a reservation by fleeing to Canada Leads U.S. troops on 1170 mile chase Joseph surrenders on Oct 5, 1877 “We will fight no more forever” His people were placed in Indian Territory (OK) 1879, Chief Joseph meets with President Hayes 1903, Chief Joseph meets with President T Roosevelt Died September 1904
DAWES ACT OF 1887 Authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. The objective of the Dawes Act was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society Individual ownership of land was seen as an essential step. The act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land "excess" to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non- Indians.
GHOST DANCE Started by Paiute Indian prophet Wovoka Vision that Jesus Christ had returned to earth as a Native American He preached that: White man would vanish from native lands Buffalo would return in abundance Dead ancestors would be returned Warriors wore “Ghost Shirts” believed to repel bullets Caused alarm with U.S. govt that another uprising was being planned
DECEMBER 15, 1890 U.S. troops arrest Sitting Bull for not stopping his people from practicing the Ghost Dance During the arrest Sitting Bull is killed
WOUNDED KNEE MASSACRE December 29, 1890 U.S. troops were making camp with captured Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota Troops were confiscating weapons when shots were fired 150 men, women, and children were killed Historically, considered to be the end of conflict between the U.S. govt and Native Americans
AMERICAN INDIAN MOVEMENT (AIM) Founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota AIM agenda focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty Nov 1969-Jun 1971 AIM occupies Alcatraz Island 1972, activists marched across country on the "Trail of Broken Treaties“: Took over the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), occupying it for several days 1973, activists led a 71-day armed standoff with federal forces at Wounded Knee