William of Orange became king of England when King James II was disposed. Called the “Glorious Revolution”. William joined the League of Augsburg. This is where the war got its other name, “War of the Grand Alliance,” Remember me
The League of Augsburg also called the Grand Alliance, consisted of Austria, Bavaria, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden…etc vs France. All these nations formed to stop Louis XIV’s attempt to expand France. VS What did I do?
King William’s war was fought in North America between 1689-1697 The Dominion of New England (Iroquois, Mohawk) was against New France(Abeneki, Pennecook, Huron) The people were fighting mostly for control of the fur trade New England’s Catholic governor was deposed in 1689 but he had raided French colonies. Edmund Andros, the “governor”
Abenaki and Pennacock Indians under French commands raided Dover, New Hampshire. They killed more than 20 and took 29 captives. Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin (lets hope no one has a longer name than that) in retaliation to Governor Andros’ attack, raided Pemaquid (Near Maine). Here
Colonel Benjamin Church (English) after fighting in King Phillip’s war, led an expedition to present day Maine… The only successful campaign was defending Falmouth, present day Portland. Look at me, I’m awesome
In August of 1689, the Iroquois attacked Lachine a French Settlement. The governor of New France then attacked an Iroquois settlement of Onondaga. New France led several other attacks the most notable being the Schenectady Massacre.
200 Frenchmen along with Algonquin and Sault raiders went from Montreal to English outposts. The Stockade of Schenectady was left unguarded. 60 were killed and 27 taken prisoner.
In 1690 Port Royal was attacked by the English. The English had 736 men verses France’s 80. The English won, obviously… but one of the men defending was Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste… we’ll come back to him later… One of his ships… though I don’t think it was green or purple…
The only major English attack was the Quebec expedition in October of 1690. It was an attempt to seize Montreal, New France’s capital. William Phips the English commander sent an envoy to Louis de Buade de Frontenac.
The location had rocky cliffs and shallow waters, bad for boats. Frontenac was smart in saying, “I have no reply to make to your general other than from the mouths of my cannons and muskets.” Notice this comes from a guy in a powdered wig
34 ships surrounded Quebec, as the fighting last three days. The cold drove the fleet away, otherwise they’d be frozen onto the water Overall 150 attackers were killed, as they licked their wounds and went home.
In 1696, the French and Abenaki and our old friend Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste besieged Pemaquid…again. Benjamin Church in retaliation, attacked Acadian communities… and Baptiste defended. Look at me, I’m still awesome!
In 1697 the English and French came together for the Treaty of Ryswick. This treaty stated that every town captured before William of Orange came to power was to be restored. France surrendered several towns to the Holy Roman Empire. The treaty, in French?
France was given Haiti (which is why they speak French) and Nova Scotia. In North America nothing was solved and every city returned to its original country. For the Iroquois, loses were hardest because of weak English allies. All in all, nothing was solved. Oh, sorry, Bourbon got Spain… besides that…
Queen Anne’s war Yes we know she’s ugly.. There’s nothing we can do about that
Also called “The War of the Spanish Succession” War was fought from 1702-1713 The problem was the conflict on who should be the successor to the Spanish throne, hence the name. ?
Another issue came up. Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor wanted to protect the claim to the Spanish inheritance. And Louis XIV still wanted to expand France… Also, unresolved issues from King William’s war came up. Leopold I
The English fought in many different places in North America: Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina New England and Acadia Quebec Newfoundland After all these battles came peace and the end of the war. Quebec expedition These two were the main battles
Alexandre Leneuf de La Vallière de Beaubassin (we found a winner!) led attacks against New England (and many others joined) Many different raids between French, English, and the natives continued until the end of the war. New England tried to take Acadia, led by Benjamin Church British finally captured Port Royal, Acadia’s capital. I didn’t capture it… but I’ll smile anyhow!
In 1704 England made an unsuccessful attack by sea and another in 1707. Three years later the British decided to help. Francis Nicholson led a third attack, this time capturing Port Royal, changing the name to Annapolis for Queen Anne, and Acadia to Nova Scotia.
In 1709 Colonel Nicholson and Samuel Vetch along with the queen planned an attacked on Montreal. They wanted to arrive overland and by sea by Lake Champlain. The land expedition arrived but… However the promised naval fleet never arrived and so they didn’t attack.
The plan for 1711 again called for land and sea-based attacks; its execution was a disaster. Colonel Nicholson, Hovenden Walker and Samuel Vetch organized the assault. The plan was Walker would oversee the entire expedition; Vetch would go by sea and Nicholson by land. If at first you don’t succeed.. Try, try, and fail again!
A large east wind brought the ships west. Thinking they were going north, the captain did not realize they were heading near the rocks. 740 died and eight ships were lost. Land battalion left upon hearing the loss. Considered at the time one of the worst naval disasters in British history.
In 1712, Britain and France made a final peace agreement which was signed the following year Called “Treaty of Utrecht” King Louis XIV’s grandson Philip became king of Spain but had to give up his claim on the French throne.
Charles VI remained Holy Roman Emperor. Spanish Empire also divided. Savoy received Sicily and parts of the Dutchy of Milan Holy Roman Empire received the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia and most of the Dutchy of Milan. Someone doesn’t look very happy
France gave England its claims to Hudson Bay territories in Rupert’s land, Newfoundland, and Acadia. France was also forced to recognized England’s power over the Iroquois.
French fortress built at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada The original fortress, constructed mainly between 1720 and 1740 It was one of the most extensive (and expensive) European fortifications constructed in North America.
Because of the treaty, England had most of Acadia. However, the French still kept most of their colonies of Île Royale, Île St-Jean (PEI), Canada and Louisiana. Île Royale was their only land on the Atlantic seaboard, and so to fortify it built the fortress of Louisbourg. It guarded the entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and became a winter port for French navel forces The plans for construction