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Tea Kidd 4/2/12 American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783.

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Presentation on theme: "Tea Kidd 4/2/12 American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tea Kidd 4/2/12 American Revolution Era, 1775 - 1783

2  *Adoption of the Declaration of Independence  *Main Author: Thomas Jefferson  *Committee Included: Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston  *“Common Sense”  Written by: Thomas Paine

3  Proclamation of 1763  Stamp Act  Intolerable Acts  Mercantilism  Lack of representation in Congress  British economic policies following the French and Indian War

4  *British Parliament law; colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, *Britain wanted a buffer zone between the colonists and the Native Americans, but the colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio River Valley

5  Required all legal documents and papers have an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid.  British used this to generate revenue to help cover the cost of the French and Indian War;  colonists reacted by rioting through groups such as the Sons of Liberty;  Stamp Act Congress meets in October, 1765, to take action and ask Parliament to repeal the act

6  A system by which a nation increases its wealth and power by obtaining from its colonies gold, silver, and other raw materials.  It includes a favorable balance of trade.  The colonies became a source of raw materials for the mother country (England.)  The colonies are expected to be the purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country.  Belief that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the mother country

7  Closed the port of Boston until tea was paid for  Restructured Massachusetts government by taking away local control  Troops were quartered in Boston and British officials accused of crimes were sent to England or Canada for trial  Colonists reacted by boycotting British goods  First Continental Congress is formed, September, 1774

8  Since the formation of the colonies, the colonists had set up their own legislative assemblies.  Colonists were unhappy about Britain’s insistence on the supremacy of Parliament (taxation).  The debate turned into one regarding representation in Britain’s law- making body (Parliament).  Britain argued that the colonies had “virtual representation.”

9  Wife of John Adams  Served as John Adams’ confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress, when John and others were considering a declaration of independence.  Abigail reminded him to “remember the ladies”; take care of the women who could not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice.  Advocate for women’s rights.

10  Lawyer and politician  Defended the British soldiers after the Boston Massacre  A member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts)  Strong supporter of independence  Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence

11  African American Patriot  Like Paul Revere, he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community the impending British invasion  Served in the Continental Army  Fought at the Battle of Saratoga

12  American Patriot  Played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution  Including: Sons of Liberty, organized opposition to the Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre  Member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts)  Cousin to John Adams

13  Wife of a Massachusetts Patriot  Anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause

14  *Slave in Virginia  *Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army.  *Posed as a double agent, forger and servant at British headquarters.  *He moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette  *Contributed to the American victory at Yorktown.

15  * A member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence.  *Spent most of the time during the American Revolution in France.  *He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and returned in 1785.  *He negotiated the alliance with France for support after the victory at Saratoga.  *Member of the committee that negotiated the terms for the Treaty of Paris in 1783 that ended the war.

16  *Spanish nobleman  *Became governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana (January 1777)  *protected American ships in the port of New Orleans  *helped transport war supplies  *took up arms to fight the British and protect Louisiana

17  African American male  Unemployed dockworker in Boston, MA  Became the first casualty (first to die) of the American Revolution  Shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770

18  *King of England during the Revolutionary Era  *Feared the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire.  *To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance.  George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign.

19  Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America  Played an important role in financing the American Revolution  Arrested by the British as a spy  Used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops  Helped British prisoners escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert the British Army  Became a broker to the French consul and paymaster to French troops in the American Revolution

20  Member of the Virginia House of Burgesses  Spoke against the Stamp Act  Famous quote, “Give me liberty, or give me death!”  During the American Revolution he served in the Continental Army

21  Virginian  Early leader in the American Revolution  Delegate to the Constinental Congress in Philadelphia in 1776  Member of the committee that wrote the Declaration of Independence  Chief author of the Declaration of Independence

22  *French aristocrat who joined Washington and his troops at Valley Forge, PA  *Played a leading role in both the American and French Revolutions  *Respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and a constitutional government  *Commanded forces under George Washington as a major-general in the Continental Army

23  Propagandist  Journalist  In January, 1776, published a pamphlet, “Common Sense”  Persuaded many Americans to join the Patriot cause.

24  *Virginian  *surveyor, planter  *a soldier in the French and Indian War  *a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses  *commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution

25  Declaring Independence  Writing the Articles of Confederation  Battles of Lexington and Concord  Battle of Saratoga  Battle of Yorktown  Enduring the winter at Valley Forge  Signing the Treaty of Paris 1783

26  Reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests/demands, “dissolve the political bands” with Britain, provided philosophy for the establishment of the new nation  “…all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness”  Listed grievances against the King of England  Written by Thomas Jefferson  July 4, 1776  Second Continental Congress; Philadelphia

27  Occurred at the Second Continental Congress  Created a new form of government for the independent colonies  Included one branch – a Congress  Each state had one vote  Created a very weak government with no executive

28  Lexington and Concord: Shot ‘heard round the world; first battles of the American Revolution; April 19, 1775  Saratoga: turning point of the war; France joined the colonists after this victory, tipping the scales in their favor  Yorktown: surrender of Cornwallis to the British

29  Winter, 1777  After suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777  Outbreak of small pox  Martha Washington came to help care for the men  The men were trained by Frederick von Steuben to become a more professional army rather than militias  Thomas Paine wrote “American Crisis” to encourage the men to stay the course and follow through with the revolution to the end

30  Peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War and recognized American independence  Great Britain gave up almost all of its land claims in North America  Boundaries extended to Canada in the north, the Mississippi River in the west, and Florida in the South

31  Grievance in Declaration of Independence  Constitution  Taxation without representation  All states have representation in Congress, which sets taxes  King has absolute power  Congress has the power to override Presidential veto  Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King  1st Amendment – Freedom of Speech  Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops  3rd Amendment – No quartering of Troops  allowed homes to be searched without warrants  4th Amendment – No unwarranted search & seizure  No trial by jury of peers  6th amendment—Speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury  7th amendment—Right of trial by jury

32  Fundamental rights, or natural rights, guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law.  In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson said these are the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

33  *The concept of refusing to follow laws within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or a nation when a person considers the laws unjust. *Refusing to follow laws considered to be unlawful and/or unconstitutional.  *Examples include boycotts, protests, refusal to pay taxes  *Boston Tea Party is an example of civil disobedience.

34  Loyalists – these were colonists who remained loyal to the British monarchy and did not feel taxation was a reason to declare independence or break away from the mother country.

35  Patriots were colonists who favored breaking away from Great Britain and becoming an independent country

36  Founder of the United States Navy  Led raids on British vessels during the American Revolution  During a fight with a British vessel he was told to surrender. Instead, Jones said, “I have not yet begun to fight” and was able to defeat the attacking British ship.

37  Engraving of the Boston Massacre by Paul Revere  March 5, 1770  Event in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of unarmed citizens of Boston  Killed five  This engraving was used as propaganda to encourage patriotic sympathies and support for American Independence  Paul Rever, a silversmith and engraver, was also a member of the Boston Sons of Liberty

38  *Song sung by British military to mock the unorganized colonial “Yankees” who served in the French and Indian War with British soldiers.  *The meaning of the song implies that the Americans are so “simple” they think simply sticking a feather in a cap would make them fashion leaders.

39  *Fighting between the British and the French for control of North America.  *Allies of the French were the Native Americans, or Indians.  *Broke out in the Ohio River Valley in 1756. Throughout the world it was known as the Seven Years’ War  *Ben Franklin suggested that the colonies join together to fight against the French in the Albany Plan of Union. *This was the first attempt to unify the colonies  *French and Indians were defeated.  * British became in debt because of the war and taxed the colonists as a result.


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