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Sex Education Dr. K. Sivapalan..

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1 Sex Education Dr. K. Sivapalan.

2 Sex Education It is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns Sex Education

3 Over View Education about reproduction typically describes from conception through to childbirth. It often includes topics such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, as well as birth control methods. Although some form of sex education is part of the curriculum at many schools, it remains a controversial issue in several countries- particularly with regard to the age at which children should start receiving such education, the amount of detail that is revealed, and topics dealing with human sexuality and behavior (eg. safe sex practices, masturbation and sexual ethics). Sex Education

4 Importance of Emotional Aspects
In 1936, Wilhelm Reich commented that sex education of his time was a work of deception, focusing on biology while concealing excitement-arousal, which is what a pubescent individual is mostly interested in. Reich added that this emphasis obscures what he believed to be a basic psychological principle: that all worries and difficulties originate from unsatisfied sexual impulses. This tendency of overemphasizing biology over pleasure is still typical today of sex education in the West. Sex Education

5 Debate about Sex Education
In many countries, sexual education raises much contentious debate. Controversial points are: whether covering child sexuality is valuable or detrimental; the use of birth control such as condoms and hormonal contraception; and the impact of such use on pregnancy outside marriage, teenage pregnancy, and the transmission of STIs. Increasing support for abstinence-only sex education by conservative groups has been one of the primary causes of this controversy. Countries with conservative attitudes towards sex education (including the UK and the U.S.) have a higher incidence of STIs and teenage pregnancy. Sex Education

6 Benefits of Sex Education
The existence of AIDS has given a new sense of urgency to the topic of sex education. In many African nations, where AIDS is at epidemic levels (see HIV/AIDS in Africa), sex education is seen by most scientists as a vital public health strategy. Some international organizations such as Planned Parenthood consider that broad sex education programs have global benefits, such as controlling the risk of overpopulation and the advancement of women's rights (reproductive rights). Sex Education

7 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Are based on rigorous, peer reviewed science; Sex Education

8 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Show promise for delaying the onset of sexual activity and a reduction in sexual behavior that puts adolescents at risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases;  Sex Education

9 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Include an integrated strategy for making condoms available to students and for providing both factual information and skill-building related to reproductive biology, sexual abstinence, sexual responsibility, contraceptives including condoms, alternatives in birth control, and other issues aimed at prevention of pregnancy and sexual transmission of diseases; Sex Education

10 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Utilize classroom teachers and other professionals who have shown an aptitude for working with young people and who have received special training that includes addressing the needs of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth;  Sex Education

11 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Include ample involvement of parents, health professionals, and other concerned members of the community in the development of the program; and  Sex Education

12 The American Medical Association's Recommendations for Good Sex Education.
AMA urges schools to implement comprehensive, developmentally appropriate sexuality education programs that: Are part of an overall health education program. Sex Education

13 What is sex education? Sex education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It is also about developing young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behavior, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It is widely accepted that young people have a right to sex education, partly because it is a means by which they are helped to protect themselves against abuse, exploitation, unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. It is sometimes called sexuality education or sex and relationships education Sex Education

14 Morality of sex education
One approach to sex education is to view it as necessary to reduce risk behaviors such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity. Additionally, some proponents of comprehensive sex education contend that education about homosexuality encourages tolerance and understanding that homosexuality isn't something that is wrong. Sex Education

15 Morality of sex education
Another historically inspired view of sexologists and psychologists holds that what is at stake in sex education is control over the body and liberation from social control. Proponents of this view tend to see the political question as whether society or the individual should teach sexual mores. Sexual education may thus be seen as providing individuals with the knowledge necessary to liberate themselves from socially organized sexual oppression and to make up their own minds. In addition, sexual oppression may be viewed as socially harmful. Sex Education

16 Morality of sex education
To another group in the sex education debate, the question is whether the state or the family should teach sexual mores. They believe that sexual mores should be left to the family, and sex-education represents state interference. They claim that some sex education curricula break down pre-existing notions of modesty and encourage acceptance of practices that those advocating this viewpoint deem immoral, such as homosexuality and premarital sex. They cite web sites such as that of the Coalition for Positive Sexuality as examples. Naturally, those that believe that homosexuality and premarital sex are a normal part of the range of human sexuality disagree with them. Sex Education

17 Morality of sex education
Many religions teach that sexual behavior outside of marriage is immoral, so their adherents feel that this morality should be taught as part of sex education. Other religious conservatives believe that sexual knowledge is unavoidable, hence their preference for a curricula based on abstinence. Sex Education

18 What are the aims of sex education?
Sex education seeks both to reduce the risks of potentially negative outcomes from sexual behavior like unwanted or unplanned pregnancies and infection with sexually transmitted diseases And to enhance the quality of relationships. It is also about developing young people's ability to make decisions over their entire lifetime. Sex Education

19 What skills should sex education develop?
Being able to communicate, listen, negotiate, ask for and identify sources of help and advice that can be applied in terms of sexual relationships. Skills in negotiation, decision-making, assertion and listening. Being able to recognize pressures from other people and to resist them, deal with and challenge prejudice, seek help from adults - including parents, carers and professionals - through the family, community and health and welfare services. Differentiate between accurate and inaccurate information, discuss moral and social issues and perspectives on sex and sexuality, different cultural attitudes and sensitive issues like abortion and contraception. Sex Education

20 Forming attitudes and beliefs
Young people can be exposed to a wide range of attitudes and beliefs in relation to sex and sexuality. These sometimes appear contradictory and confusing. For example, some health messages emphasis the risks and dangers associated with sexual activity and some media coverage promotes the idea that being sexually active makes a person more attractive and mature. Sex Education

21 Forming attitudes and beliefs-ctd
Young people are very interested in the moral and cultural frameworks that binds sex and sexuality. They often welcome opportunities to talk about issues where people have strong views, like abortion, sex before marriage, lesbian and gay issues And contraception and birth control. Part of exploring and understanding cultural, religious and moral views is finding out that you can agree to disagree. Sex Education

22 Forming attitudes and beliefs- ctd
People providing sex education have attitudes and beliefs of their own about sex and sexuality and it is important not to let these influence negatively the sex education that they provide. For example, even if a person believes that young people should not have sex until they are married, this does not imply withholding important information about safer sex and contraception. Attempts to impose narrow moralistic views about sex and sexuality on young people through sex education have failed. Sex Education

23 Forming attitudes and beliefs- ctd
Effective sex education also provides young people with an opportunity to explore the reasons why people have sex, and to think about how it involves emotions, respect for one self and other people and their feelings, decisions and bodies. Young people should have the chance to explore gender differences and how ethnicity and sexuality can influence people's feelings and options. They should be able to decide for themselves what the positive qualities of relationships are. It is important that they understand how bullying, stereotyping, abuse and exploitation can negatively influence relationships. Sex Education

24 Information to be Given to Young People
Young people get information about sex and sexuality from each other, through the media including advertising, television and magazines, as well as leaflets, books and websites. Some of this will be accurate and some inaccurate. Providing information through sex education is therefore about finding out what young people already know and adding to their existing knowledge and correcting any misinformation they may have. Sex Education

25 Information for Young People- ctd
For the young people to develop well- informed attitudes and views about sex and sexuality, they need to have information on all the following topics: Sexual development Reproduction Contraception Relationships Sex Education

26 Information for Young People- ctd
Physical and emotional changes associated with puberty and sexual reproduction Fertilization and conception Sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Contraception Kinds of relationships, Love and commitment, Marriage and partnership The law relating to sexual behavior and relationships, The range of religious and cultural views on sex and sexuality and sexual diversity. Abortion, Confidentiality The range of sources of advice and support that is available in the community and nationally. Sex Education

27 When should sex education start?
The precise age at which information should be provided depends on the physical, emotional and intellectual development of the young people as well as their level of understanding. What is covered and also how, depends on who is providing the sex education, when they are providing it, and in what context, as well as what the individual young person wants to know about. Sex Education

28 Use of Early Education It is important not to delay providing information to young people but to begin when they are young. Basic information provides the foundation on which more complex knowledge is built up over time. This also means that sex education has to be sustained. Sex Education

29 How to start Sex Education?
Maintain an open relationship with children which provides them with opportunities to ask questions when they have them. Parents and carers can also be proactive and engage young people in discussions about sex, sexuality and relationships. Naturally, many parents and their children feel embarrassed about talking about some aspects of sex and sexuality. Viewing sex education as an on-going conversation about values, attitudes and issues as well as providing facts can be helpful. Sex Education

30 Who should provide sex education?
At home, young people can easily have one-to-one discussions with parents or carers which focus on specific issues, questions or concerns. They can have a dialogue about their attitudes and views. There may be times when young people seem reluctant to talk, but it is important not to interpret any diffidence as meaning that there is nothing left to talk about. It is important not to defer dealing with a question or issue for too long as it can suggest that you are unwilling to talk about it. Sex Education

31 Sex Education at School
In school sex education is provided in organized blocks of lessons. Schools programmes which involve parents, notifying them what is being taught and when, can support the initiation of dialogue at home. Parents and schools both need to engage with young people about the messages that they get from the media, and give them opportunities for discussion. Sex Education

32 Role of Young People in Planning Sex Education programs.
In some countries, the involvement of young people themselves in developing and providing sex education has increased as a means of ensuring the relevance and accessibility of provision. Consultation with young people at the point when programmes are designed, helps ensure that they are relevant and the involvement of young people in delivering programmes may reinforce messages as they model attitudes and behavior to their peers. Sex Education

33 Taking Sex Education Forward - Parents
Parents are best placed in relation to young people to provide continuity of individual support and education starting from early in their lives. Sex Education

34 Taking Sex Education Forward- School
School-based education programmes are particularly good at providing information and opportunities for skills development and attitude clarification in more formal ways, through lessons within a curriculum. Sex Education

35 Taking Sex Education Forward- Community
Community-based projects provide opportunities for young people to access advice and information in less formal ways. Sexual health and other health and welfare services can provide access to specific information, support and advice. Sex Education

36 Taking Sex Education Forward – Mass Media
Sex education through the mass media, often supported by local, regional or national Government and non-governmental agencies and departments, can help to raise public awareness of sex health issues. Sex Education

37 Taking Sex Education Forward
Further development of sex education partly depends on joining up these elements in a coherent way to meet the needs of young people. There is also a need to pay more attention to the needs of specific groups of young people like: young parents, young lesbian, gay and bisexual people, as well as those who may be out of touch with services and schools and socially vulnerable, like young refugees and asylum-seekers, young people in care, young people in prisons, and also those living on the street. Sex Education

38 Sex Education in US Almost all U.S. students receive some form of sex education at least once between grades 7 and 12; many schools begin addressing some topics as early as grades 5 or 6. However, what students learn varies widely, because curriculum decisions are so decentralized. Many states have laws governing what is taught in sex education classes or allowing parents to opt out. Some state laws leave curriculum decisions to individual school districts. Sex Education

39 Sex Education in US ctd Two main forms of sex education are taught in American schools: comprehensive and abstinence-only. Most U.S. sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STIs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other topics, are methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely. Sex Education

40 Sex Education in England and Wales,
Sex education is not compulsory in schools as parents can refuse to let their children take part in the lessons. The curriculum focuses on the reproductive system, fetal development, and the physical and emotional changes of adolescence, while information about contraception and safe sex is discretionary. Britain has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Europe and sex education is a heated issue in government and media reports. In a 2000 study by the University of Brighton, many 14 to 15 year olds reported disappointment with the content of sex education lessons and felt that lack of confidentiality prevents teenagers from asking teachers about contraception. Sex Education

41 Sex Education inScotland
The main sex education program is Healthy Respect, which focuses not only on the biological aspects of reproduction but also on relationships and emotions. Education about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are included in the program as a way of encouraging good sexual health. In response to a refusal by Catholic schools to commit to the program, however, a separate sex education program has been developed for use in those schools. Funded by the Scottish Executive, the program Call to Love focuses on encouraging children to delay sex until marriage, and does not cover contraception, and as such is a form of abstinence-only sex education. Sex Education

42 Sex Education in France
Sex education has been part of school curricula since 1973. Schools are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms, to students in grades eight and nine. In January 2000, the French government launched an information campaign on contraception with TV and radio spots and the distribution of five million leaflets on contraception to high school students. Sex Education

43 Sex Education in Germany
Sex education has been part of school curricula since It normally covers all subjects concerning the growing-up process, the changing of the body, emotions, the biological process of reproduction, sexual activity, partnership, homosexuality, unwanted pregnancies and the complications of abortion, the dangers of sexual violence, child abuse, and sex-transmitted diseases, but sometimes also things like sex positions. Most schools offer courses on the correct usage of contraception. There are also other media of sex education, in first place the youth magazine "Bravo", which always contains a topic where teenagers pose questions about partnership and sexuality. Sex Education

44 Sex Education in Netherlands
Subsidized by the Dutch government, the “Lang leve de liefde” (“Long Live Love”) package, developed in the late 1980s, aims to give teenagers the skills to take their own decisions regarding health and sexuality. Nearly all secondary schools provide sex education as part of biology classes and over half of primary schools discuss sexuality and contraception. The curriculum focuses on biological aspects of reproduction as well as on values, attitudes, communication and negotiation skills. The media has encouraged open dialogue and the health-care system guarantees confidentiality and a non-judgmental approach. The Netherlands has one of the lowest teenage pregnancy rates in the world, and the Dutch approach is often seen as a model for other countries. Sex Education

45 Sex Education in -- In Sweden, sex education has been a mandatory part of school education since The subject is usually started at grades 4–6, and continues up through the grades, incorporated into different subjects such as biology and history. In Finland, the Population and Family Welfare Federation provides to all 15-year-olds an introductory sexual package that includes an information brochure, a condom and a cartoon love story. Sex Education

46 Sex Education in Asia The state of sex education programs in Asia is at various stages of development. Indonesia, Mongolia, South Korea and Sri Lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand have assessed adolescent reproductive health needs with a view to developing adolescent-specific training, messages and materials. Sex Education

47 Sex Education in Asia ctd
India has programs that specifically aims at school children at the age group of nine to sixteen years. These are included as subjects in the curriculum and generally involves open and frank interaction with the teachers. In India, there is a huge debate on the curriculum of sex education and when should it be increased. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan have no coordinated sex education programs. In Japan, sex education is mandatory from age 10 or 11, mainly covering biological topics such as menstruation and ejaculation. Sex Education

48 Sex Education inChina Sex education traditionally consists in reading the reproduction section of biology textbooks. However, in 2000 a new five-year project was introduced by the China Family Planning Association to "promote reproductive health education among Chinese teenagers and unmarried youth" in twelve urban districts and three counties. This includes discussion about sex within human relationships as well as pregnancy and HIV prevention. Sex Education

49 Sex Education in Africa
Sex education in Africa has focused on stemming the growing AIDS epidemic. Most governments in the region have established AIDS education programs in partnership with the World Health Organization and international NGOs. These programs commonly teach the 'ABC' of HIV prevention. The efforts of these educational campaigns appear now to be bearing fruit. In Uganda, condom use has increased, youths are delaying the age at which sexual intercourse first occurs, and overall rates of HIV infection have been going down. Sex Education

50 Sex Education in Egypt Egypt teaches knowledge about male and female reproductive systems, sexual organs, contraception and STDs in public schools at the second and third years of the middle-preparatory phase (when students are aged 12–14). There is currently a coordinated program between UNDP, UNICEF, and the ministries of health and education to promote sexual education at a larger scale in rural areas and spread awareness of dangers of female circumcision Sex Education

51 Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth
These youth are often ignored in sex education classes, including a frequent lack of discussion about safer sex practices for manual, oral, and anal sex, despite these activities' different risk levels for sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Education

52 ? Promotion of Homosexuality
Some believe that including this additional information might be seen as encouraging homosexual behavior. Proponents of such comprehensive curricula hold that by excluding discussion of these issues or the issues of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderedness, feelings of isolation, loneliness, guilt and shame as well as depression are made much worse for students who belong or believe they may belong to one of these categories, or are unsure of their sexual identity. It reduces the likelihood of suicide, sexually transmitted disease, 'acting out' and maladaptive behavior in these students. Sex Education

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