Presentation on theme: "OUR TARGETS Cognitive lecture Cognitive psychology An approach to psychology which focuses on the relationship between cognitive or mental processes and."— Presentation transcript:
OUR TARGETS Cognitive lecture Cognitive psychology An approach to psychology which focuses on the relationship between cognitive or mental processes and behavior.
Targets of the Cognitive analysis General learning outcomes Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis. Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis. Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of analysis. Cognitive processes Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies Evaluate two models of theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process Cognitive processes Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive process reliable? Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes Cognition and emotion To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process SOURCE JOHN CRANE PSYCH-IB SYLLABUS
General theorists to know Hermann Ebbinghaus, Tversky and Kahnemann, Jean Piaget, Leon Festinger, Frederic Bartlett, Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis.Hermann Ebbinghaus Tversky and Kahnemann Jean PiagetLeon FestingerFrederic Bartlett Aaron BeckAlbert Ellis Memory Research (some is biological): Atkinson & Shiffrin, Craik & Lockhart, Flourens & Lashley, Thompson, Brown & Kulik, Milner, Morris, Cole & Scribner, Elizabeth Loftus.Atkinson & ShiffrinCraik & LockhartFlourens & LashleyThompsonBrown & KulikMilnerMorrisCole & ScribnerElizabeth Loftus SOURCE JOHN CRANE PSYCH-IB SYLLABUS
IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Theorists did not agree with behaviorism (stimulus and response) Cognitive Perspective involves the following: 1.Computer Technology and Artificial Intelligence Norbert Wiener-created the term cybernetics to refer to any system that has built-in correction mechanisms, i.e. is self-steering. John Crane Also the terms feedback, input and output. Alan Turing- The Turing Machine idea which is a computer.(1936) Considered the father of Computer Science. Ludwig von Bertalanffy- “Modern Theories of Development, where he introduced the question of whether we could explain biology in purely physical terms” 2. Linguistics Noam Chomsky-generative grammar-create new sentences which never been spoken before. Interested in the organization of language, mental structure and “believed that language was species-specific (human only). All these make him truly “cognitive”.”-John Crane
IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE 3.Studies on the develop of knowledge Jean Piaget-known as the creator of cognitive psychology. Creator of the term “genetic epistemology-meaning the study of the development of knowledge.”-John Crane “Infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills. These skills he called schemas (e.g. assimilation, accommodation).” 4.Famous theorists of Cognitive Psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus-meaningfulness of syllables, memorization and relearning old material. Tolman-cognitive maps animals have an internal representation of behavior. Kohler-insight learning with apes-problem solving Bartlett-existence of schemas Bandura-observation learning
IDENTIFY IMPORTANT FACTORS THAT GAVE RISE TO THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE 5.First Cognitive Psychologists Donald Hebb – “Finding of the Hebb synapse,Hebb cell assembly which is called. consolidation theory, and is the most accepted explanation for neural learning today. Thinking is what happens when complex sequences of these cell assemblies are activated. He humbly suggested that his theory is just a new version of connectionism.”-John Crane George A. Miller- limits to short-term memory could only hold about seven pieces called chunks. Ulric Neisser –” research interests include memory, especially memory for life events and in natural settings; intelligence, especially individual and group differences in test scores, IQ tests and their social significance; self-concepts, especially as based on self-perception.”-John Crane
The Cognitive Level of Analysis Main focus and assumptions Cognition - is the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired. Focus on the following humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (stimuli) and how this treatment leads to responses. interested in the variables that intervene between stimulus/input and response/output. Perception, Attention, Memory and Language. –Perception acquiring knowledge –Attention concerned with acquisition. –Memory deals with organizing and retaining knowledge –Language –how we use it for knowledge
Information Processing Model work with models of the human mind study processes that are not directly observable BASIC INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL INPUT PROCESSES Concerned with perception & sensory registration STORAGE & RELATED PROCESSES Concerned with elaborating, manipulating, selecting & storing info OUTPUT PROCESSES Concerned with production of appropriate responses Input Output Information Processing STIMULUS INPUT PROCESSES STORAGE RELATED PROCESSES OUTPUT PROCESSES RESPONSE
OUR TARGETS Perception and Motivation-Emotion Lecture Complete Video
Broadbent’s (1958) idea that much of cognition consists of a sequence of stages (input/attention/perception, storage, retrieval) One application of the information processing model: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is the science of making machines do the sort of things that are done by human minds (Boden 1987). Computer metaphor involves viewing the brain as being like a computer. “AI models assume the human mind functions in an analogous way to the computer and so in AI, computers are tools that are used to try and understand how information is processed by the human mind”- John Crane
THEORIES OF PERCEPTION Each sense organ is part of a sensory system which receives sensory inputs and transmits sensory information to the brain. A major theoretical issue on which psychologists are divided is the extent to which perception relies directly on the information present in the stimulus. Some argue that perceptual processes are not direct, but depend on the perceiver's expectations and previous knowledge as well as the information available in the stimulus itself. EXPLAINING PERCEPTION - A TOP-DOWN APPROACH Helmholtz ( )-founder of perceptual research. sensations and our conscious perception of the real world there must be intermediate processes. believed perception is more than direct registration of sensations, but that other events intervene between stimulation and experience.
PERCEPTIONS AS HYPOTHESES - R L GREGORY (B 1923) signals received by the sensory receptors trigger neural events, and appropriate knowledge interacts with these inputs to enable us to makes sense of the world. we respond to certain objects as though they are doors even though we can only see a long narrow rectangle as the door is ajar. Perceptions can be ambiguous PERCEPTUAL SET "a perceptual bias or predisposition or readiness to perceive particular features of a stimulus". Allport 1955 Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. According to Vernon, 1955 set works in two ways: – (1) The perceiver has certain expectations and focuses attention on particular aspects of the sensory data: This he calls a 'Selector'. –(2) The perceiver knows how to classify, understand and name selected data and what inferences to draw from it. This he calls an 'Interpreter'. Factors that influence Expectations Emotion Motivation Culture
Expectation- Bruner & Minturn, 1955 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Allport, 1955 has distinguished 6 types of motivational-emotional influence on perception: (i) bodily needs (eg physiological needs) (ii) reward and punishment (iii) emotional connotation (iv) individual values (v) personality (vi) the value of objects. STUDY Gilchrist & Nesberg 1952, found participants who had gone without food for the longest periods were more likely to rate pictures of food as brighter. This effect did not occur with non-food Pictures.
CULTURE Deregowski perceiving perspective in drawings is in fact a specific cultural skill, which is learned rather than automatic Several cultures prefer drawings which don't show perspective, but instead are split so as to show both sides of an object at the same time
MISUNDERSTOOD LYRICS Our Targets Selective listening Activity Write as many lyrics down Take your lyrics and come up with the meaning Are you correct? Perceptual Set
Outline one key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can be used to explain behaviour SELECTIVE ATTENTION Is your ability to pick and choose among various available inputs. SELECTION THEORY(1960) –DONALD BROADBENT ARGUED THAT WE ATTEND TO ONLY ONE OF THE MANY CHANNELS OF INFORMATION REACHING US AT ANY TIME BECAUSE THESE CHANNELS ARE LIMITED. –DICHOTIC LISTENING TASK, SUBJECTS COULD REPORT HEARING THEIR NAME IN THE CHANNEL THEY HAD BEEN INSTRUCTED TO IGNORE. OTHERS WERE TOLD TO IGNORE ONE CHANEL BUT WERE ABLE TO REPORT THE FLOW OF A COMPLETE STORY EVEN THOUGH THE STORY WAS SWITCHED WITHOUT WARNING TO THE IGNORED CHANNEL. ATTENUATION THEORY(1964) –ANNE TREISBENT’S FILTER SHE TOOK BROADBENTS STUDY AND SUPPRESSED OTHER CHANNELS BUT DID NOT ELIMINATE THEM. ACCORDING TO HER STUDY INFORMATION WAS STILL BEING PROCESSED.
Outline one key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can be used to explain behaviour RESULTS FROM THESE STUDIES –SELECTIVE ATTENTION DOES NOT BLOCK OUT ALL STIMULI. – ASSUME THAT YOU WILL FIRST ANALYZE THE VARIETY OF INFORMATION AND YOU WILL THEN FOCUS ON A SELECT FEW AND DIRECT MOST OF YOUR CONSCIOUS ATTENTION TO THEM. What makes one input more important than another? 1.INFORMATION THAT LEADS TO MORE SATISFACTION TO AN URGENT NEED SUCH AS HUNGER 2.PRIORITY TO INPUTS THAT ARE STRANGE OR NOVEL. EXAMPLE IF YOU ARE AT A FORMAL PARTY AND SOMEONE COMES IN NUDE. 3.PRIORITY TO INTEREST SUCH AS HEARING YOUR NAME. OR WHEN YOU BECOME INTERESTED IN A HOBBY YOU START TO NOTICE IT EVERYWHERE.
OUR TARGETS FEATURE EXTRACTION LECTURE GENIE THE WILD CHILD
Outline one key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can be used to explain behaviour FEATURE EXTRACTION Is your way of deciding which aspects of the selected channels you will focus on. Extract the significant features of an input helps a person to identify it and compare it to other inputs. Feature extraction depends on experience on knowing what to look for. Example-Looking for the “juicy” parts in a book.
OUR TARGETS MEMORY, MEMORY
Outline one key concept from the cognitive perspective and show how it can be used to explain behaviour STORING INFORMATION We call this memory. Sensory storage only holds information for only a second. Short term memory keeps it in mind as long as you repeat it. Long term memory can store it indefinitely. SHORT TERM MEMORY Ways to move items from short term memory to long term memory. Rehearsal REPETITION
Chunking- breaking up items. Grouping them in how they are related.
HOW MANY DOTS DO YOU SEE!!!!!!
WE REMEMBER NEW PHONE #’S IN TWO TO THREE CHUNKS OR FOR THIS TO MOVE INTO LONG TERM WE NEED TO REHEARSE LONG TERM MEMORY This is where we store information for future use.
OUR TARGETS Models of memory RETRIEVING INFORMATION LECTURE
Identify one research method used by psychologists working within the cognitive perspective and describe how this method has been applied in one empirical study OTHER MODELS OF MEMORY ENDEL TULVING(1972) SEMANITIC MEMORY- OUR OWN KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE, RULES AND WORDS. WE SHARE WITH OTHERS WHO SPEAK OUR LANGUAGE. EPISODIC MEMORY- MEMORY OF OUR OWN LIFE L.R. SQUIRE(1987) DECLARITIVE MEMORY-(EXPLICIT MEMORY) INCLUDES BOTH SEMANITIC AND EPISODIC MEMORY. YOU USE THIS WHEN YOU NEED IT. (CONSCIOUS) ROEDIGER (1990) PROCEDURAL MEMORY- (IMPLICIT MEMORY) DOES NOT REQUIRE CONSCIOUS RECOLLECTION TO HAVE PAST LEARNING OR EXPERIENCES IMPACT OUR PERFORMANCES. PROCEDURAL MEMORY INVOLVES SKILLS LEARNED AS WE MATURE SUCH AS DRIVING A CAR OR LEARNING TO TIE YOUR SHOES. AS WE GAIN SKILL WE WILL LEARN THE ABILITY TO DESCRIBE WHAT WE ARE DOING. IT WILL ACTUALLY SLOW US DOWN.
ANOTHER FORM OF PROCEDURAL MEMORY IS PRIMING. ASSASSIN BARREL MONKEY _SS_SS__ BARR__ MO__EY HOW LONG DID IT TAKE YOU TO GET THE PUZZLE RIGHT?
M_ _ E _ _ Y R _ _ _ I _ YE C_ _ C _ _NG _ _ R_ MILEY CYRUS KIMYE CATCHING FIRE HOW LONG DID IT TAKE YOU THIS TIME?
OUR TARGETS COGNITIVE LECTURE Memory and the Brain –THINKING –PROBLEM SOLVING –EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATION LECTURE
MEMORY AND THE BRAIN SOME PSYCHOLOGISTS THEORIZE IT IS CHANGE IN THE NEURONAL STRUCTURE OF NERVES. OTHERS CONTEND THAT LEARNING IS BASED ON THE MOLECULAR OR CHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE BRAIN. PROCEDURAL MEMORIES- INVOLVES ACTIVITY IN YOUR BRAIN CALLED THE STRIATUM, DEEP IN THE FRONT PART OF YOUR CORTEX. DECLARATIVE MEMORIES RESULT FROM ACTIVITY IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND AMYGDALA. (MISHKIN & PETRI 1984) IT IS NOT CLEAR HOW NERVE CELLS (NEURONS) ESTABLISH CONNECTIONS WITH ONE ANOTHER WHEN LEARNING OCCURS. COMPLEX PROCESS OF CHEMICALS PRECEDES THE FORMATION OF NEW CONNECTIONS OF NEURONS. INCREASE LEVELS OF CALCIUM, PROTEIN AND LEVELS OF GLUCOSE. HAVE BEEN EVIDENT WITH NEW BRAIN RESEARCH. (KALAT 1992) WHAT TYPE OF FOOD WOULD HELP WITH MEMORY ACCORDING TO THIS STUDY?
RETRIEVING INFORMATION Recognition provides insight how information is stored in memory. Recall is the active reconstruction of information. deals with attitudes and personal knowledge. Eidetic memory-photographic memory only 5% of us has that. Relearning Forgetting-inputs fade away and disappear. IMPROVING MEMORY 1. Associate items with things you know. 2. Don’t over learn or over study. Study a little at a time. 3. Mnemonic devices are techniques using associations to memorize information.
OUR TARGETS COGNITIVE LECTURE Memory and the Brain –THINKING –PROBLEM SOLVING –EMOTIONS AND MOTIVATIO N LECTURE
As the class settled in for another day filled with various lessons, Ms. Frogster instructed everyone to put their books away as they were going to do something a bit different today. She then handed a stack of papers to Frogella and instructed her to hand one to each student. Once this had been done, Ms. Frogster explained to the class what they were to do with the strange looking list they were given. "Class, you will see that you have a list of several different clues which, when solved, will tell you what you will need to complete today's assignment. Today, we are having a Christmas Scavenger Hunt! First, you must figure out what each numbered set of clues refer to in order to come up with the Christmas articles which are hidden about the classroom. If everyone is ready, let's get set and begin!" 1. To strike with a quick or light blow + a sharp high pitched sound + material you write on. 2. Total inorganic nitrogen + opposite of buy. 3. A walnut, almond or pecan is a ___ + a thin crisp biscuit or wafer usually eaten with soup. 4. A courtesy title before the surname of a single woman + right angle addition to a main building + a digit on your foot. 5. An apple, pear or peach is a piece of _____ + on your birthday you blow out the candles on your birthday ____. 6. A storage box with a lid such as a pirate's treasure _____ + small pieces of wood/metal designed to secure screws or bolts. 7. What falls as drops of water from the clouds + a term used for a beloved one
THINKING Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory in order to create new information. Units of thought Image a mental representation of a specific event or object. SymbolSymbol a sound or design that represents an object quality. Concept is when a symbol is used to label a class of objects. Ex: animals. Concept helps us chunk large information. Directed thinking is a systematic and logical attempt to reach a specific goal. Non directed thinking has no order and tends to random. PROBLEM SOLVING Strategies-specific methods. Set-when a particular strategy becomes a habit. Creativity Is the ability to use information in such a way that the result is somehow new, original and meaningful. Flexibility The ability to overcome rigidity. Recombination when the elements of the problem are familiar but the solution is not. Insight Occurs when the problems have proved resistant to all problem solving efforts and strategies. Frustration happens and you stop and temporarily abandon the task but recombination happens at the unconscious level. And you have an “AHA” experience. An epiphany happens and you solve the proble m.
EMOTION/ MOTIVATION THEORY BRIEF BIO HISTORY Genetics – evolutionary theory Homeostatic drive theories (Cannon 1929) – Hypothalamic theory – Glucostatic theory ( Tardoff, 82) – Lipostatic theory Drive-reduction theory ( Hull, 1943) –physiological needs + psychological drives. Hierarchy of needs ( Maslow, 1954) Cognitive theories of motivation –combine with social motivational needs or desires Curiosity (need to explore), cognitive consistency (to think and act in consistent way - Festinger), need for control (to assert control over one’s life – otherwise, e.g. learned helplessness), need for achievement (MacClelland – Thematic Appreciation Test). (Crane 2013)
OUR TARGETS NOTES ALL DAY Cognitive labeling theory Cognitive appraisal theory Role of brain structures Optical Illusions (perception) Crash Course Perceiving Sensation Perception
Cognitive labeling theory – Schachter and Singer (’62) all emotional experiences are preceded by a generalized state of arousal. The nature of the subjective experience is determined (“labelled”) by the individual’s cognitive assessment based on external, situational cues or internal ones such as imagination. – the study emotions are learned, as an emotional label is derived from previous experiences of emotion in similar situations. Cognitive appraisal theory – extension of the above – Lazarus (’91) – the experience of emotion is related to how one appraises it – his study: participants who viewed a film of industrial accidents experienced less stress if told that the characters were actors (denial condition) or were asked to consider the film in terms of its value for promoting safety at work (intellectualization) than when given no instructions.
EMOTION/ MOTIVATION THEORY James-Lange theory of emotion (1880’s) bodily changes come first and form the basis of an emotional experience Cannon-Bard theory of emotion – (1927) changes of emotional state and changes in ANS occur simultaneously Role of brain structures The Papez circuit (’37) – hypothalamus (emotional expression) + limbic system (emotional feeling); (-) it is oversimplified; Papez-MacLean limbic model (‘49) – improvements to Papez, increased emphasis on the hippocampus and amygdala (:aggression). (-) the model deals mainly with high-intensity emotions, such as rage and fear. LeDoux’s modified limbic theory (‘95) – two separate brain circuits involved in emotion: rapid emotional response (thalamus – amygdala) and slower emotional response (thalamus – cortex, thereby affected by higher mental processes) the limbic system is a network of structures in the forebrain, including the hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex.
Optical Illusions An optical illusion (also called a visual illusion) is characterized by visually perceived images that differ from objective reality. visually perceived The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a percept that does not tally with a physical measurement of the stimulus source. percept Physiological ones that are the effects on the eyes and brain of excessive stimulation of a specific type (brightness, tilt, color, movement) Cognitive illusions where the eye and brain make unconscious inferences. They can also be known as "mind games".ognitive Changizi, Mark A. et al. (2008): Perceiving the Present and a Systematization of Illusions. Cognitive Science 32,3 :
EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY In 1976 the Devlin Committee analyzed all the identification parades held in England & Wales during 1973 and found that when a suspect had been picked out 82% were subsequently convicted (Baddeley, 1993) Nickerson & Adams (1975) also found that people are very poor at recalling the appearance of objects seen every day. They asked subjects to draw what was represented on each issue of a US penny. They found that on average people could only remember around three out of eight critical features and even those features recalled were often placed wrongly. THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Attentional Focus evidence suggests that memory of a violent event is stronger than that for a neutral event (Baddeley, 1993). For example, Loftus (1975) found that subjects tend to focus on the weapon rather than on the appearance of the assailant.
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Relapse-Prevention Training eyewitnesses are often asked leading questions. LOFTUS one study people watched a film of a car crash and one group were then asked, “About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Other groups were asked the same question, but the word hit was replaced with either smashed, collided, bumped or contacted. She found that speed estimates were highest (40.8 mph) when the word smashed was used, lower with collided (39.3 mph) and lower still with bumped (38.1 mph). The lowest estimates were from hit (34 mph) and contacted (31.8 mph). Added to this, when the same subjects were contacted a week later and asked about whether there had been any broken glass, those who had been presented with the word smashed were consistently more likely to report (incorrectly) that glass had been broken.
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Changing recollection eyewitnesses are often asked leading questions. LOFTUS it is possible to change a witness’s recollection by subtly introducing new information during questioning. Subjects were shown a series of slides representing a traffic accident in which a pedestrian was knocked down at a pelican crossing. A green car drove past the accident without stopping, a police car arrived, and a passenger from one of the cars in the accident ran for help. Subjects were asked 12 questions about the incident. Question 10 made reference to the blue car that drove past the accident. When asked 20 minutes later to recall the colour of the car that drove by without stopping who have been given the false information tended to choose blue or bluish-green rather than green!
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Theoretical Interpretation LOFTUS “false memories” were not due to social pressure, lack of confidence or failure to notice important information in the first place. She argues that it is the actual memory trace itself that is changed by subsequent information. It appears that what we remember is a combination of what we see and what we subsequently think. Bekerian & Bowers argue that the original trace survives and can be retrieved given the correct retrieval cues. Morton (1995) who makes a distinction between primary memory records and secondary memory records. He suggests that primary records are the way in which particular events are represented in the brain and are laid down at the time of the event itself (like episodic memory). When you then try to recall an event you create a secondary record. The secondary record results from the retrieval of primary records. Therefore, there will be two records: the event itself and the recall of the event subsequently. The secondary record may well be distorted by leading questions and by information from semantic memory, but the primary record will not be altered at all: given the correct retrieval cue, therefore, it could be recalled intact.
OUR TARGETS Introduction to Cognitive Project IB Cognitive Psychology Project Requirements Creating a 5 slide PowerPoint on your study You need to include the following: A video that represents your study What was the aim or hypothesis of the study Who conducted the study, materials, participants, method and design of study Brief bio on the researchers One specific new study that relate to yours Why is this study relevant to Cognitive Psychology? Look at Cognitive Targets Small replication of the study and example Each person in your group will have to teach a slide. Presentations of this study will start December 15. You will receive class time to work on this project but use your time wisely. WORK PLAN-DUE TOMORROW B. PERIOD
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Theoretical Interpretation Are you likely to claim “I never forget a face”? How justifiable is such a claim? Woodhead & Baddeley (1981) carried out a study in which 100 Cambridge housewives were shown a series of unfamiliar faces and then asked to recognize them when they were re-presented together with a series of similar, but new faces. These housewives were also asked how good they thought their memory of faces was. There were huge differences between how well they performed in the recognition test and how good they though their memory was. memory for faces depends on a particular system located in a special part of the brain Accuracy of face recognition Penry invented the Photo-fit, which comprises a box containing sets of features (chins, noses, eyes etc.) which can be put together to form a face. Penry believed that in order to perceive and remember a human face one has to abstract the various features and categorise them systematically. the perception of a face depends on processing the pattern of features, paying attention to the way in which each feature is related to another, rather than isolating individual features.
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Accuracy of face recognition Penry invented the Photo-fit, which comprises a box containing sets of features (chins, noses, eyes etc.) which can be put together to form a face. Penry believed that in order to perceive and remember a human face one has to abstract the various features and categorise them systematically. the perception of a face depends on processing the pattern of features, paying attention to the way in which each feature is related to another, rather than isolating individual features. Identity Parades the suspect is presented together with a number of non-suspects who look broadly like the suspect subtle influences: criminal as good-looking it would be important to find out what was meant by “good-looking” bias in recognition in an identity parade is clothing. This issue was studied by Thomson (1983) who showed that the clothing worn by a criminal could cause someone else wearing similar clothes to be identified as the perpetrator of the crime.
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Identity Parades subtle influences: Thomson (1983) also reported a case that actually happened to him. He was arrested and placed in a line-up, identified and charged with rape. He said that at the time the rape had taken place he was taking part in a television discussion (on, strangely enough, the unreliability of eyewitness testimony!) and could not have committed the rape. It turned out that the woman had been 7 raped while watching the program and had correctly recognized his face but had incorrectly assigned his face to the crime. This is called unconscious transference. identity parade includes the criminal. Since this may not be the case, then there is clearly a danger that that false identifications will be encourage. Witnesses will assume the criminal is in the line-up and may feel pressured to come up with a positive identification. One way of avoiding this is to present the people in the line-up one at a time, without telling the witness how many people will be presented to them. Lindsey et al (1991) tried this and found that this kind of sequential presentation reduced the occasions on which subjects identified an innocent person. SOURCE-DIRECTLY FROM-
THE RELIABILITY OF WITNESSES Person Memory Memory for people and events is thought to be of two types: episodic and semantic Memory for people seems to fall into three categories (Fiske & Cox,1979) 1.memory for appearance: what the person looked like and was wearing. This is the first thing that people tend to recall and is directly retrievable from episodic memory because it can actually be observed. 2.memory for behavior: what the person was doing. This is the second thing that people tend to recall and can also be retrieved directly from episodic memory. 3.memory for traits: what kind of person they were. This is the last think that people recall and, because it involves inference, is usually the least reliable. It is not directly observable and may involve information from semantic memory. Memory for personality traits tends to be of two types (Rosenberg & Sedlak, 1972) (a) social desirability-(b) competence characteristics remembering the assailant in an attack then you will tend to be swayed by your assumptions about their social desirability and competence. Another thing that seems to improve person memory is encouraging someone to imagine themselves in the other person’s shoes (Havey et al, 1980); doing this helps them recall more about the other person.
STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES (+)Cognitive psychology uses the laboratory experimental method. (-) laboratory experimentation seems culture-biased and gender-biased. (+) scientific based (+) uses humans in their experiments (+) brain scanning techniques for memory, attention, problem solving (: the field of cognitive neuropsychology (+) case studies on damaged brain patients (-) poor representativeness, poor experimental control More Methods Used field experiment (+) natural conditions, (-) poor control of extraneous variables, not verbal protocol – people reporting on how they solve a problem (-) problem of introspection – subjectivity; verbal report observation questionnaires
OUR TARGETS COGNITIVE REVIEW READ ARTICLES AT YOUR TABLES AS A GROUP CREATE A STUDY GUIDE SUMMARY OF ARTICLE. YOU WILL DO THIS ON POSTER PAPER CONNECT ARTICLE TO ONE OR MORE OF THE COGNITIVE TARGETS DUE AT THE END OF THE PERIOD KEEP ARTICLE REFERENCE THIS WEEK INFO TOMORROW YOU WILL RECEIVE ARTICLE TO PREPARE YOU FOR SOCRATIC SEMINAR ON WED THURSDAY COGNITIVE REVIEW FRIDAY COGNITIVE TEST