Presentation on theme: "Remember - “you and I can decide the future”"— Presentation transcript:
1Remember - “you and I can decide the future” E-Weekly-5/17Green Earth MovementAn E-Newsletter for the cause of Environment, Peace, Harmony and JusticeRemember - “you and I can decide the future”G E MCOAL MININGANDECOLOGY
2Coal is a black or brownish-black shiny rock and most of it is buried deep underground so we must "mine" or dig it out. Finding coal used to be done by people called prospectors. Today it is done by geologists.
3Coal forms from organic material that decays andexperiences pressure andheat for millions of years.Since they take so long toform, fossil fuels like coaland oil are nonrenewable. The process to generate energy from coal involves mining the coal, then transporting, cleaning and burning it. Water heated by burning coal converts into steam and generates electricity. Each stage of this process generates pollution. However, plans to reduce its pollution output may improve coal's standing as an energy source.
4 Advantages of Coal Energy It's easily transported to many areas in the worldInexpensive to buy on open market due to large reserves and easy access ability Coal is the least expensive fossilfuel because it is rather simpleto mineCoal powered generation scaleswell, which makes it possible tobuild a variety of sizes of generationplantsSince coal is a fossil fuel, it can be used to build power stations almost anywhere as long as there are large amounts of it
5Coal is mined by two methods: surface or 'opencast' mining COAL MINING METHODSCoal is mined by two methods:surface or 'opencast' miningunderground or 'deep' mining
6The choice of mining method is largely determined by the geology of the coal deposit. Underground mining currently accounts for abigger share of world coalproduction than opencast;although in severalimportant coal producingcountries surface miningis more common. For example, surface mining accounts for around 80% of production in Australia; while in the USA it is used for about 67% of production.
71] Strip miningStrip mining (also known as open cast, mountaintop or surface mining) involves scraping away earth and rocks to get to coal buried near the surface. In many cases, mountains are literally blasted apart to reach thin coal seams within, leaving permanent scars on the landscape as a result.
8Strip mining accounts for about 40 percent of the world’s coal mines but in some countries, such as Australia, open cast mines make up 80 percent of mines. Even though it's highly destructive, industry often prefers strip mining as it requires less labour and yields more coal than underground mining.
9Impacts of strip mining: → Strip mining destroyslandscapes, forests andwildlife habitats at the siteof the mine when trees,plants, and topsoil arecleared from the miningarea. This in turn leads tosoil erosion and destruction of agricultural land.→ When rain washes the loosened top soil into streams, sediments pollute waterways. This can hurt fish and smother plant life downstream, and cause disfiguration of river channels and streams, which leads to flooding.
10→ There is an increased risk of chemical contamination of ground water when minerals in upturned earth seepinto the water table,and watersheds aredestroyed whendisfigured land losesthe water it once held.→ Strip mining causes dust and noise pollution when top soil is disrupted with heavy machinery and coal dust is created in mines.
11The result of all this is barren land that stays contaminated long after a coal mine shuts down. Although many countries require reclamation plans for coal mining sites, undoing all the environmental damages to water supplies, destroyed habitats, and poor air quality is a long and problematic task. This land disturbance is on a vast scale. In the US, between 1930 and 2000, coal mining altered about 2.4 million hectares [5.9 million acres] of natural landscape, most of it originally forest.
12Attempts to re-seedland destroyed bycoal mining isdifficult because themining process hasso thoroughlydamaged the soil. For example, in Montana, replanting projects had a success rate of only percent, while in some places in Colorado only 10 percent of oak aspen seedlings that were planted survived.
13In China, coal mining has degraded the quality of land of an estimated 3.2 million hectares,according to a 2004estimate. The overallrestoration rate(the ratio of reclaimedland area to the totaldegraded land area) of mine wasteland was only about 10–12 percent.
142] Underground miningThe majority of the world’s coal is obtained through underground mines. While underground mining, which allows coal companies to extract deeper deposits of coal, is viewed as less destructive than strip mining, it still causes widespread damage to the environment. In room-and-pillar mines, columns of coal are left to support the ground above during the initial mining process,then they are often taken out andthe mine is left to collapse, whichis known as subsidence. In longwallmines, mechanical shearers stripthe coal from the mines. Supportstructures that enable the shearers’ access to the mine are eventually removed, and the mine collapses.
15Impacts of underground mining Underground mining causes huge amounts of waste earth and rock to be brought to the surface – waste thatoften becomes toxic when it comes intocontact with air and water.It causes subsidence as mines collapseand the land above it starts to sink. Thiscauses serious damage to buildings.It lowers the water table, changing theflow of groundwater and streams. In Germany for example, over 500 million cubic metres of water are pumped out of the ground every year. Only a small percentage of this is used by industry or local towns – the rest is wasted. What’s worse is that removing so much water creates a kind of funnel that drains water from an area much larger than the immediate coal-mining environment. Coal mining produces also greenhouse gas emissions.
16Coal mine methaneCoal mine methane, less prevalent in the atmosphere than CO2, but 20 times as powerful as a greenhouse gas, forms during the geological formation of coal, and is released during the coal mining process. Most coal mine methane come from underground mines. While this methane is often captured and used as town fuel, industrial fuel, chemical feedstock and vehicle fuel, it’s very rare that it all gets used.Methane is also used in power generation projects. However, despite big investment in research, onlyabout 50 such projects exist worldwide.In China, which mines more than 95percent of its coal underground, about300 of the state-owned mines areclassified as methane-outburst prone.Worldwide emissions are expectedto increase by 20 percent in the next 12 years.
17Coal firesCoal fires - burning or smouldering coal seams, coal storage piles or coal waste piles –are a significant environmentalproblem in many countries,including China, Russia, the US,Indonesia, Australia and SouthAfrica. Underground coal firescan burn for centuries, fillingthe atmosphere with smokeladen with carbon-monoxide(CO), carbon-dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxides (NOx) and other greenhouse or toxic gases - as well as fly ash from vents and fissures.
18Other effects of coal fires include rising surface temperatures and contamination of groundwater, soil and air.Although coal fires can be caused bythunderstorm lightning, and forest orpeat fires, they are often caused bymining accidents and improper miningtechniques. In Indonesia, the same firesthat are used to clear large tracts of rainforest have ignited over 300 coal fires since the 1980s.China has the world’s most coal fires, while India accounts for the world’s greatest concentration. In China, between 15 and 20 million tons of coal burn uncontrollably each year, accounting for between 0.1 percent and 1 percent of the world’s human-induced CO2 emissions, (Although coal fires are significant, emissions from power plants are far higher.)
19Acid mine drainageAcid mine drainage is created when water mixes with coal and other rocks unearthed during mining, taking on toxic levels of minerals and heavy metals. This toxic water leaks out of abandoned mines to contaminate groundwater, streams, soil, plants, animals and humans. As a result an orange colour can blanket the river, estuaryor sea bed killing plants andmaking surface waterunusable as drinking water. Sources of acid minedrainage can remainactive for decades or centuries after a mine closes.
20Common health threats posed by coal mining: Pneumoconiosis, aka black lung disease or CWP,is caused when miners breathe in coal dust andcarbon, which harden the lungs. Estimates showthat 1,200 people in the US still die from blackLung disease annually. The situation in developingcountries is even worse.Cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease have been found in higher-than-normal rates among residents who live near coal mines, according to a 2001 US study.Toxic levels of arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are emitted by coal fires, entering the air and the food chain of those living nearby.Mine collapses and accidents kill thousands of workers around the world every year. Chinese coal mine accidents killed 4,700 people in 2006.
21COAL MINING IN INDIACoal reserves in India is one of the largest in the world. As on April 1, 2012, India had 293.5 billion metric tons (323.5 billion short tons) of the resource.The production of coal was million metric tons (587.19 million shorttons) in The production of lignite was 37.73 million metric tons(41.59 million short tons) inAs on 2011, India ranked 3rd in worldcoal production. The energy derived from coal in India is about twice that of energy derived from oil, whereas worldwide, energy derived from coal is about 30% less than energy derived from oil.
22Right from its genesis, the commercial coal mining in modern times in India has been dictated by the needs of the domestic consumption. India’s has abundant domestic reserves of coal. Most of these are in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa, WestBengal, Bihar,Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh. On account of the growing needs of the steel industry, a thrust had to be given on systematic exploitation of coking coal reserves in Jharia Coalfield. Adequate capital investment to meet the burgeoning energy needs of the country was not forthcoming from the private coal mine owners.
23Unscientific mining practices adopted by some of them and poor working conditions of labor in some of the private coal mines became matters of concern for the Government. On accountof these reasons, the CentralGovernment took a decisionto nationalize the privateCoal mines.The nationalisation was done in two phases, the first with the coking coal mines in and then with the non-coking coal mines in 1973.
24India is poised to contend with China as the globe's top consumer of coal, with 455 power plantspreparing to comeonline, a prominentenvironmental researchgroup has concluded.The coal plants in India'spipeline -- almost 100more than China is preparing to build -- would deliver 519,396 megawatts of installed generating capacity. That is only slightly less than pending new capacity in China, which remains the undisputed king of coal consumption.
25Environmentalists called the numbers alarming, but coal industry leaders said the plants are not enough to meet the world's energy needs."We need more. We need more of everything -- wind power, renewables, hydro. But we will certainly need more coal," said Milton Catelin, CEO of the World Coal Association. He argued that with 1.5 billion people still living without access to electricity, coal needs to grow.
26"The truth is, if you go to India and talk to people where these are being built, the power is being exported to the urban centers and the pollution is staying in the local communities. There is no correlation between supply and the poor getting power, and this is the story that nobody talks about.“
27This educational PowerPoint Presentation (editable) is prepared by GEM Team (courtesy: internet).For other similar GEM PowerPoint Presentations on various environmental issues see next slide.These PPTs may be downloaded from our websiteOr visit GEM FACEBOOK
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