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STUDYING Things you should know Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice.

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1 STUDYING Things you should know Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

2 What is Psychology? Psychology is the science of the mind and behaviour. The word "psychology" comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul", and the Greek word logia meaning “the study of something”. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, psychology is "The profession concerned with the behaviour of humans and animals, and related mental and physiologic processes." Although psychology may also include the study of the mind and behaviour of animals, psychology refers mainly to humans. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

3 How do psychologists study the mind? The mind is highly complex and enigmatic. Many wonder how psychologists can study such an intricate, seemingly abstract and extremely sophisticated thing. Even if scientists look inside the brain, as in an autopsy or during a surgical operation, all they see is gray matter (the brain). Thoughts, cognition, emotions, memories, dreams, perceptions, etc. cannot be seen physically, like a skin rash or heart defect. Experts say that the approach to psychology is not that different to other sciences. As in other sciences, experiments are devised to confirm or disprove theories or expectations. For a physicist, the raw data during the experiments may be atoms, electrons, the application or withdrawal of heat, while for the psychologist,human behaviour is the raw data. For a psychologist, human behaviour is used as evidence - or at least an indication - of how the mind functions. We are unable to observe the mind directly; however, virtually all our actions, feelings and thoughts are influenced by the functioning of our minds. That is why human behaviour is used as raw data for testing psychological theories on how the mind functions. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

4 A brief History of Psychology When psychology was first established as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behaviour began. The different schools of psychology represent the major theories within psychology. The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology.Wilhelm Wundt In the past, psychologists often identified themselves exclusively with one single school of thought. Today, most psychologists have an eclectic outlook on psychology. They often draw on ideas and theories from different schools rather than holding to any singular outlook. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

5 Schools of Thought Structuralism & Functionalism StructuralismStructuralism was the first school of psychology, and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Major structuralist thinkers include Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. The focus of structuralism was on reducing mental processes down into their most basic elements. Structuralists used techniques such as introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind. FunctionalismFunctionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of William James. Major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr. Instead of focusing on the mental processes themselves, functionalist thinkers were instead interested in the role that these processes play.William JamesJohn Dewey Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

6 Behaviourism Behaviourism became a dominant school of thought during the 1950s. It was based upon the work of thinkers such as: John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov B. F. Skinner Behaviourism suggests that all behaviour can be explained by environmental causes rather than by internal forces. Behaviorism is focused on observable behaviour. Theories of learning including classical conditioning and operant conditioning were the focus of a great deal of research Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

7 Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. This school of thought emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behaviour. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego and the superego. The id is composed of primal urges, while the ego is the component of personality charged with dealing with reality. The superego is the part of personality that holds all of the ideals and values we internalize from our parents and culture. Freud believed that the interaction of these three elements was what led to all of the complex human behaviours. Freud's school of thought was enormously influential, but also generated a great deal of controversy. This controversy existed not only in his time, but also in modern discussions of Freud's theories Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

8 Humanistic Psychology Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviourism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self- actualization. While early schools of thought were largely centred on abnormal human behaviour, humanistic psychology differed considerably in its emphasis on helping people achieve and fulfil their potential. Major humanist thinkers include: Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers. Humanistic psychology remains quite popular today and has had a major influence on other areas of psychology including positive psychology. This particular branch of psychology is centred on helping people living happier, more fulfilling lives. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

9 Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is the school of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy and linguistics. Cognitive psychology began to emerge during the 1950s, partly as a response to behaviourism. Critics of behaviourism noted that it failed to account for how internal processes impacted behaviour. This period of time is sometimes referred to as the "cognitive revolution" as a wealth of research on topics such as information processing, language, memory and perception began to emerge. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

10 What are the Admission Requirements for an undergraduate degree in psychology? *Please note these requirements are based on UCT’s brochure for 2013 and therefore other institutions may differ. The minimum admissions requirement for the Bachelors degree is a National Senior Certificate (NSC) with an achievement rating of 4 (Adequate Achievement, 50-59%) or better in four subjects chosen from a designated list of subjects. These subjects are: Accounting, Agricultural Sciences, Business Studies, Dramatic Arts, Economics, Engineering Graphics and design, Geography, History, Consumer Studies, Information Technology, Languages, Life Sciences, Mathematics, Mathematical Literacy, Music, Physical Sciences, Religion Studies, Visual Arts. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

11 Calculation of the Admissions Points Score (APS) The percentages achieved in National Senior Certificate (preliminary and final examinations) will be allocated an admissions score equal to that percentage. The sum of six subject scores, excluding Life Orientation, but English and any other required subject(s) for the relevant programme is considered when deciding on admission. (In other words, for a given programme where Maths and Physical Sciences are required, the scores for English, Maths Physical Sciences and the next three best subjects other than Life Orientation will be taken to compute the NSC score toward the APS). Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

12 Examples of APS Calculations: Faculty of Humanities: English Home Language70% = 70 pts Mathematics84% = 84 pts Life Sciences86% = 86 pts Geography79% = 79 pts Accounting69% = 69 pts Life Orientation80% = 0 pts Mathematics P370% = 70 pts Total = 463 / 600 APS = 463 Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

13 National Benchmark Test (NBT’s) All first time entering undergraduate applicants normally resident in South Africa are required to write the National Benchmark Tests (NBT’s) prior to admission. Applicants are required to meet the costs of writing the NBT’s. The NBT that you will be required to write will be the Academic and Quantitative Literacy test (AQL) which consists of two components, namely, academic literacy (AL) and Quantitative Literacy (QL). You will be awarded separate scores for each component, even though they are written as one test. Note: You must Register for the NBT’s before you apply online (or before you submit a paper application form); Include your NBT registration number on your application; Have written your NBT’s by the allocated cut off date per year. For further information about the NBT’s, dates and venues please visit or www.nbt.uct.ac.za Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

14 The Minimum Requirements for a BA and BSocSc (majoring in psychology) English 50% APS of 380 (63%) AL Upper Intermediate QL of 69% or NSC Maths 50% Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

15 Do not meet the requirements/ wanting a career that involves and element of Psychology but not specifically in psychology? Why not consider Life Coaching? Life coaching is a practice that helps people identify and achieve personal goals. Life coaches help clients set and reach goals using a variety of tools and techniques. Life coaches are neither therapists nor consultants; psychological intervention and business analysis are outside the scope of their work. Life coaching draws inspiration from disciplines including sociology, psychology, positive adult development, career counselling, mentoring and other types of counselling. Contemporary life coaching can be traced to the teachings of Benjamin Karter, a college football coach turned motivational speaker of the late 1970s and early 1980s.Many Life- Coach training schools and programs are available worldwide, providing options (classroom attendance or home study) for the individual who wants to gain a certificate or diploma and paid work in the field of life coaching. Critics contend that life coaching is akin to psychotherapy without restrictions, oversight, or regulation. However, the Colorado General Assembly, after holding a hearing on such concerns, asserted that coaching is unlike therapy because it does not focus on examining nor diagnosing the past. Why not consider Life Coaching? Life coaching is a practice that helps people identify and achieve personal goals. Life coaches help clients set and reach goals using a variety of tools and techniques. Life coaches are neither therapists nor consultants; psychological intervention and business analysis are outside the scope of their work. Life coaching draws inspiration from disciplines including sociology, psychology, positive adult development, career counselling, mentoring and other types of counselling. Contemporary life coaching can be traced to the teachings of Benjamin Karter, a college football coach turned motivational speaker of the late 1970s and early 1980s.Many Life- Coach training schools and programs are available worldwide, providing options (classroom attendance or home study) for the individual who wants to gain a certificate or diploma and paid work in the field of life coaching. Critics contend that life coaching is akin to psychotherapy without restrictions, oversight, or regulation. However, the Colorado General Assembly, after holding a hearing on such concerns, asserted that coaching is unlike therapy because it does not focus on examining nor diagnosing the past. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

16 WHAT CHOICES DO I HAVE NOW AT UNI FOR A DEGREE INVOLVING PSYCHOLOGY? Alternate Degree in Courses Psychology forms a valuable part of these degree courses. Such courses would be: - Social Worker - Human Resources - Occupational Therapy Psychology as my major: - Bachelor of Arts - Bachelor of Social Sciences Specialist career as a Psychologist OR Non specialist Careers: - Advertising, Marketing, Journalist Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

17 WHAT WILL I STUDY IN A PSYCHOLOGY DEGREE? *Based on UCT’s curriculum (other institutes may vary) FIRST YEAR One of the following: PSY1001W Psychology I PSY1003W Psychology Foundation SECOND YEAR PSY2006F Research in Psychology I & TWO of the following: PSY2003S Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations PSY2009F Developmental Psychology (was PSY207F) PSY2010S Cognition and Neuroscience (was PSY2005S) PSY2011F Clinical Psychology 1 (was PSY2008F) THIRD YEAR PSY3007S Research in Psychology II & TWO of the following: PSY3005F Critical Psychology PSY3008F Health Psychology (was PSY306F) PSY3009F Applied Cognitive Science (not offered in 2009) PSY3010S Introduction to Clinical Neuropsychology PSY3011S Clinical Psychology 2 (was PSY3004S) Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

18 AFTER COMPLETING YOUR DEGREE Once you have completed your degree, with psychology as a major, then you have to decide: Do you go on with psychology? Or Do you want to follow a different career? Again, you can do further studies in psychology to become a psychologist, but can also use it as general background to another career. This is a very useful feature of psychology, because it leaves you with so many options, after your Bachelors degree, as well as subsequent postgraduate degrees. So even when you are doing a postgraduate degree in psychology, you can still ask the question: Now that I am studying for a post graduate degree in psychology, what are my options? We show this process on the following page. Keep in mind, though, there is strong competition for the limited places available in postgraduate programmes in psychology. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

19 NOW I HAVE MY DEGREE WHAT NEXT? B.A. OR BSOC.SCI DEGREE With a major Psych Look for Employment Career Options: -Advertising & Marketing -Personnel Work -Facilitator -Researcher Study Further 1. Honours 2 Masters 3. PhD SPECIALIST CAREER IN PSYCHOLOGY!! Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

20 NOW THAT I HAVE COMPLETED A POST GRADUATE DEGREE (HONOURS), WHAT ARE MY OPTIONS? SEEK EMPLOYMENT BECOME A REGISTERED COUNSELLOR BECOME A REGISTERED PSYCHOMETRIST FURTHER MY STUDIES TO MASTERS/ PhD LEVEL SEEK EMPLOYMENT BECOME A REGISTERED COUNSELLOR BECOME A REGISTERED PSYCHOMETRIST FURTHER MY STUDIES TO MASTERS/ PhD LEVEL Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

21 WHAT CAN I DO WITH MY POST GRADUATE HONOURS DEGREE? B.SOC.SCI (HONS) / B.A. (HONS) + 6 /12 month internship: Registered Counsellor Registered Psychometrist Career Options: There are a wide variety of career options open to graduates +2 years Masters Programme (includes thesis, coursework & internship): Registered Psychologist Continue with your studies doing research in your: M.A or M.SOC.SCI (Research) and PhD Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

22 BECOMING A REGISTERED COUNSELLOR What is the difference between a psychologist and a counsellor? A Counsellor generally provides more short term counselling intervention and deals with less complex presenting concerns. Often, they have specialized in a particular field of counselling, such as trauma counselling. A Psychologist undergoes additional specialised training. They are therefore able to diagnose and intervene within a wider range of scope of practice, manage more complex and serious presenting clinical concerns and provide more indepth and longer term psychotherapy. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

23 BECOMING A REGISTERED PSYCHOMETRIST What is a Psychometrist? Psychometrists are trained professionals who are able to administer, score and interpret certain assessments. Psychometric assessments are tests, exercises, or questionnaires which measure the intellectual, cognitive, behavioural and personality constructs of an individual. These tests provide information enabling decisions regarding relevant recommendations in a clinical setting; or selection, development, or promotion in an organisational setting. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

24 Why would I want to become a registered Psychometrist or Counsellor rather than going directly into the Masters Programme to become a registered Psychologist? Masters programmes are exceptionally difficult to get into. The selection process does not only take a student’s grades into account but their age, relevant psychological experience, life experience etc. A lot of students then choose to gain the relevant psychological and life experience through these channels before applying for their Masters. Other students who have applied for their Masters, and were not selected also choose this path to gain experience before applying again. Lastly, students may realise that they prefer the assessment of different constructs of behaviour rather than the treatment thereof. In such instances, a student may choose the psychometry route where they can work either in their own independent practice or under the supervision of a registered psychologist. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

25 Counselling Psychologist Counseling psychologists participate in a range of activities including teaching, research, psychotherapeutic and counselling practice, career development, assessment, supervision, and consultation. They employ a variety of methods closely tied to theory and research to help individuals, groups and organizations function optimally as well as to mediate dysfunction. Interventions may be either brief or long-term; they are often problem-specific and goal-directed. These activities are guided by a philosophy that values individual differences and diversity and a focus on prevention, development, and adjustment across the life-span which includes vocational concerns. CAREERS AS A REGISTERED PSYCHOLOGIST CONT... Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

26 CAREERS AS A REGISTERED PSYCHOLOGIST...CONT Clinical Psychologists Like Counselling psychologists, Clinical psychologists aim to reduce psychological distress and to enhance and promote psychological well-being. They deal with a number of mental and physical problems including anxiety, depression, addiction and relationship problems. To assess clients, they use a variety of methods including psychometric tests, interview and observation and work primarily in health and social care settings including hospitals and community mental health teams. Due to their role as a scientist-practitioner they are also involved heavily with research and in evaluation of current services to provide a strong evidence base for practice. Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

27 The Difference between a Clinical and Counselling Psychologist? There is considerable overlap between counselling and clinical psychology. Traditionally however, the main difference between counselling and clinical psychology is their perspective and training. Counselling psychologists, in general, focus more on healthier, less pathological populations whereas Clinical psychologists focus on individuals with more serious mental health issues such as personality disorders and psychosis.. CAREERS AS A REGISTERED PSYCHOLOGIST CONT... Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

28 Educational Psychologist This is an exciting field of work in which the focus is on the optimal emotional, cognitive and educational development of the child/adult in his or her environment. The work of an Educational psychologist includes psychological and scholastic assessment of children/adults who are experiencing emotional and /or academic problems or barriers to learning and development. Such work may include play therapy or counselling, and parent education and counselling. Also, work with teachers, parents / caregivers and communities plays an important role since all levels of the child’s environment are considered too. CAREERS AS A REGISTERED PSYCHOLOGIST... CONT Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

29 CAREERS AS A REGISTERED PSYCHOLOGIST CONT... Research Psychologist For persons who are interested in psychology as the scientific study of human behaviour, rather than in the applied field of therapy, there is the possibility of a directed MA degree in Research Psychology. The aim here is to train social scientists as researchers and as consultants in the general area of psychological and social science research. This will enable them to pursue a career in industry, commerce, universities or public institutions in various research-related fields. It is of relevance to persons contemplating a career in, for example, marketing, management, or information technology. There is a selection process for a limited number of places Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

30 FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO HAVE CHOSEN YOUR FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY AS YOUR FUTURE FIELD GOOD LUCK AND ENJOY EVERY MINUTE OF IT!! Prepared by Sally Waltho, Psychometrist - Claremont Practice

31 References: assessments psychologist.htm


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