Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Development for Grades K-3"— Presentation transcript:
1Vocabulary Development for Grades K-3 internecinecatharsishandselbibelotduendeethnologycloisterrepatriatetrousseaufiduciaryWhat’s in a Word?superannuatedcynosureoenophileVocabulary Development forGrades K-3symbiosistransendentperemptorycrescentmalignsolecismAntidisestablishmentarianismveciferousantithesiseffluviuminduce
2What does vocabulary instruction look like at your school?
3What is Vocabulary Instruction? The teaching and development of students’ understanding of word meanings
4Presentation Goals Part One – Making the Case Current research pertaining to vocabulary development and instructionPart Two – Principles of Effective InstructionExamine the underlining principles of best practices in effective vocabulary instructionPart Three – Instructional StrategiesExamine models for delivering vocabulary instruction in the classroom setting
5Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary What is Vocabulary The Importance of Vocabulary to Reading Comprehension
6Making the CaseAverage child from a welfare family hears about 3 million words a year vs. 11 million from a professional family (Hart & Risley, 1995).By age 4, the gap in words heard grows to 13 vs. 45 millionChildren from a professional family spoke more words than parents in a welfare family
7Making the CaseFactsChildren enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging between 2500 to 5000.Students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds enter school knowing fewer words (Stanovich, 1986).First graders from higher SES groups know twice as many words as lower SES children (Grater & Slater, 1987).College entrants need about 11 to 14,000 root words (meter in thermometer or centimeter).
8Making the CaseFactsVocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading comprehension and academic achievement (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Graves 2000).Limited vocabulary is a major factor in the achievement gap (Biemiller, 1999, 2004; Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Hart & Risley, 1995).
9Closing the Vocabulary Gap Making the CaseClosing the Vocabulary GapStudents who enter kindergarten with limited vocabulary typically lose ground each year they are in school (Chall, et al. 1990).In 1st and 2nd grade, children need to learn 800+ words per year, about 2 per day.Children need to learn 2,000 to 3,000 new words each year from 3rd grade onward, about 6-8 per day.
10Making the CaseChildren need to encounter a word about 12 times before they know it well enough to improve their comprehension.To keep up, a child needs to learn at a rate of words per year from third grade on. To close the gap, they need to exceed that.
11How Important is Vocabulary? Making the CaseHow Important is Vocabulary?_____ was absent yesterday because he was playing football. He was hurt in the growing area._____ has been absent because he had two teeth taken off his face._____ will not be in school cuz he has an acre in his side.Please excuse _____ from P.E. a few days, yesterday she fell off a tree and misplaced her hip.Please excuse _____ from school because he has very loose vowels.
12Making the Case Vocabulary “Vocabulary knowledge is a powerful predictor of reading comprehension” (McKeown, 2009).
13Vocabulary/Comprehension A Flannerby Barp for Nall Making the CaseVocabulary/ComprehensionA Flannerby Barp for NallNall was so plamper. She was larping to the flannerby with Charkle. She would grunk a flannerby barp so she could crooch out carples. Charkle lanted her gib out the nep.“Parps, Charkle,” jibbed Nall plamperly.“Now we can crooch out carples together!” pifed Charkle trigly.Who are the characters in the story?Answer the following questions by writing a complete sentence:Where were they larping?Why did she want to grunk a flannerby barp?A good title for this story would be:“Nall and Charkle Together”“Larping to the Flannerby”“Lanting Nall Grunk a Flannerby Barp”“Grunking a Flannerby Barp”No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary...
14Vocabulary/Comprehension Making the CaseVocabulary/ComprehensionChlorecyclizine hydrochloride is an antihistamine which is related structurally to cyclizine and meclizine. A combination with hydrocortisone acetate provides anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and anesthetic properties. It blocks the actions of histamine, antagonizes allergic manifestation, and anestetizes free nerve endings that mediate pain. The combination provides dual and additive effects to combat antigen-antibody reaction.No access to meaning because we didn't get the vocabulary...
15Making the CaseVocabulary/Comprehension Connection Vocabulary KnowledgeTopic KnowledgeReading Comprehension
16DiscussionBased on what you’ve just read, why is it important to include vocabulary development as a part of daily instruction?
17Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 3) How Many Words Do Students Need to Know?What Does It Mean to “Know” a Word?
18Principles of Effective Instruction The old wayExplicit instruction of necessary wordsMemorization of word listsPredetermined lists from publishing companiesHoweverIsolated instruction of individual words is ineffective
19Principles of Effective Instruction In other Words Students have to USE new language in order to learn it.
20Principles of Effective Instruction ImplicitWide ReadingConversationExplicitMultiple Exposure to a WordExplicit Instruction in Word AnalysisBuilding Academic Vocabulary
21Vocabulary Casserole Ingredients Needed: 20 words no one has ever heard before in his life1 dictionary with very confusing definitions1 matching test to be distributed by Friday1 teacher who wants students to be quiet on Mondays copying wordsPut 20 words on chalkboard. Have students copy then look up in dictionary. Make students write all the definitions. For a little spice, require that students write words in sentences. Leave alone all week. Top with a boring test on Friday.Perishable. This casserole will be forgotten by Saturday afternoon.Serves: No one.Adapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers
22Principles of Effective Instruction Instruction needs to go beyond getting students to associate words with their definitions.
23Principles of Effective Instruction Knowing a word CANNOT be equated with knowing a definition.Knowing a word means being able to do things with it: to recognize it in connected speech or in print, to access its meaning, to pronounce it, and to be able to do these things within a fraction of a second (Stahl and Fairbanks, 1986).
24Vocabulary Treat Ingredients Needed: 5-10 great words that you really could use1 thesaurusMarkers and chart paper1 game like Jeopardy or BINGO1 teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be funMix 5 to 10 words into the classroom. Have students test each word for flavor. Toss with a thesaurus to find other words that mean the same. Write student friendly definitions on chart paper and let us draw pictures of words to remind us what they mean. Stir all week by a teacher who thinks learning is supposed to be fun. Top with a cool game on Fridays like Jeopardy or BINGO.Serves: ManyAdapted from When Kids Can’t Read, What Teachers Can Do by Kylene Beers
25Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 10) Intentional, Explicit InstructionChoosing Words for InstructionImportanceUsefulness and FrequencyTeaching SpecificWords
26Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select WordsBeck, McKeown, KucanBeck, et al. (2002) suggest that for instructional purposes, teachers should ignore Tier One and Tier Three words and concentrate on Tier Two words. Their argument is that most students already know Tier One words and that Tier Three words should be taught at point of contact., or as they occur in reading.Tier 1: the most basic words; require little instructional attention (happy, baby, walk)Tier 2: high frequency; found across a variety of domains (absurd, fortunate, merchant)Tier 3: lower frequency; often domain specific (isotope, refinery, peninsula)
27Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select WordsMarzanoMarzano's vision of vocabulary instruction has similarities with Beck et al., but while Beck et al. suggest teaching words that students will encounter often and across domains, Marzano recommends teaching subject-specific terms to enhance academic success. He writes that "Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's focus on tier-two words as the appropriate target of vocabulary instruction" is a mistake (88). He stresses that "subject-specific terms are the best target for direct vocabulary instruction" (IRA/NCTE, 2010).
28Principles of Effective Instruction How to Select WordsHow useful is the word? Will students see it in other texts?How does the word relate to other words, or to ideas that students know or have been learning? Does it directly relate to a topic of study in the classroom?What does the word bring to a text or situation?
29Principles of Effective Instruction Provide opportunities for:Strategy 1Wide Independent ReadingStrategy 2Multiple Exposure to a WordStrategy 3Explicit Instruction in Word AnalysisStrategy 4Developing Word ConsciousnessStrategy 5Building Academic Vocabulary
30DiscussionAre your teachers familiar with the latest principles of effective vocabulary instruction or are they teaching vocabulary the same way in which they were taught? What is your evidence?
31Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 6-8) Incidental Word Learning Through Oral LanguageOral Language Experiences at HomeOral Language Experiences at SchoolIncidental Word Learning Though Teacher Read Alouds
32DiscussionWhat need do you see for oral language development based on the analysis of your school’s EDW data? How are teachers fostering oral language development through language experiences? Are they making incidental word learning a part of their oral language instruction?
33Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent ReadingProficient readers read 3 times as many words per week as less proficient students.Add 25 minutes of reading per day = students learn an extra 1,000 words per year.
34Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent ReadingPromote Extensive Reading in the ClassroomRegular time for free readingEncourage students to choose their own material and to read widely and a lotVariety of fiction and non-fiction materials at each student’s independent reading levelListening books, created recordings, student buddy reading and discussionsMake the experience pleasurable
35Instructional Strategies Strategy 1: Wide Independent ReadingExtensive ReadingKrashen contends that almost any reading will result in vocabulary growth.Others contend that students must read text that are not below their instructional level to result in vocabulary growth.
36Instructional Strategies Strategy 2: Multiple Exposures to a WordThere is great improvement in vocabulary when students encounter vocabulary words often (National Reading Panel, 2000). According to Stahl (2005), students probably have to see a word more than once to place it firmly in their long term memories. “This does not mean mere repetition or drill of the word,” but seeing the word in different and multiple contexts. In other words, it is important that vocabulary instruction provide students with opportunities to encounter words repeatedly and in more than one context. (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
37Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (pages 12-14) Teaching Unknown Words: SynonymsTeaching Multiple-Meaning Words: Semantic MapsTeaching Words for New and Complex ConceptsTeaching Independent Word-Learning StrategiesUsing Dictionaries
38Before Moving On Think About The Upcoming ActivityIn groups, design a mini-pd based on how to deliver direct instruction of words, as recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan.Chart out your plans/agenda.Share out your ideas with the whole group.
39Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of WordsContextualize the word within the story."In the story, Lisa was reluctant to leave ...."Have the children say the word." Say the word - reluctant"Provide (teacher or student) a student-friendly explanation or description of the word."Reluctant means you are not sure you want to do something."Versus a definition.Reluctant - 1. Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling disinclined; loth, loath.
40Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of WordsPresent examples of the word used in contexts different from the story contextSomeone might be reluctant to eat a food that he or she never had before.Students provide an example.
41Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction of WordsGenerate ExamplesTell about something you would be reluctant to do. Try to use reluctant when you tell about it.You could start by saying something like. “I would be reluctant to ___”Answering Questions/Giving ReasonsWhy might a person be reluctant to eat a new food?Why might a child be reluctant to come here?Show me how a reluctant broccoli eater would look?Beck, McKeown, and Kucan, 2002
42ActivityIn groups, design a mini-pd or lesson based on how to deliver direct instruction of words, as recommended by Beck, Mckeown, and Kucan.Chart out your plans/agenda.Share out your ideas with the whole group.
43Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word AnalysisContextual and Morphemic
44Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary Identifying and Using Context Clues (page 15)
45Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual)OPPOSITE/CONTRASTUnderline the two words or phrases in contrast to one another, then make a guess.Even though I studied for hours, I flunked the test.My last apartment was really small, but my new one is quite spacious.
46Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis(Contextual)CAUSE AND EFFECTLook for cue words (because, so) then makea guess.Because we lingered too long at therestaurant, we missed the beginning of themovie.The door was ajar, so the dog got out of thehouse.
47Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual)EXAMPLES IN THE TEXTThe baboon, like other apes, is a verysocial animal.
48Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis (Contextual)SYNONYMS OR PARAPHRASES (found elsewhere in the sentence or paragraph)Samuel was deaf, but he didn't let hishandicap get in the way of his success.Sally's flower garden included dozensof marigolds, which she tended withgreat care.
49Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis(Contextual)RECOGNIZING DEFINITIONS (common in college textbooks, newspaper & magazine articles)Many children of normal intelligence havegreat difficulty learning how to read, write,or work with numbers. Often thought of as"underachievers," such children are said tohave a learning disability, a disorder thatinterferes in some way with schoolachievement.
50Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary Instruction (pages 15-17) Using Word Part Clues/MorphologyPrefixes and Suffixes That Account for Approximately 75% of Affixed Words
51Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis(Morphemic)Teach root words and affixes.Root words are morphemes (units ofmeaning)Begin with free morphemes like portbecause their meaning is accessible.Move to extensions (porter, airport,import).
52Instructional Strategies Strategy 3: Explicit Instruction in Word Analysis(Morphemic)Understanding the morphological basis ofaffixes is critical to word knowledge.Re-, dis-, un-, and im- account for overhalf of all words with prefixes-s/-es, -ed, and –ing account for 65% ofall words with suffixes (Cunningham 2002)
53Instructional Strategies Strategy 4: Developing Word Consciousness “Word consciousness is an awareness of and interest in words, their meanings, and their power” (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Nagy & Scott, 2000; Graves & Watts-Taffe, 2002).
54Professional Reading A Focus on Vocabulary (page 17) Developing Word ConsciousnessWhat About Computer-Related Instruction?Building Word ConsciousnessWord JarsWord ShowsRich Words
55Instructional Strategies Strategy 5: Building Academic Vocabulary “So much of what we do outside of narrative is tied to vocabulary—a water table is different from a math table is different from tabling a motion.” D. Alvermann
56Instructional Strategies Strategy 5: Building Academic VocabularyWhat is Academic Vocabulary?Academic vocabulary refers to the specialized, high-utility words used in the classroomAcademic vocabulary includes high-use academic words (e.g., analyze, summarize, evaluate, formula, respond, specify)Academic language includes the vocabulary, grammar & syntax necessary to competently discuss a topic
57Before Moving On Think About The Upcoming ActivityIn groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano.Chart out your plans/agenda.Share out your ideas with the whole group.
58Professional ReadingSix Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano
59Instructional Strategies Marzano’s Six Step Process1. Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term.2. Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words.3. Ask students to construct a picture, pictograph, or symbolic representation of the term.
60Instructional Strategies Marzano’s Six Step Process4. Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms in their vocabulary notebooks.5. Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another.6. Involve students periodically in games that enable them to play with terms.
61ActivityIn groups, design a mini-pd based on Six Steps to Better Vocabulary Instruction by Robert J Marzano.Chart out your plans/agenda.Share out your ideas with the whole group.