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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Data Interpretation, Further Analysis and Dissemination Workshop Approaches to using MICS for Equity/Poverty Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Data Interpretation, Further Analysis and Dissemination Workshop Approaches to using MICS for Equity/Poverty Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys Data Interpretation, Further Analysis and Dissemination Workshop Approaches to using MICS for Equity/Poverty Analysis

2 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Outline  Consumption/income poverty  Wealth Index  Bristol Child Deprivation Index  Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)  New Contribution (MODA)  Critics  Examples 2

3 Multidimensional Poverty Indices - Background Once upon a time… ….INCOME/CONSUMPTION POVERTY Three main decisions: 1. How do we assess individual well-being or "welfare"? Income or consumption 2. At what level of measured well-being do we say that a person is not poor? Choose poverty lines 3. How do we aggregate individual indicators of well- being into a measure of poverty? Foster-Greer- Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measures 3

4 Multidimensional Poverty Indices - Background UN General Assembly Definition of Child Poverty, 10th January 2007 “Children living in poverty are deprived of nutrition, water and sanitation facilities, access to basic health care services, shelter, education, participation and protection, and that while a severe lack of goods and services hurts every human being, it is most threatening and harmful to children, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, to reach their full potential and to participate as full members of the society” 4

5 Multidimensional Poverty Indices WEALTH INDEX  Use information on assets or household possessions It takes a large number of assets that may not tell us much individually, but are correlated since they are all related to an underlying factor – in this case, “wealth”  Generate weights (factor scores) for each of the assets through principal components analysis 5

6 Multidimensional Poverty Indices WEALTH INDEX  Weights summed by household, household members ranked according to the total score of the household in which they reside  Run for urban and rural separately. Regressions used to combine.  Divide the households into quintiles. 6

7 Multidimensional Poverty Indices WEALTH INDEX Number of persons per sleeping room Material of dwelling floor Material of the roof Material of the walls Fuel used for cooking Electricity Radio Television Mobile telephone Non-mobile telephone Refrigerator Watch Bicycle Motorcycle/scooter Animal-drawn cart Car/truck Boat Source of drinking water Type of sanitation facility Ownership of animals Ownership of land Furniture Additional household items 7

8 Multidimensional Poverty Indices WEALTH INDEX  Long-term wealth versus current economic status  Adjustment for household size?  How to deal with public services? Does the asset index reflect community variables (especially locally available infrastructure such as electricity for lighting or piped water) rather than household specific variables?  Urban bias  Strength of the index when comparing it over time and across countries 8

9 Multidimensional Poverty Indices WEALTH INDEX New contributions: Approaches for Urban and Rural Areas (DHS, 2008) Comparative Wealth Index (DHS, 2014) 9

10 Multidimensional Poverty Indices BRISTOL POVERTY MEASURE  Developed by Bristol University - Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research with UNICEF  UNICEF launched at the end of 2007 the Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities that combines the income approach with the Bristol deprivations approach (see  More than 50 UNICEF Country Offices in seven regions have joined the study. More than 25 country reports have been produced 10

11 Multidimensional Poverty Indices DimensionIndicator ShelterMore than 5 members per room, or no floor material SanitationNo toilet facility of any kind WaterUse of surface water or source more than 30 min away InformationNo access to radio, television, telephone or newspapers at home NutritionSevere stunting, wasting or underweight EducationChildren (7-17) never been to school HealthNo immunization or no treatment of ARI or diarrhoea 11

12 Multidimensional Poverty Indices  Children experiencing TWO OR MORE severe deprivations are absolute poor  Children experiencing ONE OR MORE severe deprivations are severely deprived  34% of children in the developing world (around 650 million) live in absolute poverty  56% of children in the developing world (over one billion) experience severe deprivation of at least one basic human need 12

13 Multidimensional Poverty Indices 13

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15 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Developed by Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (Sabina Alkire and James Foster 2007, 2009) United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report 2013: 104 countries (30 based on MICS) 15

16 Multidimensional Poverty Indices - MPI 16

17 Multidimensional Poverty Indices DomainIndicator HealthAny child dead Any child (or adult) malnourished EducationNo household member completed 5 years Any child (grades 1-8) out of school Standard ofNo electricity LivingUnimproved water or improved water more than 30 min round-trip Unimproved or shared sanitation Dirt, sand, dung floor Wood, charcoal, dung used as cooking fuel (biomass) Not owning more than one of: radio, TV, phone (incl. mobile), bike, motorbike and no car/truck 17

18 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Each dimension is equally weighted: Health = 1/3 Education = 1/3 Standard of Living = 1/3  The MPI combines two aspects of poverty:  MPI = H x A  Incidence (H) = the percentage of people who are poor, or the headcount  Intensity (A) of people’s poverty = the average and weighted percentage indicators in which poor people are deprived 18

19 Indicators1234Weight Household size4754 HEALTH At least one member malnourished One or more children have died EDUCATION No one has completed five years of schooling At least one school-age child not enrolled LIVING CONDITIONS No electricity No access to clean drinking water No access to adeguate sanitation House has dirt floor Household uses “dirty” cooking fuel Household has no car and owns at most one of: bicycle, motorcycle, radio, refrigerator, telephone or television RESULTS Weighted count of deprivation, c Is the household poor? c>3NOYES 19

20 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Weighted count of deprivation in household 1: Headcount ratio= (80 percent of people live in poor households) Intensity of poverty= (the average poor person is deprived in 56 percent of the weighted indicators) MPI= H × A =

21 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Results: 1.7 billion people, 32% of the total population in 104 countries, are identified as multi- dimensionally poor. 51% live in South Asia and 28% in sub- Saharan Africa 21

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23 Countries with the highest incidence of poverty tend to have the highest intensity of poverty. 23

24 Multidimensional Poverty Indices  Deprivation in living standards (the green portion) often contributes more than deprivation in either of the other two dimensions.  In most countries, the second biggest contribution comes from educational deprivations. 24

25 Multidimensional Poverty Indices PEARSON CORR. $ 1.25/day – MPI = 0.85 More people are MPI poor than income poor (slightly less at $2/day) MPI and Income Poverty are related 25

26 Multidimensional Poverty Indices New contribution: Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) IRC/UNICEF  Child is unit of analysis  Life-cycle approach  Building further on the rights-based approach of Bristol and the methodology used for the MPI  Adding focus on overlaps, intensity of deprivation  CC-MODA vs. N-MODA 26

27 Multidimensional Poverty Indices Critique (Ravallion a.o )  Indicators likely to be correlated with consumption or income, but they would not capture well the impacts on poor people of economic downturns or shocks.  As data is to be collected from the same survey, the precise indicators used in the MPI are somehow data driven and source dependant.  Indices adding up “apples and oranges” …how can one contend that the death of a child is equivalent to having a dirt floor, cooking with wood, and not having a radio, TV, telephone, bike or car? Or that attaining these material conditions is equivalent to an extra year of schooling or to not having any malnourished family member?  Death in family does not work when a mother has died – extreme vulnerability. Malnourishment does not capture death. Isn’t “multi-dimensional” about recognizing that there are important aspects of welfare that cannot be captured in a single index (a “Mashup Index”)? 27 Multidimensional indices complement traditional analysis

28 References Alkire, S. and Foster, J and Counting and Multidimensional Poverty Measurement. OPHI Working Paper 7 and 32. Alkire, S. and Santos, M.E Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries. OPHI Working Paper 38. Gordon, David, et al., Child poverty in the developing world, The Policy Press, Bristol, UK, October Ravallion, Martin, Mashup Indices of Development (September, 2010). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, 5432, Ravallion, Martin, On Multidimensional Indices of Poverty (February, 2011). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, 5580, Rutstein, Shea O. and Kiersten Johnson The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. Rutstein, Shea O The DHS Wealth Index: Approaches for Rural and Urban Areas de Neubourg et al Cross-Country MODA Study, Technical note, Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA). de Neubourg et al Step-by-step guidelines to the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA). UNICEF Office of Research Working Paper

29 What about MICS?  Syntax developed for  Bristol (with necessary modifications)  MPI  Both to undergo a last review  Syntax under development for  MODA  Can be shared with MICS countries very soon – not for Final Reports, but for further analysis 29

30 Bristol Example Table: The Bristol Index Percentage of children age 0-17 year who are severely deprived in a selection of basic human need domains and percentage deprived in two or more domains, i.e. in absolute poverty, by background characteristics, Country, 2010 Percentage of children severely deprived of: Total percentage of children severely deprived Deprived in 2+ domains: In absolute poverty Total number of children NutritionWaterSanitationHealthShelterEducationInformation Access to Basic Services [*] SexMale Female AreaUrban Rural Education of household head None Primary Secondary High Tertiary Missing/DK Wealth index quintiles Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total [*] The Bristol Index' compound indicator of Access to Basic Services (distance to school and health facility) is not available from MICS. The Index allows for data from several sources and the information can be added from elsewhere. 30

31 MPI Table MPI.01: The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Distribution of households by dimensions and indicators of poverty, poverty headcount ratio, intensity of poverty, and the MPI, by selected characteristics, Country, 2010 Percentage of the Population who are MPI poor and deprived in each indicator H - The headcount ratio (the proportion of the population who are multidimensi onally poor; c > 1/3) A - The intensity of poverty (the proportion of the weighted component indicators of which the poor, on average, are deprived) The Multidimen sional Poverty Index (MPI) (H x A) Percentage of Population Vulnerable to Poverty (c>1/5 and c<1/3) Percentage of Population in Severe Poverty (c>1/2) Number of household members EducationHealthLiving Standards Years of Schooling School Attendance Child MortalityNutritionElectricitySanitation Drinking WaterFloor Cooking fuelAssets AreaUrban ,331 Rural ,589 Education of household head None ,082 Primary ,584 Secondary ,254 Wealth index quintiles Poorest ,735 Second ,003 Middle ,129 Fourth ,629 Richest ,424 Total ,920 31

32 MPI Percentage of the Population who are MPI poor and deprived in each indicator EducationHealthLiving Standards Years of Schooling School Attendance Child MortalityNutritionElectricitySanitation Drinking WaterFloor Cooking fuelAssets Area Urban Rural Education of household head None Primary Secondary Wealth index quintiles Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total

33 MPI H - The headcount ratio (the proportion of the population who are multidimensionally poor; c > 1/3) A - The intensity of poverty (the proportion of the weighted component indicators of which the poor, on average, are deprived) The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) (H x A) Percentage of Population Vulnerable to Poverty (c>1/5 and c<1/3) Percentage of Population in Severe Poverty (c>1/2) Number of household members Area Urban ,331 Rural ,589 Education of household head None ,082 Primary ,584 Secondary ,254 Wealth index quintiles Poorest ,735 Second ,003 Middle ,129 Fourth ,629 Richest ,424 Total ,920 33

34 Other simple equity analysis 34

35 Other simple equity analysis 35


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