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Essential Question: What types of molecules are in the body?

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What types of molecules are in the body?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Question: What types of molecules are in the body?

2 Macromolecules The food you eat, the silk a spider uses to make a web, the muscles in your body – all of these structures are made of macromolecules.

3 Macromolecule is the term that biologists use for large molecules. There are four types of macromolecules that are important in biology: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

4 4 Macromolecules Large organic molecules. Large organic molecules. POLYMERS Also called POLYMERS. MONOMERS Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. Examples: Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

5 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a source of energy in our diet. When we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, the energy in them is changed in our cells to a form that our bodies can use. Carbohydrates also form building materials like the chitin that covers the surface of insects and cellulose that makes up plant cell walls.

6 Carbohydrates are the group that includes simple sugars and more complex molecules made up of lots of sugars bonded together.

7 A carbohydrate made of two sugars is called a disaccharide. An example of this is sucrose, which is table sugar like you may put on your cereal or use to make cookies.

8 Starch is an example of a complex carbohydrate made of many linked sugars. Plants often store carbohydrates in the form of starch. Eating potatoes or grains is the main source of starch for humans.

9 9Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar molecules Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples: Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide

10 10Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit (from Greek: single, sacchar: sugar) are the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water- soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste.Examples: glucose ( glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )deoxyriboseriboseFructoseGalactose glucose

11 11 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugar unit A disaccharide is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction which involves the elimination of a small molecule, such as water, from the functional groups only. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides also dissolve in water, taste sweet and are called sugars.Examples: – Sucrose (glucose+fructose) – Lactose (glucose+galactose) – Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucoseglucose

12 Fructose is a naturally occurring sweetener found in fruit. In diabetics who have adequate insulin available, fructose causes a slower rise in blood glucose levels than other simple sugars.


14 Maltose is a disaccharide with a molecular weight identical to sucrose, but it is only 30% as sweet.

15 15 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples:starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose glucoseglucose cellulose

16 Carbohydrate The empirical or simplest formula of any carbohydrate is (CH 2 O) n. This formula looks like carbon water just as carbohydrate suggests hydrated or watered carbon. The formula tells us that all carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.

17 Question: How Are Macromolecules Formed?


19 Answer: Dehydration Synthesis “condensation reaction” Also called “condensation reaction” polymers monomers“removing water” Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing water”. 19 HOH HH H2OH2O

20 Question: How are Macromolecules separated or digested? How are Macromolecules separated or digested?

21 21 Answer: Hydrolysis monomers“adding water” Separates monomers by “adding water” HO HH H H2OH2O

22 Belgian Undertakers Want to Dissolve & Flush Dead Into Sewers Photo: Corbis A group of undertakers in Belgium are proposing a more ecological (but perhaps creepier) alternative to cremation: they hope to dissolve corpses in a caustic solution and flush the resulting liquid and ashes down the drain, which will be recycled at water treatment plants. They contend that the process - known as chemical hydrolysis or resomation - would use less energy than a crematorium and emit no carbon emissions....

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