Presentation on theme: "Essential Question: What types of molecules are in the body?"— Presentation transcript:
Essential Question: What types of molecules are in the body?
Macromolecules The food you eat, the silk a spider uses to make a web, the muscles in your body – all of these structures are made of macromolecules.
Macromolecule is the term that biologists use for large molecules. There are four types of macromolecules that are important in biology: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
4 Macromolecules Large organic molecules. Large organic molecules. POLYMERS Also called POLYMERS. MONOMERS Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. Examples: Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a source of energy in our diet. When we eat foods that contain carbohydrates, the energy in them is changed in our cells to a form that our bodies can use. Carbohydrates also form building materials like the chitin that covers the surface of insects and cellulose that makes up plant cell walls.
Carbohydrates are the group that includes simple sugars and more complex molecules made up of lots of sugars bonded together.
A carbohydrate made of two sugars is called a disaccharide. An example of this is sucrose, which is table sugar like you may put on your cereal or use to make cookies.
Starch is an example of a complex carbohydrate made of many linked sugars. Plants often store carbohydrates in the form of starch. Eating potatoes or grains is the main source of starch for humans.
9Carbohydrates Small sugar moleculeslarge sugar molecules Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. Examples: Examples: A.monosaccharide B.disaccharide C.polysaccharide
10Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit (from Greek: single, sacchar: sugar) are the most basic units of biologically important carbohydrates. They are the simplest form of sugar and are usually colorless, water- soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste.Examples: glucose ( glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )deoxyriboseriboseFructoseGalactose glucose
11 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugar unit A disaccharide is the carbohydrate formed when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction which involves the elimination of a small molecule, such as water, from the functional groups only. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides also dissolve in water, taste sweet and are called sugars.Examples: – Sucrose (glucose+fructose) – Lactose (glucose+galactose) – Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucoseglucose
Fructose is a naturally occurring sweetener found in fruit. In diabetics who have adequate insulin available, fructose causes a slower rise in blood glucose levels than other simple sugars.
Maltose is a disaccharide with a molecular weight identical to sucrose, but it is only 30% as sweet.
Carbohydrate The empirical or simplest formula of any carbohydrate is (CH 2 O) n. This formula looks like carbon water just as carbohydrate suggests hydrated or watered carbon. The formula tells us that all carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Question: How Are Macromolecules Formed?
Answer: Dehydration Synthesis “condensation reaction” Also called “condensation reaction” polymers monomers“removing water” Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing water”. 19 HOH HH H2OH2O
Question: How are Macromolecules separated or digested? How are Macromolecules separated or digested?
21 Answer: Hydrolysis monomers“adding water” Separates monomers by “adding water” HO HH H H2OH2O
Belgian Undertakers Want to Dissolve & Flush Dead Into Sewers Photo: Corbis A group of undertakers in Belgium are proposing a more ecological (but perhaps creepier) alternative to cremation: they hope to dissolve corpses in a caustic solution and flush the resulting liquid and ashes down the drain, which will be recycled at water treatment plants. They contend that the process - known as chemical hydrolysis or resomation - would use less energy than a crematorium and emit no carbon emissions....