Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Psychology for Life and Work Chapter 7 Groups. When I say “leader,” I mean not so much the person with the title, but a person who is going to get the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Psychology for Life and Work Chapter 7 Groups. When I say “leader,” I mean not so much the person with the title, but a person who is going to get the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology for Life and Work Chapter 7 Groups

2 When I say “leader,” I mean not so much the person with the title, but a person who is going to get the project done. She lives, eats, and breathes the project. She is going to get it done or die in the attempt. At any given time, she has her finger on the pulse of the project... — Fergus O’Connell, How to Run Successful Projects (O’Connell 34)

3 Assess how effective group functioning is achieved through productive group dynamics, communication, conflict resolution, and effective leadership.

4 Types of Groups A group is a collection of people brought together for a reason or purpose Group membership is one way that individuals can define themselves People in groups tend to behave differently than they do as individuals There are many types and subtypes of groups ▫Groups come together for many reasons ▫Groups may remain together for varying lengths of time

5 Types of Groups Groups are collections of people that can be classified as aggregates, primary groups, secondary groups, and formal category groups ▫An aggregate is a category of people who share characteristics such as gender, age, race, or ethnicity, but do not necessarily know and interact with each other

6 Types of Groups An aggregate may or may not also be a crowd—a random assortment of individuals in the same place at the same time ▫A crowd is a special type of group that exhibits its own patterns of behavior ▫Crowds generally gather for a purpose, such as a ball game, political rally, concert, or public display, and then they disperse

7 Types of Groups Herd or mob behavior –when people in a group do things as a group that they would not do as individuals ▫Herd behavior sometimes turns violent and can evolve into rioting ▫People in crowds often lose their inhibitions and exhibit reduced intellect and moral standards ▫Crowds seek instant gratification, feel a sense of omnipotence, want leadership, and are easily influenced by feeling and images

8 Types of Groups People tend to make “moral” decisions when by themselves, but the same people favor “practical” decisions when they are part of a group ▫However, these “practical” decisions may not truly be practical

9 Primary & Secondary Groups Primary group ▫a.k.a., personal groups ▫Relatively small ▫Involve people who interact directly with each other, such as families, gangs, or cliques of friends

10 Primary & Secondary Groups Peer groups ▫Special kinds of primary groups that, particularly during adolescence, exert significant influence on individual development ▫Groups of people of the same rank or status ▫Several functions:  Offering a supportive social environment outside of the home and immediate family  Allowing individuals to form emotional bonds outside the family  Providing a space for individuals to experiment with cultural values and to reinforce or resist family practices and behaviors

11 Primary & Secondary Groups Peer groups direct individual behavior, either to conform with or deviate from the norms of family or society, through the use of peer pressure ▫Peer pressure can be a positive or negative influence, depending on the type of behaviors that result from interaction with the group

12 Primary & Secondary Groups Secondary groups ▫Involve people who are not emotionally involved with each other ▫May be large or small ▫Often contain multiple primary groups ▫Convene for practical purposes, such as church congregations, employees of a company, members of a department, military units, political groups, or students in a class

13 Primary & Secondary Groups Secondary groups ▫Interactions more formal and ritualized than interactions between members of primary groups ▫May become primary groups if members bond with each other

14 Formal Groups In larger organizations situations and needs may require the formation of various formal groups ▫task or project groups ▫ad hoc committees ▫standing committees ▫cross-functional groups ▫departmental subgroups ▫virtual teams

15 Formal Groups Task group ▫A temporary group which is formed to perform in a specific task, project, or collective organized event ▫Examples of projects which a task group might perform include constructing a bridge Ad hoc committee ▫A type of task group, is formed to complete a specific task and disbanded after the task is complete and reported ▫ Examples include emergency response teams, event organizing committees, and investigative committees

16 Formal Groups Standing committees ▫Permanent groups established to perform ongoing duties ▫Within a university or company, standing committees might address ongoing functions like budgets, external relations, or student or employee issues Cross-functional groups ▫Groups that are assembled from various departments and selected individuals with diverse skills and experiences ▫These individuals are brought together to accomplish a given task or solve a particular problem, and the groups may exist on an ad hoc or standing basis

17 Formal Groups Departmental subgroups ▫Specialized divisions within an organization ▫Subgroups focus on different specific areas and therefore use different criteria for evaluating performance and success ▫Departmental subgroups of a corporation might include operations, research and development, accounting, human resources, and engineering

18 Formal Groups Virtual teams ▫Involve individuals who work in different locations, but maintain contact and communication with other group members through technological means such as telephone, Internet, fax machine, or e-mail ▫Members of an online class represent a virtual group ▫Many companies use remote workers to conduct daily business  Use of telecommuting lessens cost of conventional office space and equipment and the costs of physical commuting  Teleworkers also benefit from closeness to their families

19 What is a Team? A specialized form of formal group that may include elements of the types of groups (aggregate, primary, secondary, category), but they have a distinct set of roles and their own type of structure ▫Typically include aggregate group elements only incidentally, and primary group elements when the team has significant longevity ▫Typically develop out of a secondary or category group ▫Ideal team must include both standard members and a team leader responsible for keeping the rest of the team motivated and on track to achieve the team’s mission

20 What is a Team? Communication is a vital element ▫A team typically requires interaction between all members, often according to formal methods (including documentation) A team’s mission is its defining characteristic, because a team is a group formed with a goal in mind ▫The goal may not initially be very well defined, so the team’s first group task is to clarify it, and then to establish a plan toward its accomplishment

21 What is a Team? Work group ▫Two or more people who interact and share some task goals ▫Group members have individual accountability and generate individual work products ▫Groups generally have a strong leader who delegates work ▫Group meetings tend to be efficient and agenda driven ▫Performance of group members is measured according to their influence on others Team ▫Two or more people working in a coordinated way to achieve the same goal and generate collective work products ▫The actions of team members are coordinated and interdependent, with each member fulfilling a specific role ▫Share leadership, and members work together with individual and mutual accountability toward a specific team purpose ▫Team meetings tend to be open- ended ▫The performance of team members is measured according to work products

22 What is a Team? Teams exist for numerous reasons, such as to do work, make decisions, or represent constituencies The ideal size of a working team (as compared to a sports team, for example) is between 6 and 12 members

23 What is a Team? 17 characteristics of effective work teams 1.Common Identity 2.Common Tasks 3.A sense of potency & success 4.Team members 5.Individual contributions 6.Balanced roles 7.Building trust 8.Relationships balanced with purpose 9.Open/direct conflict 10.Common base of information 11.Asking and listening 12.Healthy stress levels 13.Toleration of errors 14.Flexibility & responsiveness 15.Structure & content 16.Group Maintenance 17.Outside forces

24 Leadership & Teams A team’s leader: ▫has a primary role in the creation and ongoing coherence of the team ▫gauges members’ assets and liabilities and assign them the right roles, and also to keeps them motivated and in motion

25 Leadership & Teams Sometimes, leaders fail to delegate the work of a team to its members ▫Leadership failures often derive from flaws in the clarity of the team’s goals—which should provide a clear sense of the point toward which the team is moving ▫Once a goal is established, the leader directs the team to build a plan  Tasks are defined and parceled out according to what needs doing most, and who is most capable of getting something done ▫Leaders overcome this challenge by prioritizing, planning, communicating, clearly defining roles and responsibilities among team members, and building trust

26 Leadership & Teams Another team problem is attributable to the team’s leadership is unequal work distribution ▫Some members may take on less work than they should, and others may claim far too much ▫Low-productivity members who fail to complete their tasks can move more motivated members to take on a greater share of the work, leading to delays, resentment, or a team’s disintegration.  Social loafing ▫The leader can resolve the problem by clearly laying out the tasks necessary to achievement of the team goal and assigning them to individual members

27 Managing Group Commitments People may feel conflict or competition among the groups to which they belong ▫Involvement in multiple groups may lead to many time-consuming meetings and demands

28 Managing Group Commitments The frustration that results from varied commitments may be reduced through good organizational, time management, and stress management skills ▫Organizational skills include filing, action plans, goal setting, and to-do lists ▫Time management tools include schedules, planners, and timers  Techniques for improving use of one’s time include prioritizing activities, scheduling work in manageable periods of time, delegating work, and avoiding interruptions.

29 Managing Group Commitments Stress management is related to time management, because believing that there is not enough time to fulfill all of one’s responsibilities can be a major cause of stress ▫Stress can result from conflicting demands, poor scheduling, health challenges, and issues of work-life balance ▫Some ways to manage work-related stress include:  Getting proper nutrition and exercise  Getting enough sleep  Maintaining a clean and tidy environment  Communicating effectively  Planning, problem solving, and decision making  Delegating tasks and responsibilities  Using checklists and status reports to track progress and successes

30 Group Functioning A group is a collection of people brought together for a reason or purpose ▫The purpose may be a goal that the individuals in the group wish to achieve, or it may be a more general defining element ▫Members of a group distinguish themselves from other groups and expect certain behaviors from members of their own group that they would not expect from non- members ▫Group members interact with each other and with people outside the groups in different ways

31 Group Functioning Everyone participates at one time or another in both groups and team, but the terms are not synonymous ▫Each is formed differently and each has a different function  A group is an independent set of persons within a defined boundary who share some common characteristic  A team is a set of persons who are dependent on one another and share a common purpose

32 Group Functioning Psychological processes of a group are twofold (Levi): ▫Identification, the sense that individuals in the group have of being a part of a whole ▫Social representation, the group identity that they present to outsiders of their beliefs, interests, and all other things that constitute the feeling that they are part of a group.  Both of these elements may shift and change over time, as when a group moves from being a diffuse collective to become a collection of good friends who look after each other

33 Group Development Bruce Tuckman’s (1965) Developmental Sequence in Small Groups ▫Distinguished between interpersonal and task stages of group development  Interpersonal relationships, including interactions among group members (group leaders, subordinates), define a group’s structure  Tasks are the functions or jobs that the group performs

34 Group Development Tuckman identified four stages of group development: ▫(1) orientation/testing/dependence ▫(2) conflict ▫(3) group cohesion ▫(4) functional role relatedness  Shorthand for these four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing  These stages are also called Tuckman’s theory

35 Group Development Forming ▫The stage when the group comes together and members get to know one another ▫Involves the structural elements of testing and dependence, and the task activity of orientation to the group’s task

36 Group Development Storming ▫The stage during which members compete for leadership and consider which processes they will follow ▫Naturally involves conflict and resistance to the group’s influence and task ▫The structural activity of storming is the conflict within the group, and the task activity is the emotional response of group members to the demands of the task ▫There may be friction and fighting between group members until roles are assigned and accepted

37 Group Development Norming ▫The point at which agreement is reached about how the group will operate ▫Conflict is resolved during the norming stage, when group members have formed bonds and can interact more cohesively ▫Team spirit and a common goal emerge ▫Group structure is defined through member bonding, development of standards, and assignment of roles ▫Norming task activities include open communication, cooperation, support, and exchange of opinions, ideas, and interpretations

38 Group Development Performing ▫Occurs when the group operates effectively and fulfills its objectives ▫During the performing stage, members do the work of their assigned roles ▫The structure of the group can support task performance ▫Solutions emerge, and group energy is directed at the task

39 Group Development In 1977, Tuckman & Jensen confirmed Tuckman’s observations of the first 4 stages and revealed a 5 th stage: ▫Adjourning  The process of dissolving the group & letting members move on  Associated with emotions and anxiety about termination of the group  The task activities associated with this stage are disengagement and self-evaluation  Of special importance is the use of the adjourning stage to identify what has been learned

40 Group Member Roles Members of groups interact differently depending on the situation and type of group, and also depending on what roles they play within the groups ▫Primary groups may be less structured, but individuals all assume particular roles, such as parent, child, sibling, grandparent, friend, confidant, or rival ▫Secondary groups tend to have more formalized roles and patterns of expected behavior

41 Group Member Roles Group members’ roles: ▫The initiator-contributor generates ideas, offers solutions, and attempts to create decision-making situations ▫The information-seeker asks for more information regarding the group’s tasks and offers information if needed to make decisions ▫The opinion-seeker is concerned with group members’ opinions and feelings regarding the group’s tasks ▫The information-giver uses facts and personal anecdotes that are relevant to accomplishing the group’s tasks ▫The opinion-giver expresses statements and beliefs regarding the group’s tasks and members’ attitudes ▫The elaborator clarifies ideas and suggestions offered by the group and attempts to predict the outcome of the group’s efforts

42 Group Member Roles Group members’ roles: ▫The coordinator constructs and integrates relationships between ideas and suggestions ▫The orienter summarizes the goals and activities of the group, identifies departures from group goals, and questions group direction ▫The evaluator-critic gauges accomplishments and checks for group consensus ▫The energizer motivates the group to action in order to accomplish the group’s goals and tasks ▫The procedural-technician takes care of organizational duties to facilitate the smooth operation of the group ▫The recorder keeps accurate notes on group and member progress

43 Group Member Roles Social roles facilitate the operation of the group through the establishment and maintenance of administrative and social functions ▫The encourager offers praise and support for the members’ efforts ▫The harmonizer mediates during differences of opinion and offers suggestions to explore and reconcile those differences ▫The compromiser admits mistakes and offers compromises when individual ideas conflict

44 Group Member Roles Social roles ▫The gatekeeper/expediter controls the channels of communication and selectively facilitates and blocks communication between individual members ▫The standard-setter offers standards for the measurement of individual and group accomplishment ▫The group-observer offers observations regarding the moods and feelings of the group ▫The follower is a passive participant in the group’s activities, and often serves as audience for other member’s ideas and suggestions

45 Group Member Roles Individualistic roles are generally detrimental to the accomplishment of the group’s goals and tasks, though they sometimes provide initiative and motivation to the group ▫The aggressor attempts to define personal status by boasting and criticizing others ▫The blocker attempts to block group progress through negative opposition to all ideas and suggestions ▫The recognition-seeker attempts to gain status and recognition through exaggerated or false claims, past experiences, and irrelevant conversations designed to gain other members’ sympathy

46 Group Member Roles Individualistic roles ▫The self-confessor subverts the group’s purposes to create self- catharsis and examine personal mistakes and emotional issues ▫The dominator monopolizes group time, attempts to coerce other members’ agreement with personal ideas and opinions, and assumes a position of authority with the rest of the group ▫The help-seeker gains sympathy from the rest of the group by claiming insecurity, confusion, or an inability to accomplish tasks ▫The special-interest pleader engages in activities that promote outside interests and non-group activities

47 Group Member Roles All members in a group interact to some extent, and in most groups the members fulfill more than one role ▫Often, members will take roles that complement or enhance their primary roles

48 Group Dynamics Groups develop a number of dynamic processes that distinguish them from random collections of individuals ▫These processes include:  Norms  Roles  Relations  Development  A need to belong  Social influence  Effects on behavior

49 Group Dynamics Group success depends significantly on these processes and their effective or ineffective usage A group that supports clearly defined norms, encourages social development among its members, establishes roles and assigns members to them, and otherwise facilitates the dynamic processes that create a group is likely to succeed

50 Group Dynamics 3 General Types of Group Cohesiveness is a measure of the attractiveness of the group to its members: 1.Cooperation  an interaction in which group members have effective working relationships with each other that permits them to evaluate each other's interests and abilities and mesh them with their own, with group cohesiveness as the goal 2.Conflict  a state in which cohesiveness is lowered rather than improved 3.Competition  the middle ground between the two, a state of interaction in which group members work toward cohesive group goals

51 Group Dynamics A group’s size affects the amount and type of interactions that can occur within it ▫Small (less than 10-member) groups can allow all members to interact with each other as individuals, but groups of 8 to 10 individuals function more effectively in smaller subgroups ▫In large groups, the style of group interaction usually changes from conversation to presentation, because a speaker cannot individually address all individuals in a large group

52 Group Dynamics Risky shift ▫People tend to make riskier decisions when they are doing so on behalf of a group, perhaps because they perceive that doing so involves less personal risk  Sharing risk with a group can be more tempting than taking it on alone, because the diffusion of responsibility is much greater ▫On the other hand, members of groups may fear disappointing their fellow group members, and in doing so they may become more risk-averse than they would normally be  This is known as cautious shift

53 Group Dynamics Groupthink the idea that members of a homogeneous and tightly cohesive group will tend to quickly agree to decisions they believe the rest of the group supports to preserve group harmony

54 Group Dynamics Community ▫A group of people that have made a commitment to learn how to communicate with each other at an ever more deep and authentic level ▫The stages of community development are: 1.Pseudocommunity  Exists when people pretend to like one another and get along superficially in order to avoid conflict  People try to create instant community by being pleasant to each other  Differences between people tend to be ignored, and there is a high level of conformity  People may choose to hide their opinions to keep the peace

55 Group Dynamics Stages of Community Development 2.Chaos  Ensues as individual differences become apparent  Chaos often arises in response to an attempt by one person to change other people’s thoughts, opinions, or behaviors  Communities in chaos attempt to destroy differences  A period of struggle and disagreement  Criticize each other and the leaders of the community  Attempts to subdivide or form committees may result in an “escape into organization” that doesn’t enhance the development of true community  It is better to fight than to ignore differences, because it presents an opportunity to move past obstacles

56 Group Dynamics Stages of community development: 3.Emptiness  Arises following a period of chaos  The bridge between chaos and community, when people must put aside their assumptions, feelings, ideas, motives, and other barriers to communication  Letting go of expectations, assumptions, prejudices, judgments, and attempts to fix or change other community members allows the development of deeper and more realistic relationships 4.True community  Can only be achieved once differences between people have been acknowledged and differences resolved  Integrative & able to embrace diversity  They exhibit a commitment to cohesion & an ability to constructively solve problems & conflicts  Share elements of inclusively, commitment, & consensus

57 Group Dynamics Community building means learning effective communication ▫Examples of some barriers to communication include:  Ideology  a collection of ideas or a way of looking at reality  Theology  a set of religious beliefs  Expectations  a collection of goals that people want others to achieve  Preconceptions and judgments made about people or situations before getting to know them  Attempts at conversion and control that result from a desire among individuals to achieve conformity and have others be more like them, or more like what they think the others should be  Prejudices  negative preconceptions of people and which tend to be more unconscious than conscious

58 Group Dynamics It takes about two days for a group of 30 to 50 people to form a community ▫Larger groups take longer ▫Once members of communities work through the barriers to communication, they can learn to live together peacefully and intentionally ▫Ending conflict involves displaying vulnerability to others  There can be no vulnerability without risk; and there can be no community without vulnerability; and there can be no peace—ultimately no life—without community

59 Group & Diversity Diversity is a factor that directly affects group cohesion and productivity ▫Team members may encounter difficulties communicating & working effectively together because of differences:  Age  Race  Gender  Education  Culture  Values

60 Group & Diversity Diversity can have positive and negative impacts on group function ▫People with different backgrounds and knowledge can contribute new perspectives and solutions ▫Divergences of opinions, values, and attitudes toward other members can create conflict instead of cooperation

61 Group & Diversity Effective communication incorporates: ▫Active listening  Encouraging engagement between speaker and listener through eye contact and body language and paraphrasing and clarifying to ensure accuracy of understanding ▫Empathy  A level of emotional care for and sympathy with the speaker ▫Feedback  Constructive criticism that demonstrates attention and encourages improvement

62 Group & Diversity Interpersonal sensitivity ▫An ability to gauge a group member's abilities, likes, dislikes, and other personality-related qualities, and adapt one's own responses to value that person's contributions Team-building strategies build on interpersonal sensitivity, but take place on a collective level ▫Sensitivity to an individual helps draw out that individual's best work and encourages loyalty ▫Team-building strategies help bind a team into a cohesive, cooperative unit

63 Group & Diversity Geert Hofstede studied the influence of culture on organizations and workplaces ▫5 dimensions of culture affecting organizations: 1.Power distance  Measures how less powerful members of organizations accept an unequal distribution of power  Can describe the level of "employee fear" in an organization where employees avoid criticizing management  Groups typically include this dimension

64 Group & Diversity 2.Individualism ▫The extent that people in a group identify as individuals or as group members  Groups contend with this factor as they establish relations, norms, and a need to belong ▫High level of individualism means it will be more difficult for the group to develop a cooperative mindset  Too much cooperation can lead to reduced chances for advancement as members avoid conflicting or competing with each other—even when competition might improve the group

65 Group & Diversity 3.Masculinity versus femininity ▫Masculine cultures value assertiveness, accumulation, and competitiveness ▫Feminine cultures value sharing, relationships, and quality of life ▫Where one or the other is dominant, the members of the group with the opposite tendency may risk devaluation unless efforts are made to balance these influences

66 Group & Diversity 4.Uncertainty avoidance ▫How cultures attempt to minimize uncertainty through rules and regulated behavior ▫Highly regulated culture are likely to have a greater emphasis on norms and a stricter approach toward their enforcement ▫In more diverse groups, in which members come from cultures with different types of uncertainties, there may be confusions and difficulties ▫Looking at potential miscommunications can help alleviate this problem

67 Group & Diversity 5.Long-term orientation ▫A sense of long-term orientation  Used in the case of goals that will take significant time to achieve  Associated with values of perseverance, status and ordered relationships, thrift, and a sense of shame ▫A short-term orientation approach  Used for problems expected to be solved swiftly  Associated with personal stability, personal honor, respect and tradition, and reciprocity

68 Group & Diversity 5.Long-term orientation ▫Groups may include as part of their norms  Establishing an orientation early in the group’s formation can prevent future difficulties ▫A statement like, "We're in it for the long haul," produces very different work environments and team member relationships than a statement like "Let's get this finished"

69 Group Communication Successful communication involves being able to speak intelligently about ideas and motivations Successful communicators are active listeners who give feedback to show they are engaged and understanding Feedback among group members: ▫enhances understanding ▫improves the quality of communication ▫increases the accuracy of the information exchanged ▫contributes to group cohesion Negative feedback can be difficult to receive, but if group members remain focused on their common goal, challenges can be overcome

70 Group Communication A small amount of the perceived message of a communication comes from the message’s words; the majority of the message is conveyed through tone of voice and body language (Mehrabian) ▫Active listening  Listening is far more than just hearing what a speaker is saying  Involves eye contact, posture, and gestures that indicate engagement between a speaker and listener  One must hear a message, pay attention to it, understand it, and remember it

71 Group Communication Using active postures helps listeners pay attention and demonstrates attentiveness to the speaker ▫Active-listening postures include:  squarely facing the speaker  leaning toward the speaker  maintaining eye contact  having an open, relaxed posture

72 Group Communication Another active listening skill is paraphrasing ▫Restating someone else’s statement in your own words ▫Can help you correct understanding and demonstrate that you are paying attention to the speaker’s words Carl Rogers’ therapeutic technique of mirroring ▫A therapist’s remarks are little more than reflections of the patient's thoughts and feelings ▫The premise is to "honor the patient's process" by allowing the patients to heal themselves

73 Group Communication Clarifying questions and statements ▫Used to reduce or correct confusion, get more information, see other points of view, and to identify what a speaker is thinking and feeling Perception checking ▫The process of requesting verification of one’s perceptions and assumptions Summarizing ▫Identifying the main points or concepts and presenting them in a short, condensed statement ▫Can be used to organize facts, ideas, and feelings presented in a conversation Empathy ▫A state of concern for another person ▫Listeners should be empathetic so speakers feel valued and understood ▫Empathy can be developed through active listening, body language, and feedback

74 Group Communication Feedback can take the form of constructive or negative criticism Feedback connects to communication, morale, and delegation ▫Constructive feedback can be used to improve individual and team morale, productivity, and performance ▫Negative feedback can effect necessary change, but it can also diminish relationships and reduce productivity

75 Group Communication Psychologist Carl Rogers defined five types of feedback: 1.Evaluative or judgmental  May be positive or negative  Involves drawing conclusions in the form of value judgments about a person instead of his or her actions 2.Interpretive  Tests understanding by interpreting and rephrasing what was said

76 Group Communication Psychologist Carl Rogers defined five types of feedback: 3.Supportive  Used to support another person’s ego  The opposite of supportive feedback is discouragement or negative criticism 4.Probing  Seeks more information by asking questions 5.Understanding  Involves comprehending what the speaker is saying and also the subtext of the situation

77 Group Communication How well people give and receive feedback depends on their personalities ▫People who are uncomfortable receiving criticism or who have poor self-esteem may have difficulty responding to negative feedback ▫People with high levels of self-esteem respond more calmly to feedback and negative situations ▫People who are uncomfortable giving criticism may feel that doing so makes them vulnerable to receiving it  People with little self-esteem often do not feel sufficiently worthy to criticize other people

78 Communication within Groups 5 strategies for communicating with crowds: 1.Communicating on the crowd's level 2.Addressing obvious differences or issues 3.Reframing questions and statements with different words to demonstrate understanding 4.Displaying passion and humor 5.Being familiar with the people involved and knowledgeable about situations and issues of importance to the crowd

79 Communication within Groups Small groups are characterized by good communication, ▫between 3 and 15 members ▫groups with more members find that their ability to communicate freely is necessarily limited Good communication is the clear exchange of information which requires both parties to have speaking and listening skills

80 Communication within Groups Good speaking skills: ▫self-disclosure ▫giving feedback ▫checking perception ▫asking questions Good listening skills: ▫reflecting feelings, or letting the other party know you understand how they feel ▫paraphrasing ▫Summarizing ▫asking questions about content ▫asking for or receiving feedback

81 Communication within Groups In primary groups (family or close friends), a higher level of familiarity and emotional exchange takes place ▫Effective communication in families:  frequent communication  clear and direct communication of thoughts and feelings  active listening  avoiding assumptions  paying attention to nonverbal messages  being positive  being sensitive to maturity levels

82 Covey’s Habits Covey’s 7 habits of highly effective people ▫Powerful communication and relationship tools ▫Each habit Covey lists requires a pattern of behaviors, including knowledge, skill, and a desire to be effective ▫The habits are interdependent, sequential, and can be taught to group members to improve communication ▫All seven habits may be applied to both individual members and a group as a collaborative unit ▫By applying these habits, a group becomes more cohesive and better able to achieve its goals.

83 Covey’s Habits The first three habits build personal character and lead to what Covey calls “personal victories” because they frequently affect people at the individual level Habits four through six are particularly relevant to group communication ▫Yield what Covey calls “public victories” which involve other people Habit seven is about renewal and honing of one’s self, skills, and priorities

84 Covey’s Habits Habit 1: “Be proactive” ▫Personal vision, responsibility, & conscious decision making ▫Distinguishing between things that can or cannot be controlled  Proactive people focus their attention and energy on matters over which they have control and do not worry about matters they cannot influence  This can be encouraged as a group goal—the definition of a group’s vision, an understanding of its responsibilities, and decision-making with a collaborative mind toward achievement

85 Covey’s Habits Habit 2: “Begin with the end in mind” ▫Planning and having a personal mission statement  Mission statement: a personal philosophy that encompasses an individual’s ideal of how and who s/he wants to be and what goals s/he wants to accomplish  The best results come when a desired outcome is clearly defined first ▫Helps a group define itself, providing a specific focus toward which members can work together to achieve success

86 Covey’s Habits Habit 3: “Put first things first” ▫Prioritization and time management ▫Developing a mission statement can also be helpful in deciding which activities are most important ▫Quadrant matrices, which are grids that can be used to classify the relative urgency and importance of tasks, can be useful prioritization tools  Tasks that are important and urgent, important but not urgent, not important but urgent, and neither important nor urgent

87 Covey’s Habits Habit 4: “Think win-win” ▫4 primary attitude paradigms that dictate how individuals respond to situations:  Win-win  Based on the principle of abundance and an attitude that success is not achieved through competition but through cooperation and mutually beneficial solutions  Win-win agreements involve five elements which need to be defined for lasting effectiveness: desired results, resources, guidelines, accountability, and consequences

88 Covey’s Habits Habit 4: “Think win-win” ▫4 primary attitude paradigms:  The win-lose and lose-win paradigms do not yield mutually satisfying results  Win-lose is an authoritarian approach where one person succeeds at another’s expense  Lose-win is a conciliatory approach where one party gives in to please or appease the other party

89 Covey’s Habits Habit 4: “Think win-win” ▫4 primary attitude paradigms:  Lose-lose  A combative approach where both parties are so concerned with getting an advantage over the other that neither is focused on success ▫Win-win solutions are more likely to result in successful plans to which all parties can commit  When a win-win solution cannot be found, a solution should be postponed until a win-win solution can be devised

90 Covey’s Habits Habit 5: “Seek first to understand, then to be understood” ▫Communication and active, engaged listening with the attitude of seeking understanding rather than listening with the intent to reply ▫True communication stems from considerate listening, which creates opportunities to speak honestly and be understood

91 Covey’s Habits Habit 6: “Synergize” ▫Creative cooperation, mutual respect, and collaboration ▫It benefits from diversity and the fusion of different perspectives ▫Synergy is a complementary coordination of effort that leads to more effective teams and relationships  It produces more than the sum of any group of inputs or parts, and is a good example of a win-win outcome

92 Covey’s Habits Habit 7: “Sharpen the saw” ▫The habit of self-renewal and regeneration ▫4 aspects of life—physical, emotional/social, mental, and spiritual—need attention and renewal for optimum health ▫Taking care of one’s own needs is necessary in order to be effective in all other areas of life  If people do not tend to their own needs, they are less able to respond to the needs of others  “Sharpening the saw” also applies to self-improvement activities, such as education, exercise, and practicing and learning skills

93 Group Decision Making Some decision making strategies are: ▫Brainstorming  A method of generating a large number of ideas or alternatives in a short time period  No ideas are rejected in the initial round, and ideas flow freely as a result  Following the idea generation stage, each alternative can be assessed by the group for feasibility

94 Group Decision Making Brainstorming works particularly well in category groups, task groups, committees, and any other type of group that has a problem to solve Other types of groups (like aggregates and families) are significantly less likely to use it Brainstorming is rarely used without involving other processes, since it merely produces ideas rather than decisions

95 Group Decision Making Agenda-based decision making ▫A patterned approach to dealing with issues by groups ▫Individuals are each given a chance to discuss and handle their problems ▫Frequently, the issues are laid out initially, or each person is called on in turn  There may be a finite time allocated per issue

96 Group Decision Making Agenda-based decisions work well in primary and secondary groups More suitable to group bonding ▫It encourages all members to speak about their issues and others to practice active listening and make suggestions toward solutions

97 Group Decision Making Nominal group technique ▫Similar to brainstorming but uses an anonymous approach to reduce conflict between individuals ▫A problem is presented to a small group ▫Each member offers ideas for solutions in writing, and the ideas are presented to the group and discussed ▫Afterward, the ideas are ranked anonymously in writing

98 Group Decision Making Nominal group technique is most effective in secondary groups that need to make decisions or have discussions but have not necessarily bonded and achieved a cooperative spirit Permits issues that are pertinent to the group as a whole to be examined separately from the involved personalities

99 Group Decision Making Delphi technique ▫Developed by the Rand Corporation ▫Uses anonymity to keep the focus on the issue and not the people involved ▫Groups of experts form virtual groups that do not meet in person ▫Questions are sent to each group member for anonymous written evaluations ▫The answers are summarized and presented back to the group members, who may then modify their original answers

100 Group Decision Making Potentially effective in secondary groups Particularly well suited to aggregates, whose members often do not even know each other and need only the pertinent information for any given situation

101 Managing Group Conflict Conflicts and disputes exist everywhere, among all people, and they are an inevitable part of life Conflict may arise any time people interact, and it can be caused by differences in culture, personality, performance, or expectations, or as a result of poor

102 Managing Group Conflict Conflicts within groups can result from: ▫Defensive communication patterns ▫Conflicts of interest ▫Competitive culture ▫Self-centered, or individualistic, roles ▫Imbalanced power

103 Elements of Conflict Group conflicts involve several elements, including emotions, needs, perceptions, power, and values. ▫Emotions and feelings can complicate or create conflicts, particularly when suppressed or ignored  They are strongest when issues of personal expression, self-concept, shame, and pride are involved, and they often lead to anger and potentially violent outbursts

104 Elements of Conflict Needs are things that are essential ▫Desires are often confused with needs, but they are not necessary for survival or success ▫Members’ needs in a group environment relate to issues such as identity, recognition, and access to resources and information ▫When needs are not met or are denied within the group, conflict can result

105 Elements of Conflict Perceptions are how people view reality ▫All people perceive things differently, and effective communication and the habit of “seeking first to understand, and then to be understood” can equalize perceptions and help individuals understand each other’s views

106 Elements of Conflict The distribution of power in a group may be formal, informal, legitimate, or illegitimate Power influences conflicts, and the misuse of power causes conflicts

107 Elements of Conflict Incompatible values can be a problem area ▫Values are the beliefs and principles of the group members and their sense of the group’s norms  For instance, members who intend to use a group as a springboard to a more advanced position may not work in the group’s best interest; instead, they may choose to do only what makes them look good

108 Elements of Conflict Conflict may exist between workers related to tasks, or between workers and management related to perceptions of unfair treatment Conflict in working groups can improve performance and morale if it is managed correctly Conflict can result in growth and innovation, new ideas and ways of thinking, and alternative management options

109 Elements of Conflict Covey’s seven-habit philosophy is a useful tool for managing and avoiding conflict ▫The process of honest and open communication and an attitude of seeking understanding lead to more effective and constructive interactions among people Common responses to conflict include “fight, flight, and unite” ▫People might respond to conflict aggressively, by fighting ▫They might choose to flee or otherwise retreat  Neither fighting nor fleeing is a constructive response to conflict. ▫Uniting is a collaborative problem-solving approach  Covey’s tools and techniques are useful for uniting

110 Managing & Resolving Conflict Although conflict itself is not a negative phenomenon, it must be put to productive use in order to improve the group as a whole ▫Left unchecked, conflict can destroy the social bonds that preserve the group Strategies for resolving or managing conflicts include: ▫Forcing and competing  Forcing and competition are “fight” responses that generally result in a win-lose outcome  Forcing is the application of power (whether formal or informal) to compel the other members of the group to a conflict outcome  Competition is a struggle between members that determines which viewpoint is dominant without permitting the option of compromise

111 Managing & Resolving Conflict Avoiding and accommodating ▫Avoiding and accommodating are “flight” responses ▫Avoiding is a form of flight that generally results in a lose-lose outcome because of a lack or concern for the issue and group members’ (including one’s own) interests  A member who remains silent about a disagreement instead of speaking up and risking an argument  This behavior can lead to a lack of progress and resentment ▫Accommodation is a flight response that demonstrates the lose- win paradigm.  Involves giving in and may be used when an issue is more important to one side than the other  It does not usually result in a creative, mutually satisfying solution

112 Managing & Resolving Conflict Compromising and collaborating ▫Compromise and collaboration tend to generate mutually satisfactory outcomes ▫Compromise agreements involve some wins and some losses on both sides  They can be used as temporary solutions but are generally not as satisfying as collaborative agreements  May also distract group members from the original issue ▫Collaboration involves three elements: confrontation, open and honest acknowledgement and addressing of problems; integration, examining options and decision making; and smoothing, calming upset feelings and renewing relationships  It is generally the result of honest mutual concern about the issue and the welfare of all the group members, and it usually results in a win-win solution, fosters commitment and positivity, and reduces conflict

113 Managing & Resolving Conflict Integrating differences ▫This approach focuses on not merely collaboration and cooperation between parties, but also recognition of the needs of both and an intent to meet both sets of needs ▫Mary Parker Follett emphasized creative and mutually beneficial solutions

114 Teams & Conflict Teams are a distinct subset of groups because they have a defining purpose Groups as a general category form out of similar interests or an overarching organization, and teams have a specific goal or other driving agenda ▫For example, sports teams form to win matches against rival teams; a group of students form a team to write a paper; and a group of colleagues forms a team to write a business plan

115 Teams & Conflict The most important element in the effective function of any team is its collective purpose ▫When the sense of a common goal fails, or team members have inconsistent views of the team's goals and how they should be achieved, conflicts are inevitable ▫Common problems in team formation and effectiveness range from key disagreements about the development of the goal, to team members who fail to meet their obligations or team leaders who refuse to delegate work, end up doing most of it themselves, and resent their team as consequence

116 Teams & Conflict The additional intensity of a team (versus a group) can exacerbate even the most minor problems ▫Members of a team are interdependent ▫Even when there are measures in place to prevent failure, trust, reliable avenues for communication, a competent leader, and a sense of how to resolve conflicts over group goals and personal issues are necessary A more generic group can afford to have members who are unable to work with together ▫Teams do not have that luxury

117 Teams & Conflict A strong sense of team purpose can also bypass many of the potential conflicts ▫It is absolutely crucial to establish a team mission statement and then be certain that every member fully understands and supports it Important steps in defining a mission statement include determining a tight definition of the goal for which the team has been formed, a clear and easily followed plan of attack for achieving it, and a reason for pursuing the goal ▫Most of these elements do not go into the actual mission statement but they are instrumental in narrowing down and clarifying its content

118 Teams & Conflict A goal-achievement plan generally includes the following crucial elements: ▫Scheduling ▫A roster of necessary duties ▫Methods of communication between team members ▫A process for handling changes to the goal Once a team’s goal is defined, each member of the team is assigned a role and tasks, and each member has a critical part in the success of the group


Download ppt "Psychology for Life and Work Chapter 7 Groups. When I say “leader,” I mean not so much the person with the title, but a person who is going to get the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google