2Imagine for a moment…That you are at home engaged in one of your favorite activities; playing a game, listening to music, or reading. So far the day is as any other. Then all of the sudden a group of individuals arrive at your front door demanding that you stop what ever you are doing. These individuals tell you that your way of life is wrong. They inform you however that they have come to your house to correct your way of life. They say it is their responsibility to change your way of living for the better. You find out that this has happened not only to you but your neighbors as well. Over time your way of life does change. These individuals, who you do not even know, have changed your government, religion, and other cultural practices, and remember these individuals told you this was for your own good. What is your reaction?
3Imperialism: Perspective “Our whole existence has been controlled by people with an alien attitude to life, people with different customs and beliefs. They have determined the form of government, the types of economic activity, and the schooling which our children have…A man who tries to control the life of another does not destroy the other any less because he does it, as he thinks, for the other’s benefit. It is the principle which is wrong, the principle of one man governing another without his consent.” -Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
4Key VocabularyImperialism: A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries or territories politically, economically, or socially. Colony: Land controlled by a distant nation. Empire: Extensive territory (colonies) under the control of a single, powerful state. Imperial Power: A country that controls an empire.
5Setting the Stage Industrialization Imperialism Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European nations.They needed more resources to fuel their industrial production.They competed for new markets for their goods.They looked to Africa and Asia as sources of the raw materials and as markets for their industrial products.
6The British Empire During 1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. Why?British industrialization.British banking system.British navy.Britain dominated 19th century andestablished a huge empire.British empire reached it’s heightunder Queen Victoria in late 1800sand early 1900s.
8Other countries followed Britain’s lead. The French , Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese moved to expand colonies in Africa.Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans.Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia.Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them. Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over new lands in Africa.The United States and Japan also got involved in overseas expansion during this period.
11Motives Driving Imperialism Economic CompetitionIndustrialized nations competed for raw materials and new markets to improve their economies.GeopoliticsAn interest in land for strategic location or resourcesEuropean nations interested in specific resources in specific places but not always interested in taking over entire country.Examples: canals, mines, oil, water access
13Motives Driving Imperialism (con’t) Nationalism / National PrideEmpires viewed as a measure of national greatness“All great nations in their fullness of their strength have desired to set their mark upon barbarian lands.”RacismEuropeans believed that the white race was superior to other peoples.Europeans (white man) had to take on the burden and responsibility of civilizing (Westernizing) “savages.”
14Motives Driving Imperialism (con’t) Missionary / Messianic ImpulseDesire to Christianize people.Impulse to “save the world.”Believed European rule was the best way to end evil practices (i.e. slave trade)
15Cecil Rhodes Successful businessman who wanted to expand British Empirebecause he believed the Anglo-Saxon race was destined forgreatness.In his will, Rhodes said of theBritish, "I contend that we are thefinest race in the world and that themore of the world we inhabit thebetter it is for the human race."
16Social Darwinism “Survival of the fittest” ideas of Charles Darwin were applied tohuman society.Those fittest for survival enjoyedwealth and success and were con-sidered superior to others.Theory was used to justifycapitalism and imperialism.
17Social Darwinism and Colonialism Because non-Europeans didn’thave the technology Europeansdid, they were assumed to beinferior.Natives viewed as being weaker(and more unfit to survive) soseizing their land and theirresources was justifiable.
18Imperialism Had Mass Appeal. Novels and poetry glorified Imperialism .The most popular writer of the day wasRudyard Kipling ( ).Kipling appealed to his readers’ senseof adventure AND to their feelingsof superiority.He saw imperialism as a mission to“civilize non-Europeans” and urged hisreaders to “take up the white man’sburden.”
19The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling According to Kipling, what is the “White Man’s burden”? It was the burden of the white Europeans to help, teach, and care for the “uncivilized” people of the world.“Take up the White Man's burden— Send forth the best ye breed—Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need;To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild—Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.Take up the White Man's burden— In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride;By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain,To seek another's profit And work another's gain.Take up the White Man's burden— The savage wars of peace—Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid the sickness cease;And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought)Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to nought.”
20“The white man’s burden” - The Journal, Detroit 1899
21Racism Before Reading: Define the term race in your own words. When you think of the word race, what comes to mind? Record a bulleted list of words and/or characteristics that you associate with the idea of race. Add in bullet points as needed.Is race real? Does it exist? Justify your answer in the space below.
22Racism After Reading: How did your idea of race change? Do you agree with the ideas listed in these handouts? Why or why not?What was the most surprising statement? Why?How might this new understanding change the way you think about others?
24European Exploration of Africa Few Europeans penetrated Africa’sinterior before late 1800s.Expedition of David Livingstone in1860s captured world’s attention.Livingstone searching for source ofthe Nile. Discovered Victoria Falls.Livingstone one of the most popularnational heroes in Victorian England.
28Berlin Conference, 1884-85 European conference to lay down rules for the division ofAfrica.Agreed any European countrycould claim land in Africa bynotifying other nations of theirclaims and showing they couldcontrol the area.No African ruler attended thesemeetings
29European Partition of Africa, 1914 By 1914 only two territories remained free from European control:LiberiaEthiopiaWhen Europeanspartitioned Africa,they didn’t takeAfrican ethnic and linguistic groupings into account.
31Forces Enabling Europe’s Conquest of Africa - Quinine cure for malaria- Railroads/Steamships- Modern weapons (Maxim gun)External FactorsInternal Factors- Variety of cultures and languages- Disunity of Africans / ethnic strife- Low level of technology
33Three Groups Clash Over South Africa The Dutch established tradingstations in South Africa in the1600’s.Dutch “Boers” took over nativeAfricans’ lands and establishedlarge farms.Gold discovered 1800s. Britishimmigrants (miners) flocked toSouth Africa. Treated as second-class citizens with few rights bythe Boers.Boer Settlers
35The Boer War, 1899-1902 Began with uprising of British immigrants against the Boergovernment.British empire sent troops. Warbegan.Boers used guerrilla tactics againstsuperior British forces.British fought “total war”. BurnedBoer farms and towns.Put Boer women and children inconcentration camps, where 26,000people died, mostly from plague.
41Setting the Stage What was most important to the European powers when they carved up Africa?Being able to CONTROL theland, people, and resourcesof the continent.Wanted to shape the economies of colonies to benefitEuropean economies.Wanted native populations to adopt European ways, as well.
42Forms of Colonial (External) Control Forms of ImperialismCharacteristicsExampleColonyA country or region governed by a foreign powerSomaliland in East Africa was a French colonyProtectorateA country or territory with its own government but under the control of an outside powerBritain established a protectorate over the Niger River deltaSphere of InfluenceAn area in which an outside power exercises domination or indirect control.Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United StatesEconomic ImperialismWhen independent but less developed nations are controlled by business interests rather than by other governmentsThe Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii
43Methods of Internal Management Indirect ControlDirect ControlLocal government officials were usedLimited self-ruleGoal: To develop future leadersGovernment institutions are based on European styles but many have local rulesForeign officials brought in to ruleNo self-rule.Policy of paternalism.Goal: assimilationGovernment institutions are based only on European stylesExamples:British colonies such as Canada, Nigeria, India, Burma, and South Africa.U.S. colonies on Pacific IslandsFrench colonies such as Somaliland, VietnamGerman colonies such as TanganyikaPortuguese colonies such as Angola
44Indirect vs. Direct Forms of Imperialism How did Britain control its colonies?Indirectly – Used local chieftains by putting hitherto weak people in charge over the daily affairs of the colony.The weak “chieftain” was supported by British military power and directed by British political officials.How did Francecontrol its colonies?Directly – using the concept of paternalism (the French are the “fathers” and the Africans are the “children” and since father knows best, France controlled the daily activities of government in the colony through white French officials.Assimilation - France also wanted the colonials to adopt French ways of dressing, behaving, governing, speaking and believing – because the French ways are superior and more advanced, successful and civilized.
45African Resistance Fails Many Africans resisted Europeansubjugation, but the Europeansalways had superior weapons.At the Battle of Omdurman, theBritish killed some 10,000Sudanese with machine guns.Some 500 British soldiers andtheir African allies defeated31,000 Nigerians using machineguns.
46British Troops at Battle of Omdurman in Sudan, 1898
48African Resistance Fails African religious leaders during theMaji Maji Rebellion in GermanWest Africa claimed magic waterwould make bullets harmless –some 26,000 died as they attackedGerman machine guns with spears.
49African Resistance Fails The Zulus in South Africa foughtagainst the British.During the war, the Zulus defeatedthe British at Battle of Isandlwana,but the Zulu rebellion was eventuallydefeated in 1879.Zulu Warrior
54Ethiopia: Africa’s Only Successful Resistance Ethiopia was the only countryto successfully resist theEuropeans.At the Battle of Adowa in 1896,the Ethiopians defeated theItalians and maintained theirindependence
55A Voice From the Past“Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus, the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation, and militarism. Edward Morel The Black Man’s Burden
57Impact of Colonial Rule Negative ImpactPositive ImpactReduced warfare between African tribes.Improved sanitation.New hospitals provided better medical care.New schools improved education and raised literacy rates.Economic expansionBetter transportation and communicationAfricans lost control of their lands and their independence.Africans died from new diseases such as smallpox.Africans died resisting Europeans.Famines resulted from switch to cash crops.Traditional cultures broke down. Led to instability.Unnatural partition of continent by artificial boundaries combined or divided groups….
59European Empires Expanded Beyond Africa After dividing Africa amongthemselves, European powerslooked to Muslim lands thatrimmed the Mediterranean.Muslim power weakening inthis strategically importantarea.
60The Decline of the Ottoman Empire reached its peak.Empire steadily declinedfor next 200 years.1800s - Many territorieswon independence andbroke away.Other parts of OttomanEmpire taken away byother European powers.
62The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Death of Suleiman the Magnificent The greatest Sultan of Ottoman Empire died in 1566.His successors were weak and ineffective; opportunities for subject nations to fight for independence.Weak leaders also resulted in corruption, angering subjects. Led to revolts and to the slow shrinking of the Empire.Suleiman I
63Rise of Nationalism Nationalist feelings emerged in subject nations which ledto revolts against Ottomanrule.Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians andArabs revolted.These nations were sometimesaided by European powersallied against Ottomans.European leaders “dividethe spoils” after the Russo-Turkish War
64Geopolitics and the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire occupied astrategically important area.Why?Controlled access to theMediterranean and Atlanticsea trade.Sat astride vast oil reservesin Persia and Arabia (afterdiscovery around 1900).
65The Crimean War, 1853 War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Russia wanted Ottomanland on the Black Sea.Britain and France alliedwith Ottomans to blockRussia’s ambitions.Russia defeated, butOttomans continued tosteadily lose territoryafter the war.
66The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson , 1854 Half a league half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred: 'Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns' he said: Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. 'Forward, the Light Brigade!' Was there a man dismay'd ? Not tho' the soldier knew Some one had blunder'd: Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do & die, Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred.Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volley'd & thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot andshell, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of Hell Rode the six hundred.The Charge of the Light Brigade was a disastrous charge of British cavalry against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on October 25, 1854The Charge of The Light Brigade (1936), Errol Flynn
67wounded during the Crimean War Florence Nightingale tending Britishwounded during the Crimean War
68Egypt and the Suez Canal Canal connected Red Seato the Mediterranean.Built with European $$$and Egyptian labor.Opened to ships in 1869.Egypt couldn’t pay hugedebt to European banks.British occupied Egypt in and took control of canal.
69The Suez CanalCut trip by two weeks and 4,000 miles
72Geopolitics: Britain, Russia and Persia Britain and Russia bothwanted Persian territory.Why?Russia wanted access toPersian Gulf and IndianOcean.Britain wanted Afghanistanas buffer between India andRussia.
73Britain and Russia Divide Persia After oil was discovered in Persia, British oil companies were needed to develop oil fields.In 1907 Britain and Russia divided Persia into separate spheres of influence.British gained control of Afghanistan, as well.
78The East India Company1600’s: British East India Company set up first trading posts in India.1700s: East India Company became leading power in India controlling most of the country.Until 19th century the East India Company ruled India with little interference from the British government.East India CompanyTerritory in India
79India: Britain’s Most Valuable Colony India was the largest and most lucrative colony of the entire British Empire – the brightest “jewel in the crown.”How did India benefitBritain’s economy?
80Methods of Economic Control India required to produceraw materials for Britain’smanufacturingIndia required to and buyBritish finished goods.Indian competition withBritish finished goods wasprohibited.
81British Railroad Network in India British built extensiverailroad network inIndia to transport rawmaterials out andfinished goods back in.World’s third largestrailroad system allowedIndia to develop moderneconomy and unifieddistant regions.
82Impact of British Colonial Rule over India Positive ImpactBritish-built railroads, roads, telephone lines, bridges, dams and irrigation canals helped India modernize.Sanitation and public health improved.Improved literacy rates due to British-built schools and colleges.British cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare.
83Impact of British Colonial Rule over India Negative ImpactBritish, not India, held the political and economic power.Indian industries restricted.Emphasis on cash crops led to loss of self-sufficiency.Growing of cash crops also led to food shortages and famine in late 1800s.Customs and traditions of Indians threatened.
84Hindus vs. Muslims in India Hindus outnumbered Muslims in India 2:1History of poor treatment of Hindus by fallen Muslim Mughal Dynasty caused much distrust b/w two groupsMany Hindus favored British over Muslim ruleBritish used religious division of Indians to their advantage.
85Indian Discontent British controlled most of Indian subcontinent by 1850.Many pockets of discontent.Indians resented attempts toconvert them to Christianity.Indians also resented racistattitudes of British.Growing Indian nationalism…
86Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Rumor that soldier’s rifle cartridges were sealed withbeef and pork fat.Needed to bite off end to use.Beef offended Hindus; porkoffended MuslimsMany soldiers refused to usecartridges and were jailed.Soldier’s rebellion spreadthroughout northern India.Fierce fighting followed.Sometimes called India’s firstwar of independence.
88British troops defending Mutiny FailedEast India Company, withhelp of British army, tookover a year to end mutiny.Why did mutiny fail?Hindu and Muslim troopscould not unite.Many Hindus remainedloyal to British.Weak leadership.BritishBritish troops defendingagainst Sepoy attack
89Indian soldiers being executed by British canons The aftermath of the Sepoy Mutiny, 1858
90Execution of mutineers after the Sepoy Mutiny, 1758
91Results of the Sepoy Mutiny Distrust between Indiansand British increased.Racist attitudes of Britishgrew.British government tookdirect command of India.Turning point in Indianhistory.Royal residency at Lucknowafter Sepoy attack
92The Raj Period when India was under direct control of British government.Lasted from 1757 until1947.British government appointed official with title of viceroy to carry out its orders in India.
95Indian Nationalist Movements Emerge 1800s: Some Indians demandedmore modernization and a greaterrole in governing themselves.Indians who resented being treatedas second class citizens inside theirown country.Two nationalist groups formed:Indian National CongressMuslim LeagueStrong tension developed betweenHindus and Muslims as nationalismcontinued to rise.
99Europeans Compete for Land in Southeast Asia Lands of Southeast Asia were perfect for plantation agriculture.Major crops grown:Sugar caneCoffeeCocoaRubberCoconutsBananasPineapple
100The Netherlands The Dutch East India Company Gained control of Dutch East Indies (Now Indonesia ).Main cash crop: rubber.Many Dutch populated islands.Established rigid social class structure.Forced farmers to plant one-fifth of land in export crops.
101The British in Southeast Asia Established busy port on islandof Singapore.Gained colonies in Malaysiaand Burma.Encouraged Chinese workers toimmigrate to Malaysia to minetin and tap rubber trees.Immigration policy created still-existing conflict between Chineseand minority Malays.
102The French in Southeast Asia French IndochinaVietnamLaosCambodiaFrench imposed their cultureon Indochina.Exploited colonies for riceproduction, while localpopulations saw their riceconsumption reduced.Set the stage for Vietnameseresistance to French rule.
103The U.S. Acquires Pacific Islands Late 19th century: U.S. beganacquiring territory in Pacific.Won Spanish-American Warand gained Philippines andGuam in 1898.Touched off debate in Americaover imperialism.U.S. business interests wantedto expand trade and open newmarkets overseas.
104The U.S. and the Philippines President McKinley concludedU.S. had “to educate Filipinos,…uplift and Christianize them.”U.S. fought 3 year war againstFilipino nationalists, defeatingthem in 1902.Promised Filipinos to preparethem for self-rule.Like the other imperial powers,U.S. exploited the Philippineseconomically - promoting cashcrops over food crops.
105The Annexation of Hawaii Mid 19th century – U.S. sugarproducers dominated Hawaiieconomically and politically.U.S. businessmen arrangedplot to overthrow Hawaiianqueen, establishing a republicin 1893.Hawaii annexed by U.S. fiveyears later, in 1898.Queen Liliuokalani
108China’s Economy in the 1800s Healthy agricultural economy.Extensive mining/manufacturing.Pride in self-sufficiency.Resistant to foreign influencesand trade with the West.Balance of trade that did existfavored China: earned far moreon exports to Europe than it spenton imports from Europe.
109The Opium Trade Europeans found one product Chinese would import in largequantities – opium.Habit-forming narcotic madefrom poppy plant.Used by Chinese for centuriesto relieve pain. When Britishmerchants smuggled it intoChina for nonmedical use in1800s, millions of Chinesebecame addicted.
111The Opium Trade“By what right do they (British Merchants) …use the poisonous drug (opium) to injure the Chinese people?...I have heard that the smoking of Opium is strictly forbidden by your country…Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries.”Lin Zexu, quoted in China’s Response to the West
112Opium War: 1839 - 1842 Conflict between Britain and China over Britain’s opium in China.When Britain refused tostop trading opium, Chinadeclared war.Most fighting occurred at sea. China’s ships were farinferior to Britain’s.China suffered humiliatingdefeat. Forced to sign theTreaty of Nanjing.
113Treaty of Nanjing, 1842 British given island of Hong Kong. Foreign citizens gainedextraterritorial rights,giving them immunityfrom Chinese law in keyChinese ports.Opium trade continued.NOTE: After a century of British rule, Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997.
114China’s Internal Problems Mid-19th centurySoaring population growth combined with barely increasing food production led to widespread hunger.Crumbling dikes led to flooding of farms and famine.Corrupt government did nothing to relieve people’ssuffering.Opium addition steadily increased.Discouraged population began to rebel against the ruling Qing dynasty.
115Taiping Rebellion: 1853 14 year rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan, who had visions of a China where allwould share China’s wealthand no one would live inpoverty – a “HeavenlyKingdom of Great Peace.”One million peasants joinedHong’s rebellion.Rebellion was eventuallycrushed by government,with help from Britain andFrance.At least 20 million Chinese died in theTaiping Rebellion
116China Wrestles with Reform After Taiping Rebellion and other uprisings, the Chinese government faced pressure to reform.Some urged government to adopt Western ways.Government clung to traditional ways and resisted change.Self-strengthening movement of 1860s failed to resolve China’s military, political and economic problems.Dowager Empress CixiResisted Change
117Foreign Spheres of Influence in China Late 19th century – A weak Chinawas repeatedly attacked byforeign powers intent on gainingcontrol of China’s economy.Foreign powers established theirown spheres of influence in China,in which they controlled all tradeand investment.
119America’s Open Door Policy, 1899 U.S. feared being shut out ofChinese market.Declared that China’s “doors”be open to merchants of allnations.Britain and other Europeannations agreed.Protected American tradingrights in China and preventedChina from colonization.
120The Boxer Rebellion, 1900 “Boxers” were Chinese peasants and workers driven by hatred offoreigners.1900 rebellion was against foreigninfluence in China -- an attempt torid China of all “foreign devils.”Rebellion was also attempt to endrule of Dowager Empress.Boxer Soldiers
121The Boxer Rebellion Boxers marched on Beijing and kept European section of cityunder siege for several months.Multi-national force of 20,000troops -- including troops fromU.S. – defeated the Boxers andended rebellion.
124Japanese Isolationism 17th – 18th centuries: Japan had almost no contact with other nations.Shoguns ruled and enforced strict feudal system.Peace and prosperity for two centuriesDid trade with China and the Dutch and had diplomatic relations with Korea.
125Japan Ends Its Isolation Early 19th c: Western pressure onJapan to open its ports to trade,but Japan resisted.1853 – Matthew Perry sailed intoTokyo Bay in display of U.S. navalpower and letter from Fillmore.What did letter request?What threat did Perry make?What was Japan’s reply?Perry’s “Black Ships”Matthew Perry
127Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854Japan opened two ports for U.S. ships to take on supplies.Allowed US to set up an embassy in Japan.Opened door for other Western powers to use Japanese ports.
128Meiji Era:Japanese people angered by shogun’s giving in to demands of foreigners.People rally around their young emperor, who ends period of shogun rule.New government underEmperor Mutsuhito knownas Meiji era, a period of“enlightened rule.”Emperor Mutsuhito
129Japan Modernizes During Meiji Era Japan sent statesmen overseas tolearn foreign ways.Also sent students to study abroad.Took the best ideas from the Westand adapted them to Japan.Patterned its strong centralizedgovernment after Germany’s.Modernized its military and copiedEuropean ideas.Copied ideas about education fromthe U.S.Industrialized following the Westernmodel and quickly modernized, soonbecoming competitive with the West.
130Japanese Imperialism By 1890, Japan was strongest military power in Asia.As Japan’s military power grew,rising nationalism led to questfor empire.Dispute with China over controlof Korea led to war in 1894.
131Sino-Japanese War: 1894 Japan attacked Chinese troops in Korea. Within months, Japan destroyedthe Chinese navy and drove Chinaout of Korea.Peace treaty gave Japan its firstcolonies, which included Taiwan.Japanese victory surprisedWestern powers, who expectedChina to win easily.
133Rivals in Asia: Russia and Japan Japan’s defeat of China changed the world’s balance of power.Japan and Russia now the two major powers and enemies -- in East Asia.1904 – Russia and Japan went to war over control of Manchuria.
134Russo-Japanese War: 1904Japan offered to recognize Russia’s rights in Manchuria if Russia stayed out of Korea.When Russia refused to agree, Japan launched surprise attack on Russian navy off coast of Manchuria.Russia ship sunk by Japanese torpedo
135Russo-Japanese War: 1904Japan drove Russian troops out of Korea, winning decisive battles on land and at sea.Japan captured most of Russia’s Pacific fleet and destroyed Russia’s Baltic fleet, as well.Why did Japan’s victory overRussia shock Westerners?
136Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 US President Teddy Roosevelt mediated peace talks , helpeddraft treaty.Treaty of Portsmouth gavecaptured territories to Japan.Forced Russia to withdrawfrom Manchuria and stay outof Korea.
137Japan Takes Control of Korea After defeating Russia,Japan attacked Korea and madeit a protectorate.1907– Korea’s government givesup its control of country.1909 – Korean army disbanded.1910 – Japan annexed Korea.Japan ruled Koreans harshly forthe next 35 years.
138Long-term Results of Japanese Imperialism Japan developed large PacificEmpire; and became a majorcompetitor to the West.Japan became the mostindustrialized country in AsianPacific.Japan consistently interestedin China and would make severalattempts to take it.Japan’s imperialistic ambitionswill eventually lead to war withthe United States in WWII.