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The Age of Imperialism
Imagine for a moment… That you are at home engaged in one of your favorite activities; playing a game, listening to music, or reading. So far the day is as any other. Then all of the sudden a group of individuals arrive at your front door demanding that you stop what ever you are doing. These individuals tell you that your way of life is wrong. They inform you however that they have come to your house to correct your way of life. They say it is their responsibility to change your way of living for the better. You find out that this has happened not only to you but your neighbors as well. Over time your way of life does change. These individuals, who you do not even know, have changed your government, religion, and other cultural practices, and remember these individuals told you this was for your own good. What is your reaction?
Imperialism: Perspective “Our whole existence has been controlled by people with an alien attitude to life, people with different customs and beliefs. They have determined the form of government, the types of economic activity, and the schooling which our children have…A man who tries to control the life of another does not destroy the other any less because he does it, as he thinks, for the other’s benefit. It is the principle which is wrong, the principle of one man governing another without his consent.” -Julius Nyerere of Tanzania
Key Vocabulary Imperialism: A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries or territories politically, economically, or socially. Colony: Land controlled by a distant nation. Empire: Extensive territory (colonies) under the control of a single, powerful state. Imperial Power: A country that controls an empire.
Setting the Stage Industrialization Imperialism Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European nations. They needed more resources to fuel their industrial production. They competed for new markets for their goods. They looked to Africa and Asia as sources of the raw materials and as markets for their industrial products.
The British Empire During 1800s, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. Why? British industrialization. British banking system. British navy. Britain dominated 19 th century and established a huge empire. British empire reached it’s height under Queen Victoria in late 1800s and early 1900s.
“The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”
Other countries followed Britain’s lead. The French, Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese moved to expand colonies in Africa. Austria-Hungary moved into the Balkans. Russia expanded into the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia. Countries that had no colonies set out to acquire them. Belgium, Italy, and Germany all took over new lands in Africa. The United States and Japan also got involved in overseas expansion during this period.
The American Empire, 1900
Motives Driving Imperialism Economic Competition Industrialized nations competed for raw materials and new markets to improve their economies. Geopolitics An interest in land for strategic location or resources European nations interested in specific resources in specific places but not always interested in taking over entire country. Examples: canals, mines, oil, water access
“A Quiet Little Game”
Motives Driving Imperialism (con’t) Nationalism / National Pride Empires viewed as a measure of national greatness “All great nations in their fullness of their strength have desired to set their mark upon barbarian lands.” Racism Europeans believed that the white race was superior to other peoples. Europeans (white man) had to take on the burden and responsibility of civilizing (Westernizing) “savages.”
Motives Driving Imperialism (con’t) Missionary / Messianic Impulse Desire to Christianize people. Impulse to “save the world.” Believed European rule was the best way to end evil practices (i.e. slave trade)
Cecil Rhodes Successful businessman who wanted to expand British Empire because he believed the Anglo- Saxon race was destined for greatness. In his will, Rhodes said of the British, "I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race."
Social Darwinism “Survival of the fittest” ideas of Charles Darwin were applied to human society. Those fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were con- sidered superior to others. Theory was used to justify capitalism and imperialism.
Social Darwinism and Colonialism Because non-Europeans didn’t have the technology Europeans did, they were assumed to be inferior. Natives viewed as being weaker (and more unfit to survive) so seizing their land and their resources was justifiable.
Imperialism Had Mass Appeal. Novels and poetry glorified Imperialism. The most popular writer of the day was Rudyard Kipling ( ). Kipling appealed to his readers’ sense of adventure AND to their feelings of superiority. He saw imperialism as a mission to “civilize non-Europeans” and urged his readers to “take up the white man’s burden.”
The White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling According to Kipling, what is the “White Man’s burden”? It was the burden of the white Europeans to help, teach, and care for the “uncivilized” people of the world. “Take up the White Man's burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child. Take up the White Man's burden— In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek another's profit And work another's gain. Take up the White Man's burden— The savage wars of peace— Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to nought.”
“The white man’s burden” - The Journal, Detroit 1899
Racism Before Reading: Define the term race in your own words. When you think of the word race, what comes to mind? Record a bulleted list of words and/or characteristics that you associate with the idea of race. Add in bullet points as needed. Is race real? Does it exist? Justify your answer in the space below.
Racism After Reading: How did your idea of race change? Do you agree with the ideas listed in these handouts? Why or why not? What was the most surprising statement? Why? How might this new understanding change the way you think about others?
European Colonization of Africa
European Exploration of Africa Few Europeans penetrated Africa’s interior before late 1800s. Expedition of David Livingstone in 1860s captured world’s attention. Livingstone searching for source of the Nile. Discovered Victoria Falls. Livingstone one of the most popular national heroes in Victorian England.
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” (Henry Stanley)
Berlin Conference, European conference to lay down rules for the division of Africa. Agreed any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of their claims and showing they could control the area. No African ruler attended these meetings
European Partition of Africa, 1914 By 1914 only two territories remained free from European control: Liberia Ethiopia When Europeans partitioned Africa, they didn’t take African ethnic and linguistic groupings into account.
Forces Enabling Europe’s Conquest of Africa External Factors - Modern weapons (Maxim gun) - Railroads/Steamships - Quinine cure for malaria Internal Factors - Variety of cultures and languages - Disunity of Africans / ethnic strife - Low level of technology
The Boer War
The Dutch established trading stations in South Africa in the 1600’s. Dutch “Boers” took over native Africans’ lands and established large farms. Gold discovered 1800s. British immigrants (miners) flocked to South Africa. Treated as second- class citizens with few rights by the Boers. Three Groups Clash Over South Africa Boer Settlers
South Africa Before the Boer War
The Boer War, Began with uprising of British immigrants against the Boer government. British empire sent troops. War began. Boers used guerrilla tactics against superior British forces. British fought “total war”. Burned Boer farms and towns. Put Boer women and children in concentration camps, where 26,000 people died, mostly from plague.
The Boer War
British Concentration Camp
Boer Inhabitants of Concentration Camps
End of Boer War: Treaty of Vereeniging British defeated Boers in 1902 and Boers had to surrender to British demands. Boers lost their lands, which became part of South Africa, a British colony.
Forms of Imperialism
Setting the Stage What was most important to the European powers when they carved up Africa? Being able to CONTROL the land, people, and resources of the continent. Wanted to shape the economies of colonies to benefit European economies. Wanted native populations to adopt European ways, as well.
Forms of Colonial (External) Control Forms of ImperialismCharacteristicsExample Colony A country or region governed by a foreign power Somaliland in East Africa was a French colony Protectorate A country or territory with its own government but under the control of an outside power Britain established a protectorate over the Niger River delta Sphere of Influence An area in which an outside power exercises domination or indirect control. Liberia was under the sphere of influence of the United States Economic Imperialism When independent but less developed nations are controlled by business interests rather than by other governments The Dole Fruit company controlled pineapple trade in Hawaii
Methods of Internal Management Indirect ControlDirect Control Local government officials were used Limited self-rule Goal: To develop future leaders Government institutions are based on European styles but many have local rules Foreign officials brought in to rule No self-rule. Policy of paternalism. Goal: assimilation Government institutions are based only on European styles Examples: British colonies such as Canada, Nigeria, India, Burma, and South Africa. U.S. colonies on Pacific Islands Examples: French colonies such as Somaliland, Vietnam German colonies such as Tanganyika Portuguese colonies such as Angola
Indirect vs. Direct Forms of Imperialism Indirectly – Used local chieftains by putting hitherto weak people in charge over the daily affairs of the colony. The weak “chieftain” was supported by British military power and directed by British political officials. Directly – using the concept of paternalism (the French are the “fathers” and the Africans are the “children” and since father knows best, France controlled the daily activities of government in the colony through white French officials. Assimilation - France also wanted the colonials to adopt French ways of dressing, behaving, governing, speaking and believing – because the French ways are superior and more advanced, successful and civilized. How did France control its colonies? How did Britain control its colonies?
Slide 45 African Resistance Fails Many Africans resisted European subjugation, but the Europeans always had superior weapons. At the Battle of Omdurman, the British killed some 10,000 Sudanese with machine guns. Some 500 British soldiers and their African allies defeated 31,000 Nigerians using machine guns.
British Troops at Battle of Omdurman in Sudan, 1898
Battle of Omdurman
Slide 48 African Resistance Fails African religious leaders during the Maji Maji Rebellion in German West Africa claimed magic water would make bullets harmless – some 26,000 died as they attacked German machine guns with spears.
African Resistance Fails The Zulus in South Africa fought against the British. During the war, the Zulus defeated the British at Battle of Isandlwana, but the Zulu rebellion was eventually defeated in Zulu Warrior
Battle of Isandlwana, 1879
Final attack from movie "Zulu" (1964)
Slide 54 Ethiopia: Africa’s Only Successful Resistance Ethiopia was the only country to successfully resist the Europeans. At the Battle of Adowa in 1896, the Ethiopians defeated the Italians and maintained their independence
A Voice From the Past “Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus, the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation, and militarism. Edward Morel The Black Man’s Burden
Impact of Colonial Rule
Positive Impact Negative Impact Reduced warfare between African tribes. Improved sanitation. New hospitals provided better medical care. New schools improved education and raised literacy rates. Economic expansion Better transportation and communication Africans lost control of their lands and their independence. Africans died from new diseases such as smallpox. Africans died resisting Europeans. Famines resulted from switch to cash crops. Traditional cultures broke down. Led to instability. Unnatural partition of continent by artificial boundaries combined or divided groups….
Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist Demands
European Empires Expanded Beyond Africa After dividing Africa among themselves, European powers looked to Muslim lands that rimmed the Mediterranean. Muslim power weakening in this strategically important area.
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire reached its peak. Empire steadily declined for next 200 years. 1800s - Many territories won independence and broke away. Other parts of Ottoman Empire taken away by other European powers.
A Shrinking Ottoman Empire
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Death of Suleiman the Magnificent The greatest Sultan of Ottoman Empire died in His successors were weak and ineffective; opportunities for subject nations to fight for independence. Weak leaders also resulted in corruption, angering subjects. Led to revolts and to the slow shrinking of the Empire. Suleiman I
Rise of Nationalism Nationalist feelings emerged in subject nations which led to revolts against Ottoman rule. Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians and Arabs revolted. These nations were sometimes aided by European powers allied against Ottomans. European leaders “divide the spoils” after the Russo- Turkish War
Geopolitics and the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire occupied a strategically important area. Why? Controlled access to the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea trade. Sat astride vast oil reserves in Persia and Arabia (after discovery around 1900).
The Crimean War, 1853 War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Russia wanted Ottoman land on the Black Sea. Britain and France allied with Ottomans to block Russia’s ambitions. Russia defeated, but Ottomans continued to steadily lose territory after the war.
The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, 1854 Half a league half a league, Half a league onward, All in the valley of Death Rode the six hundred: 'Forward, the Light Brigade! Charge for the guns' he said: Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. 'Forward, the Light Brigade!' Was there a man dismay'd ? Not tho' the soldier knew Some one had blunder'd: Theirs not to make reply, Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do & die, Into the valley of Death Rode the six hundred. Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volley'd & thunder'd; Storm'd at with shot and shell, Boldly they rode and well, Into the jaws of Death, Into the mouth of Hell Rode the six hundred. The Charge of the Light Brigade was a disastrous charge of British cavalry against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on October 25, 1854 The Charge of The Light Brigade (1936), Errol Flynn
Florence Nightingale tending British wounded during the Crimean War
Egypt and the Suez Canal Canal connected Red Sea to the Mediterranean. Built with European $$$ and Egyptian labor. Opened to ships in Egypt couldn’t pay huge debt to European banks. British occupied Egypt in 1882 and took control of canal.
The Suez Canal Cut trip by two weeks and 4,000 miles
The Suez Canal
Suez Canal Today
Geopolitics: Britain, Russia and Persia Britain and Russia both wanted Persian territory. Why? Russia wanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Britain wanted Afghanistan as buffer between India and Russia.
Britain and Russia Divide Persia After oil was discovered in Persia, British oil companies were needed to develop oil fields. In 1907 Britain and Russia divided Persia into separate spheres of influence. British gained control of Afghanistan, as well.
Imperialism in India
The East India Company 1600’s: British East India Company set up first trading posts in India. 1700s: East India Company became leading power in India controlling most of the country. Until 19 th century the East India Company ruled India with little interference from the British government. East India Company Territory in India
India: Britain’s Most Valuable Colony India was the largest and most lucrative colony of the entire British Empire – the brightest “jewel in the crown.” How did India benefit Britain’s economy?
Methods of Economic Control India required to produce raw materials for Britain’s manufacturing India required to and buy British finished goods. Indian competition with British finished goods was prohibited.
British Railroad Network in India British built extensive railroad network in India to transport raw materials out and finished goods back in. World’s third largest railroad system allowed India to develop modern economy and unified distant regions.
Impact of British Colonial Rule over India Positive Impact British-built railroads, roads, telephone lines, bridges, dams and irrigation canals helped India modernize. Sanitation and public health improved. Improved literacy rates due to British-built schools and colleges. British cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare.
Impact of British Colonial Rule over India Negative Impact British, not India, held the political and economic power. Indian industries restricted. Emphasis on cash crops led to loss of self-sufficiency. Growing of cash crops also led to food shortages and famine in late 1800s. Customs and traditions of Indians threatened.
Hindus vs. Muslims in India Hindus outnumbered Muslims in India 2:1 History of poor treatment of Hindus by fallen Muslim Mughal Dynasty caused much distrust b/w two groups Many Hindus favored British over Muslim rule British used religious division of Indians to their advantage.
Indian Discontent British controlled most of Indian subcontinent by Many pockets of discontent. Indians resented attempts to convert them to Christianity. Indians also resented racist attitudes of British. Growing Indian nationalism…
Sepoy Mutiny, 1857 Rumor that soldier’s rifle cartridges were sealed with beef and pork fat. Needed to bite off end to use. Beef offended Hindus; pork offended Muslims Many soldiers refused to use cartridges and were jailed. Soldier’s rebellion spread throughout northern India. Fierce fighting followed. Sometimes called India’s first war of independence.
Mutiny Failed East India Company, with help of British army, took over a year to end mutiny. Why did mutiny fail? Hindu and Muslim troops could not unite. Many Hindus remained loyal to British. Weak leadership. British British troops defending against Sepoy attack
Indian soldiers being executed by British canons The aftermath of the Sepoy Mutiny, 1858
Execution of mutineers after the Sepoy Mutiny, 1758
Results of the Sepoy Mutiny Distrust between Indians and British increased. Racist attitudes of British grew. British government took direct command of India. Turning point in Indian history. Royal residency at Lucknow after Sepoy attack
The Raj Period when India was under direct control of British government. Lasted from 1757 until British government appointed official with title of viceroy to carry out its orders in India.
Indian Nationalist Movements Emerge 1800s: Some Indians demanded more modernization and a greater role in governing themselves. Indians who resented being treated as second class citizens inside their own country. Two nationalist groups formed: Indian National Congress Muslim League Strong tension developed between Hindus and Muslims as nationalism continued to rise.
Western Powers Rule Southeast Asia
Europeans Compete for Land in Southeast Asia Lands of Southeast Asia were perfect for plantation agriculture. Major crops grown: Sugar cane Coffee Cocoa Rubber Coconuts Bananas Pineapple
The Netherlands The Dutch East India Company Gained control of Dutch East Indies (Now Indonesia ). Main cash crop: rubber. Many Dutch populated islands. Established rigid social class structure. Forced farmers to plant one-fifth of land in export crops.
The British in Southeast Asia Established busy port on island of Singapore. Gained colonies in Malaysia and Burma. Encouraged Chinese workers to immigrate to Malaysia to mine tin and tap rubber trees. Immigration policy created still- existing conflict between Chinese and minority Malays.
The French in Southeast Asia French Indochina Vietnam Laos Cambodia French imposed their culture on Indochina. Exploited colonies for rice production, while local populations saw their rice consumption reduced. Set the stage for Vietnamese resistance to French rule.
The U.S. Acquires Pacific Islands Late 19 th century: U.S. began acquiring territory in Pacific. Won Spanish-American War and gained Philippines and Guam in Touched off debate in America over imperialism. U.S. business interests wanted to expand trade and open new markets overseas.
The U.S. and the Philippines President McKinley concluded U.S. had “to educate Filipinos, …uplift and Christianize them.” U.S. fought 3 year war against Filipino nationalists, defeating them in Promised Filipinos to prepare them for self-rule. Like the other imperial powers, U.S. exploited the Philippines economically - promoting cash crops over food crops.
The Annexation of Hawaii Mid 19 th century – U.S. sugar producers dominated Hawaii economically and politically. U.S. businessmen arranged plot to overthrow Hawaiian queen, establishing a republic in Hawaii annexed by U.S. five years later, in Queen Liliuokalani
Imperialism in China
China’s Economy in the 1800s Healthy agricultural economy. Extensive mining/manufacturing. Pride in self-sufficiency. Resistant to foreign influences and trade with the West. Balance of trade that did exist favored China: earned far more on exports to Europe than it spent on imports from Europe.
The Opium Trade Europeans found one product Chinese would import in large quantities – opium. Habit-forming narcotic made from poppy plant. Used by Chinese for centuries to relieve pain. When British merchants smuggled it into China for nonmedical use in 1800s, millions of Chinese became addicted.
“By what right do they (British Merchants) …use the poisonous drug (opium) to injure the Chinese people?...I have heard that the smoking of Opium is strictly forbidden by your country…Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries.” Lin Zexu, quoted in China’s Response to the West The Opium Trade
Opium War: Conflict between Britain and China over Britain’s opium in China. When Britain refused to stop trading opium, China declared war. Most fighting occurred at sea. China’s ships were far inferior to Britain’s. China suffered humiliating defeat. Forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing.
Treaty of Nanjing, 1842 British given island of Hong Kong. Foreign citizens gained extraterritorial rights, giving them immunity from Chinese law in key Chinese ports. Opium trade continued. NOTE: After a century of British rule, Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997.
China’s Internal Problems Mid-19 th century Soaring population growth combined with barely increasing food production led to widespread hunger. Crumbling dikes led to flooding of farms and famine. Corrupt government did nothing to relieve people’s suffering. Opium addition steadily increased. Discouraged population began to rebel against the ruling Qing dynasty.
Taiping Rebellion: 1853 14 year rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan, who had visions of a China where all would share China’s wealth and no one would live in poverty – a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace.” One million peasants joined Hong’s rebellion. Rebellion was eventually crushed by government, with help from Britain and France. At least 20 million Chinese died in the Taiping Rebellion
China Wrestles with Reform After Taiping Rebellion and other uprisings, the Chinese government faced pressure to reform. Some urged government to adopt Western ways. Government clung to traditional ways and resisted change. Self-strengthening movement of 1860s failed to resolve China’s military, political and economic problems. Dowager Empress Cixi Resisted Change
Foreign Spheres of Influence in China Late 19 th century – A weak China was repeatedly attacked by foreign powers intent on gaining control of China’s economy. Foreign powers established their own spheres of influence in China, in which they controlled all trade and investment.
America’s Open Door Policy, 1899 U.S. feared being shut out of Chinese market. Declared that China’s “doors” be open to merchants of all nations. Britain and other European nations agreed. Protected American trading rights in China and prevented China from colonization.
The Boxer Rebellion, 1900 “Boxers” were Chinese peasants and workers driven by hatred of foreigners. 1900 rebellion was against foreign influence in China -- an attempt to rid China of all “foreign devils.” Rebellion was also attempt to end rule of Dowager Empress. Boxer Soldiers
The Boxer Rebellion Boxers marched on Beijing and kept European section of city under siege for several months. Multi-national force of 20,000 troops -- including troops from U.S. – defeated the Boxers and ended rebellion.
Execution of captured Boxer, 1900
Japanese Isolationism 17 th – 18th centuries: Japan had almost no contact with other nations. Shoguns ruled and enforced strict feudal system. Peace and prosperity for two centuries Did trade with China and the Dutch and had diplomatic relations with Korea.
Japan Ends Its Isolation Early 19 th c: Western pressure on Japan to open its ports to trade, but Japan resisted. 1853 – Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay in display of U.S. naval power and letter from Fillmore. What did letter request? What threat did Perry make? What was Japan’s reply? Perry’s “Black Ships” Matthew Perry
Commodore Perry in Japan, 1853
Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854 Japan opened two ports for U.S. ships to take on supplies. Allowed US to set up an embassy in Japan. Opened door for other Western powers to use Japanese ports.
Meiji Era: Japanese people angered by shogun’s giving in to demands of foreigners. People rally around their young emperor, who ends period of shogun rule. New government under Emperor Mutsuhito known as Meiji era, a period of “enlightened rule.” Emperor Mutsuhito
Japan Modernizes During Meiji Era Japan sent statesmen overseas to learn foreign ways. Also sent students to study abroad. Took the best ideas from the West and adapted them to Japan. Patterned its strong centralized government after Germany’s. Modernized its military and copied European ideas. Copied ideas about education from the U.S. Industrialized following the Western model and quickly modernized, soon becoming competitive with the West.
Japanese Imperialism By 1890, Japan was strongest military power in Asia. As Japan’s military power grew, rising nationalism led to quest for empire. Dispute with China over control of Korea led to war in 1894.
Sino-Japanese War: 1894 Japan attacked Chinese troops in Korea. Within months, Japan destroyed the Chinese navy and drove China out of Korea. Peace treaty gave Japan its first colonies, which included Taiwan. Japanese victory surprised Western powers, who expected China to win easily.
Rivals in Asia: Russia and Japan Japan’s defeat of China changed the world’s balance of power. Japan and Russia now the two major powers -- and enemies -- in East Asia. 1904 – Russia and Japan went to war over control of Manchuria.
Russo-Japanese War: 1904 Japan offered to recognize Russia’s rights in Manchuria if Russia stayed out of Korea. When Russia refused to agree, Japan launched surprise attack on Russian navy off coast of Manchuria. Russia ship sunk by Japanese torpedo
Russo-Japanese War: 1904 Japan drove Russian troops out of Korea, winning decisive battles on land and at sea. Japan captured most of Russia’s Pacific fleet and destroyed Russia’s Baltic fleet, as well. Why did Japan’s victory over Russia shock Westerners?
Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 US President Teddy Roosevelt mediated peace talks, helped draft treaty. Treaty of Portsmouth gave captured territories to Japan. Forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria and stay out of Korea.
Japan Takes Control of Korea After defeating Russia, Japan attacked Korea and made it a protectorate. 1907– Korea’s government gives up its control of country. 1909 – Korean army disbanded. 1910 – Japan annexed Korea. Japan ruled Koreans harshly for the next 35 years.
Long-term Results of Japanese Imperialism Japan developed large Pacific Empire; and became a major competitor to the West. Japan became the most industrialized country in Asian Pacific. Japan consistently interested in China and would make several attempts to take it. Japan’s imperialistic ambitions will eventually lead to war with the United States in WWII.