Presentation on theme: "By: Aden McKinney BATTLE OF VICKSBURG. The battle of Vicksburg was fought in Vicksburg, Mississippi (on the east of the Mississippi River) from May 19,"— Presentation transcript:
The battle of Vicksburg was fought in Vicksburg, Mississippi (on the east of the Mississippi River) from May 19, 1863 to July 4, 1863. The reason the Confederate surrendered on July 4 th was because General John C. Pemberton had hoped it would bring more sympathetic terms to the United States. THE BEGINNING OF THE BATTLE There were a lot of things leading up to the Battle of Vicksburg. The Battle of Vicksburg was part of a two year effort by the Union to seize control of the Mississippi River. It was so important to do this because if they won this battle they would have total control of the river there for cutting off supplies for part of the south. If the Confederacy won this battle though they would keep control of the river which would supply more food to the Confederate states. Before the Civil War the Mississippi River was one of the most important commercial arteries in the United States.
Union Strategies There wasn’t just one strategy to storm the other side. The Union had a couple different strategies including digging a canal to cut off the river and moving south to try to cut off the river from the gulf where they had control of it. After trying these and other strategies that didn’t work they eventually settled into a siege. Confederate Strategies The Confederacy had no strategy, they just settled in a bunker and tried to defend themselves and their town. STRATEGIES FOR THE BATTLE
Now the Union is inching their way forward by making zig-zag trenches and completely destroying forts by putting mines under them. One of the forts, the 3 rd Louisiana Redan, (a Redan is a triangular fortification) was destroyed but the soldiers inside heard digging under them and got out before the mine exploded. After the mine exploded they put on a counterattack. Grant tried to storm Vicksburg twice before settling into just sieging it. THE UNION IS COMING!
Ulysses S. Grant Was born on April 27, 1822. Grant was in the army until he resigned in 1854 but when the Civil War came he took the chance and signed up for the army. Then got quickly promoted to brigadier general. After the Civil War he became our 18 th president (1869-1877) who supported the Radical Republicans. He died on July 23,1865. John C. Pemberton He was born in the Union in Philadelphia in the August of 1814. In 1862 he was promoted to Lieutenant General. In the year 1861 when the Civil War was starting he retired from the Union and joined the Confederate cause. LEADERS OF THE WAR
There were way more Union troops then Confederate ones because the there were more Union states and more volunteers. More Confederates didn’t want to be in the war so the Union had many more troops and were able to beat the Confederacy. Through out the battle the Union engaged about 75,000 troops while the Confederates only engaged about 34,000. OUTNUMBERED
In the first attack Grant tried to storm the town but ended up having 157 killed and 777 wounded compared to only 8 killed and 62 wounded on the Confederate side. The next morning at 10 A.M. the Union attacked with forces three miles wide but in the attack about 3,000 Union soldiers were killed compared to only about 500 Confederates that were killed in the attack. At the end of all the attacks the Union had about 4,800 casualties while the Confederates only had about 3,300 but also had about 30,000 captured. THE CASUALTIES BEGIN
THE END OF THE BATTLE. It actually wasn’t all of the attacks that made the Confederates surrender it was starvation because the Union cut off the river so they couldn’t get food to soldiers of the Confederate but only to the Union. And because of the war they couldn’t farm as well because they already stole from all the farms and stores but it still wasn’t enough food to keep the soldiers well fed. Before they’re surrender the Confederates went to eating mules, rats, and even boiled shoe leather. The surrender at Vicksburg on July 4, 1863 gave the Union total control of the Mississippi River.
WHAT IT WAS LIKE TO BE A CIVILIAN Since many of the civilians in Vicksburg survived the 1862 bombardment from the Union many of the civilians had experience with survival when the Union attacked. So less then 20 civilians were documented as dead. Dora Richards Miller a civilian that lived at Vicksburg during the time of the siege wrote in her diary ”About three o’ clock the rush began…humanity in the last throes of endurance.” When the Union first started to attack it was a rush to build caves for the civilians because they knew that they were safer in the caves then they were in their house.
THE MEANINGS “Siege” is the name for a specific set of military circumstances, but the term is often wrongly used. An unconditional surrender is one in which the victors make no promise to their vanquished foes regarding their future treatment. Civil War gunboats went through shallow waters, such as rivers and coastlines. Ideally, they mounted the arms and armor necessary to contend with other gunboats as well as land-based fortifications. A redan is a V-shaped protrusion in a fortified line, with the tip of the V facing the enemy. The Union ring around Vicksburg was drawn tight through the construction of “approaches” and “parallels” — a system of entrenchments that allowed Union soldiers to close in on the fortress with minimal risk. “Combined arms” is the military concept of harmonizing disparate weapons and equipment to multiply their effect on the battlefield.
1. Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis both saw Vicksburg as an important part to the Confederacy. 2. Ulysses S. Grant captured Vicksburg by going away from it. 3. Southern leaders were divided on strategy at Vicksburg. 4. The battle for Vicksburg was fought at Champion Hill, Mississippi. 5.Union naval operations were essential to the success of Grant’s army. 6. Vicksburg had its own Crater more than a year before St. Petersburg. 7. Grant ordered an unconditional surrender at Vicksburg—and was rebuffed. 8. The capture of Vicksburg split the Confederacy and was a major turning point of the Civil War. 9. The Civil War Trust is engaged in an ongoing effort to preserve battlefield land at Vicksburg. 10. Grant removed his senior corps commander, John McClernand, during the siege after McClernand released a self-congratulatory order extolling the virtues of his troops and maligning the efforts of Sherman and McPherson at the May 22 attacks. 11. Col. Benjamin H. Grierson lead 1,700 Federal horsemen through Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana, creating confusion in the Confederate heartland, and moved Pemberton's attention from Grant's massing forces in Louisiana. 12. Inaccurate artillery fire rapidly struck buildings in the City of Vicksburg, prompting civilians to live in a series of subterranean caves for protection. 13. During the Vicksburg campaign, the U.S.S. Cincinnatti, which had been sunk on May 10, 1862 and subsequently raised, earned the distinction of being one of the few navy vessels ever to be sunk twice. INTERESTING FACTS