2Land Empires Control of huge lands & people Requires large military investmentVulnerable to land & sea routesRequires massive infrastructure investmentSuperior technology used to suppress nativesExpanded contact with imperial subjectsDependence on native collaborators
3Maritime Empires Control of trade via limited ports Production & shipment of commoditiesColonization of limited territoryLimited military confrontations & investmentsExploitation of improved maritime technologyExpanded exploration & control of distance areasDependence on native collaborators
4Comparing EmpiresMost maintained Absolutist rule (exception England and the Netherlands)All maintained and extended territories through gunpowder weaponryAll dominated trade routes and gained revenue through protectionismMost were dominated by religion and were conflicted by religious pluralismSugar, Spice and slave trade were fundamental to their economy.All will establish a policy of infrastructure building and religious zeal.All will contend with management of a multiethnic empire
5Comparing Empires 1450-1750 Maritime were predomiantly Christian Some were privately investedMaritime empires were exploitative and competitive“gunpowder” empires were ruled through Islamic forcesOverland Empires lost monopoly of Indian Ocean trade after Battle of LepantoInteraction with the “West” was generally through ports established by European interests (Calicut, Goa, Aden)By 17th century many Islamic Empires became fundamentally more conservative and increasingly more insular contributing to their declining commercial role.
6Examples Can you name examples of each type of empire? Why is maritime technology and empire building more influential than land-based empire building?What were some components of success of both? Failure of both?
7Today’s Activity Directions: Read about the Coffeehouse and the Evolution of its Story.How would you describe coffeehouses and their role in society? Why were they feared by governments, but celebrated by individuals? What elements do you recognize in 17th century Middle Eastern coffeehouses from European history and our contemporary society?