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Economics of Gender Chapter 4 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ.

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Presentation on theme: "Economics of Gender Chapter 4 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economics of Gender Chapter 4 Assist.Prof.Dr.Meltem INCE YENILMEZ

2 The Parenthood Transition Preparation for Parenthood – Through family of origin, babysitting, parenting classes and books Parenting as a crisis – On the job training, many changes, uncertainty – New parents may become child-centered and neglect their marriage Parenting as a normal stage of development – New roles and responsibilities

3 Motherhood Motherhood mandate – Expectations by society, individuals, and self Idealization of motherhood Maternal “instinct” and perfectionism leads to guilt for many mothers Both working moms and stay-at-home moms may feel guilty

4 Motherhood Functionalism – Biological and social reproduction Conflict theory – Career and personal goals may be impeded by the motherhood mandate – More acceptance of childlessness Feminism and motherhood are not incompatible – Flexible roles

5 Fatherhood Good-provider model – Financial obligation to children is paramount Involved-father – Nurturer New fathers – Less confident, less engaged than mothers Father’s impact on children is often downplayed Egalitarian parenting benefits children and enhances marital satisfaction

6 Parents as Dual Earners Public concern over the impact on children when mothers work outside the home Dual earner family is the norm Importance of high quality childcare Adolescents appreciate their career-mothers Helicopter parents – Parents of millennial generation – More likely to be mothers – Negative impacts on confidence of college students

7 African-American Families Half of all African-American families are two- parent families Of the remaining half, 90% are female-headed Two-parent egalitarian families predominate Flexible family boundaries and fictive kin African-American women have worked in paid labor as a necessity

8 African-American Families, cont. Stereotypes of strong black women and weak men abound These may cause tension within the black community African-American women have lowest earnings of both genders and all races Black men contend with joblessness, incarceration, and violent crime

9 Latino (Hispanic) Families Largest minority group, by 2050 predicted to make up 1/3 of U. S. residents Culturally diverse – Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban- Americans – Share Catholic heritage, Spanish colonization, Spanish language – Share values of familism, machismo, and marianismo

10 Mexican-American Families Embedded in a network Spheres of men and women are separate Movement is toward gender equity Poverty decreases with second generation immigrants Occupational gender segregation High rates of teen pregnancy

11 Cuban-American Families Highest standard of living of all Latino groups Double standard of sexual morality Demographically similar to European Americans High levels of education, less traditional, likely to be headed by married couple Extended elderly kin provide childcare and expect to be cared for as they age

12 Asian-American Families Fastest growing minority group Very culturally diverse groups Collectivist kinship relations Extended kinship traditions Obedience of children stressed Female subordination Higher levels of education and income linked to length of residency Second generation is more “Americanized”

13 Native American Families Rapidly becoming assimilated Resurgent cultural pride Economic difficulties and at risk for: – Unemployment, low educational levels, illiteracy, alcoholism U.S. unsuccessfully attempted “cultural genocide” Women retain spiritual, economic, and leadership roles

14 Divorce Teenage marriages at risk Cohabiters of lower SES at risk Marriage rates are declining Calculating divorce rates – Comparing number of marriages to number of divorces: 1/2 – 20 divorces per 1,000 women (4/10)

15 Gender in Divorce Women adjust socially and psychologically better than men Men adjust economically better than women Men and women with nontraditional gender roles adjust better Younger people adjust better The initiator of the divorce adjusts better Older women suffer greater psychological distress after divorce

16 The Impact of Gendered Law in Divorce No-fault divorce – allows divorce without blaming Custody – Mothers gain custody 70% of the time – Fathers more often gain custody in contested cases Joint Custody – Better for children if parents can cooperate – Fathers are more likely to stay involved

17 Remarriage Serial monogamy – pattern of marriage, divorce, remarriage Blended family – Children are brought into remarriage (stepfamily) Men are more likely remarry than women Poorly-educated women more likely to remarry than educated woman

18 Single-Parent Families Numbers have risen from 7% in 1950 to 30% today Non-marital births have declined Over half of all poor children are in female- headed households Single-parent mothers have higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem

19 Masculine Markers

20 Men at Middle Age and in Later Life Retirement – A shift in identity – Men take on more extradomestic roles with family members Satisfaction with retirement – Income and health are key for both men and women

21 Midlife as Crisis Between ages of 45 and 55 Alternatively named male menopause or male climacteric Changes are less dramatic for men than for women Drop in testosterone and rise in estrogen Fear of impotence may become a self-fulfilling prophesy Become aware of own mortality

22 Women at midlife – The myth of the empty-nest syndrome – For women whose identity was wrapped in motherhood, identity adjustments are necessary – Marital satisfaction increases – Opportunities to explore other activities – Age related androgyny

23 Men at midlife – Life review of career competing with relationships – Spend more time with grandchildren than they were able to with their children – Reintegrate their masculine and feminine sides – Seek greater interdependence

24 Gendered Violence

25 Domestic Violence and Battered Women Correlation with low income, isolation, and use of alcohol Accurate statistics are difficult to determine Rule of Thumb Why doesn’t she leave? – Battered woman’s syndrome – Lack of financial resources – Learned helplessness – Fear

26 Sociological Perspectives on Domestic Violence Functionalism – Social organization of family, intimacy, intensity, privacy Conflict Theory and Feminist perspective – Subtly condoned by social system – Occurs when dominance of husband is threatened – The greater the power gap between men and women the greater the violence

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