Weaknesses of the Phallanx Vulnerable right side Did not turn left or right very well Did not work on rugged terrain Long battles resulted in front line’s suffocation
Improvements: Flanking Marathon, 490BC General Miltiades and the Greeks, including the 10,000 Athenians Persians and King Darius
Improvements under Macedonians Light infantry: archers and spearmen Cavalry Larger Phallanx: 16x16
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE Alcibiades A new General wins Peace of Nicias 421BC with Sparta!
End of Peace: Battle of Mantinea, 418BCE Peloponnesian League Spartans and Tegeans Delian League Athenians, Argives and Mantineans Versus
Thucydides on the Democratic Allies “The armies being now on the eve of engaging, each contingent received some words of encouragement from its own commander. The Mantineans were reminded that they were going to fight for their country and to avoid returning to the experience of servitude [under Sparta] after having tasted that of empire; the Argives [men of Argos], that they would contend for their ancient supremacy, to regain their once equal share of Peloponnese of which they had been so long deprived, and to punish an enemy and a neighbor for a thousand wrongs; the Athenians, of the glory of gaining the honors of the day with so many and brave allies in arms, and that a victory over the Spartans in Peloponnese would cement and extend their empire, and would besides preserve Attica from all invasions in future.”
Alcibiades, the Syracuse Expedition and Betrayal
So why did Athens lose this 27 year war? 2 key events: Plague hits Athens behind its Long Walls Athenian raid on Syracuse a disaster Alcibiades betrayal What are the consequences? Athens had to tear down its Long Walls Spartans instituted an oligarchic govt. Athens’ power and spirit were severely diminished The war spurred a questioning attitude about government, morality and life…. Socrates would be executed as Alc.’s friend