Presentation on theme: "Argument & Reason. Argument Never contend with one that is foolish, proud, positive, testy, or with a superior, or a clown, in a matter of argument. Thomas."— Presentation transcript:
Argument & Reason
Argument Never contend with one that is foolish, proud, positive, testy, or with a superior, or a clown, in a matter of argument. Thomas Fuller The purely agitational attitude is not good enough for a detailed consideration of a subject. Jawaharlal Nehru People Generally quarrel because they cannot argue. Gilbert K. Chesterton Long dispute means both parties are wrong. Voltaire The sounder your argument, the more satisfaction you get out of it. Ed Howe He who establishes his argument by noise and command shows that his reason is weak. Michel de Montaigne
Behind every argument is someone ’ s ignorance. Louis D. Brandeis The best way I know of to win as argument is to start by being in the right. Lord Hailsham Weak arguments are often thrust before my path ; but although they are most unsubstantial, it is not easy to destroy them. There is not a more difficult feat known that to cut through a cushion with a sword. Richard Whately Any fact is better established by two or three good testimonies than by a thousand arguments. Nathaniel Emmons
What an Argument is Not The word ‘ argument ’ is so misused that we need to look first at what an argument is not. Sometimes it is east to see what is not an argument. An argument is not about who can shout the loudest : “ Will you shut up and listen !” An argument is not about size : “ I ’ m warning you !” An argument is not about power : “ You ’ re sacked and I don ’ t want any arguments.” An argument is not an excuse : “ I left it no the bus, sir !” An argument is not a series of repetitions “ Yes, you did.” No, I didn ’ t ”
Arguing Logically The more logical evidence you can find to support your case, the better your argument will be. An argument is a series of reasons views which build upon one another to reach a logical conclusion. When creating a strong argument, consider the following : 1. The strength of the feeling ; 2. The logic ; 3. The quality of evidence ; 4. The presentation.
The Use of Argument The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress. Joseph Joubert Philosophy schools us in the correct use of argument. An argument is a reasoned presentation of ideas where you marshal evidence in favour of the truth of a conclusion. Deductive GeneralSpecific Inductive
A Deductive argument is a series of statements consisting of a premise or premises and a conclusion. Deductive reasoning is utilized to derive a specific conclusion from a general statement. The premises are intended to show that the conclusions must necessarily be true. A “ valid ” deductive argument is one where the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. e. g. Premise : All humans are immortal Premise : I am a human Conclusion : Therefore I am immortal An Inductive argument does not guarantee that the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. It is constructed to show that it is improbable that the conclusion is false if the premises are true. It utilizes inductive reasoning which involved making a generalization based on specific evidence. Inductive arguments are neither valid nor invalid ; they are just strong or weak. Used in the Socratic Method. e. g. Premise : My CD has a scratch and it skips Premise : My friend has a CD with a scratch on it and it skips Conclusion : These ’ s a CD with a scratch on it ; it will skip
A Look at Logic Philosophy is more than opinion or speculation. Philosophizing ( doing Philosophy ) requires you try to reach the truth through logical reasoning. Philosophers give reasons for the view and positions they propose to try to prove that they are true. Logic – the study of the methods and principles of correct reasoning. Reasoning can be valid and logical or poor and invlaid. e. g. Speculation : I think Jesus did drugs. Everything might be dream. e. g. Reasoning ( uses “ Arguments ”) Premise : Jesus refused the drink ( wine mixed with myrrh ) while he was on the cross ( Mark 15:23) Premise : Myrrh was a narcotic used to stupefy so as to make criminals easier to deal with. Conclusion : Jesus did not do drugs.
Argument : a group of statements consisting of premises and conclusions of such a type that the premises are intended to prove or demonstrate the conclusion Premise : statement presented in an argument as reasons for accepting the conclusion Conclusion : The Statement that an argument is intended to demonstrate or prove.