Roles of our Education system: – Two primary roles Socialization Social reproduction
Education as Institution Socialization – Cultural transmission – Rules of appropriate behavior – Prepare students for future employment – Civic participation – The “Hidden Curriculum”
Education as Institution The “Hidden Curriculum” – Behaviors and attitudes taught in schools that are not included within the formal curriculum – Teaches students: Punctuality Passive consumption of ideas To obey authority To accept existing social order and their place in it – E.g., tardies, hall passes, completion points, doing what teachers assign, The Pledge of Allegiance
I pledge allegianceto the flag of The United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation (under God), indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
Education as Institution Social Reproduction – The ways social institutions help perpetuate social and economic characteristics (in many cases, inequalities) across generations – Applied to education, it represents the means whereby schools influence the learning of values, attitudes, habits and expectations within the “hidden curriculum.”
More on Social Reproduction What are the chances you’ll someday have a college degree? – If your family income is over $90,000, chances are 1 in 2. – If your family income is between $35-61,000, chances are 1 in 10. – If your family income is less than $35,000, chances are 1 in 17. This is an intersection between the social institutions of education and economy!
Educational Attainment in the US Age 25 and Over (2012) High school graduate = 87.65% Some college = 57.28% Associate's and/or Bachelor's degree = 40.58% Bachelor's degree = 30.94% Master's degree = 8.05% Doctorate or professional degree = 3.07%
Bowles and Gintis: Schooling in Capitalist America Years of schooling and economic achievement are correlated; however, intelligence (I.Q.) is not. – You have equal likelihood of being “unintelligent” and rich as you do “unintelligent” and poor (same goes for being “smart”) Increasing education does not appreciably raise cognitive skills or I.Q. (p.110-111)
Bowles and Gintis: Schooling in Capitalist America If cognitive skills do not explain the variation in economic success, what do you suppose does?
Bowles and Gintis: Schooling in Capitalist America Main findings of their study: – Dispute claims that education provides the cognitive skills that lead to economic success – Contend the education system serves to legitimate inequality in capitalist society – Argue that schools act as seemingly meritocratic mechanisms to assign individuals to unequal economic positions In other words, schools sort us
You’re going to design your own education system.