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Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday April 11, 3:30 P.M. HUMB 360 Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M. Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M.

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Presentation on theme: "Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday April 11, 3:30 P.M. HUMB 360 Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M. Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review Sessions for Exam III Wednesday April 11, 3:30 P.M. HUMB 360 Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M. Thursday April 12, 7:30 P.M.

2 Totalitarianism and the Decline of the West The era of individualism, liberalism and democracy, of humanitarianism and freedom, is nearing its end. The masses will accept with resignation the victory of the Caesars, the strong men, and will obey them. -Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West

3 I. The Tragedy of Versailles

4 A. The Progressives’ War Points Internationalism Points Internationalism Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson

5 B Final gamble Ludendorff Offensive (March) Wilhelm II abdicates (November) “November Criminals”

6 D. Opportunity missed 1. Diktat article responsibility / reparations 2. League of Nations 3. Reorganized empires - mandates

7 Legacy of Versailles 1. Allies not interested in progressive war - disillusionment w/ “democracy” 2. US rejects League - return to near-isolationism 3. Europe festers

8 3. League of Nations too weak to: - establish new balance of power - rebuild Europe - contend with Bolshevism in the East - contend with Bolshevism in the East

9 Dictatorship and Ideology “I was ripe to be converted” - Arthur Koestler 1949

10 I. Revolution in Russia Fall of the Romanov Dynasty Nicholas II Nicholas II

11 A. Reform & Repression Russo-Japanese War “Revolution” 2. The “Mad Monk” Rasputin

12 B. Feb/March Revolution 1. Provisional Government - Alexander Kerensky - Alexander Kerensky

13 2. Soviets (workers and soldiers) - consensus lacking; locally independent

14 3. Kerensky Offensive 1917

15 C. Red October 1. Social Democrats (Marxists) - historical dialectic

16 2. Mensheviks - parliamentary means Bolsheviks - violent revolution -- bourgeois self-absorption -- discipline -- discipline

17 3. V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) - professional revolutionaries - professional revolutionaries - role of soviets - role of soviets 4. April Theses - peace, land and bread

18 5. Storming the Winter Palace Leon Trotsky Leon Trotsky

19 D. Bolsheviks establish power 1. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918

20 2. The Russian Civil War,

21 3. Elimination of the Czar, 1918

22 4. Politburo - socialist dictatorship - socialist dictatorship 5. New Economic Policy,

23 Fanaticism and Salvation Thomas Mann Humanity seems to have run like boys let out of school away from the humanitarian, idealistic nineteenth century, from whose morality – if we can speak at all of morality in this connection – represents a wide and wild reaction. - “An Appeal to Reason” “An Appeal to Reason” 1931

24 A. Stalinization 1. Totalitarianism - mind and body - v. Trotsky

25 2. Forced industrialization - 5-Year Plans - Collectivization Liquidation of the kulaks

26 3. Comintern 4. Great Purges, “Gulag Archipelago” Solzhenitsyn Solzhenitsyn

27 5. Stalin’s foreign policy - Treaty of Rapallo, Mutual Non-Aggression Pact, 1939

28 B. Betrayal of Socialism 1. Stalin’s “Animal Farm” - ideology v. humanity - NKVD “Black Ravens” - Socialist dictatorship 2. Left in crisis George Orwell George Orwell

29 II. Italian Fascism Nationalism Anti-liberal values Politics of the Irrational

30 A. Legacy of Unification 1. Weak liberal/democratic tradition 2. Failures of WWI

31 B. Mussolini’s Italy 1. Benito Mussolini Fascio - “witch’s brew” of ideologies - politics of the irrational

32 3. Attack on “bourgeois” values 4. Squadristi “black shirts”

33 5. Alliance with industrialists - corporative system 6. Cult of Personality Il Duce - fasces

34 7. Lateran Treaty, Linkage of fascism to anti-modernism

35 C. The New Roman Empire 1. Militarism - Ethiopia ’35 - Albania ’39 2. Pact of Steel, 1939

36 III. The Spanish Civil War Dress rehearsal for WWII, Guernica - Pablo Picasso

37 A. The Spanish Republic , Popular Front 2. Republican v. Nationalist - Francisco Franco

38 B. International Event 1. Condor Legion 2. International Brigade - Abraham Lincoln Brigade Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls

39 IV. Paralyzed democracy DepressionDivisionIsolation Salvador Dali

40 A. France 1. Political polarization 2. Depression cancels out reform Leon Blum Leon Blum

41 B. Great Britain 1. Maintaining Empire 2. Fascist fan club - British Union of Fascists - Edward VIII

42 C. The United States and the New Deal 1. Leftward expansion 2. Groundwork for prosperity FDR

43 Totalitarian Europe Rhineland ’36 Anschluss ’37 Munich Agreement ‘38 Poland, ‘39


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