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Colonialism. Colonial Conquests: the new World 1492 Columbus’ discovery 1493 Pope Alexander VI divides New World between Spain and Portugal—largely ignored.

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Presentation on theme: "Colonialism. Colonial Conquests: the new World 1492 Columbus’ discovery 1493 Pope Alexander VI divides New World between Spain and Portugal—largely ignored."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colonialism

2 Colonial Conquests: the new World 1492 Columbus’ discovery 1493 Pope Alexander VI divides New World between Spain and Portugal—largely ignored Conquest, forced labor, and disease— million dead 1550 Debate at Valladolid—do Indians have souls?

3 Drawing from Bartolome de Las Casas’ work

4 Latin American Colonial Independence Spurred by American example, independence movements sweep much of Latin America from

5 Colonialism in Asia: India Beginning 1490s, colonized by many European powers By 1750s, Britain predominant European power, ruling by means of the East India Company

6 Negligent famine In 1750s and then 1870s incompetence by British led to famines killing millions

7 Attempting to Overthrow the British Raj 1857 “Sepoy Rebellion” “first war of Independence” was crushed

8 Gandhi and the Congress Party 1920 Gandhi calls for boycott of British goods, refuse to pay taxes, peaceful protest Calls it off when crowd kills police—through fasting 1930 Gandhi leads “salt march” Growing rift between Congress and Muslim League—advocate a split

9 War and Independence Britain (without consultation) enters India in WWII, as they had WWI Some leaders of Congress Party side with Germany and Japan 1947 amid continuing protests, Britain agrees to independence—secular India, Muslim Pakistan

10 Aftermath In first 2 years of independence, over 1 million die in communal violence Over 10 million flee

11 India and Pakistan

12 Kashmir—most dangerous place on earth?

13 Divergent paths to independence Gandhi vs Fanon

14 Colonialism and China From 1600s to 1800s Chinese Emperors limited Western trade and contact to two ports Increasingly weak dynasty tried to prohibit importation of opium 1830s-1850s China lost two “Opium Wars” Forced to give up Hong Kong, allow missionaries, and all trade

15 19 th century humiliation of China European powers and Japan carved up China into “spheres of influence” and treaty ports

16 Reaction: “Boxer Rebellions” of 1900 Members of a Chinese nationalist society attacked foreigners, missionaries, and Chinese Christians Eight nation alliance sends 50,000 troops to put down rebellion

17 Nationalist Revolution of 1912 Sun Yat-Sen overthrows discredited Ching dynasty, declares a republic, and attempts to reduce foreign influence

18 Chinese “Imperialism”: Tibet From 17 th Century until 1959, Tibet governed by “incarnations” of the Dalai Lama PRC invaded in 1949, taking control in 1959— ”liberating” a backwards society—”Sinification” 14 th Dalai Lama has ceded political power to newly democratic government also in exile in India

19 da

20 Also the Uyghers in Xinjiang Province

21 Race for Africa Beginning in 1870s, competitive territorial claims across Africa Berlin conference

22 Example 1: Rwanda 1890s Rwanda colonized by Germans After WWI, goes to Belgians, under League of Nations mandate Belgians favor Tutsi minority 1962 becomes independent—Hutu dominated 1990s increased fighting between Hutu and Tutsi 1994 Hutu president killed, genocide begins

23 Example #2: Democratic Republic of Congo 1870s—claimed as the personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium 1908 Embarrassed by Leopold’s brutality, Belgian parliament purchases Congo

24 Evil and Good

25 Recent history of the Congo 1960 Patrice Lumumba elected prime minister, killed with assistance from CIA US and Belgium install Mobutu 1990s Congo becomes scene of Africa’s “world wars” 2006 Internationally sponsored elections Issue of “conflict diamonds and conflict gold”

26 Example #3—Liberia 1820s American association sends free blacks back to Africa, formed Republic 1980s military coup overthrew republic-- dictator assisted CIA 1997s Charles Taylor elected—being tried now for crimes against humanity 2005 first woman in Africa elected head of govt

27 The Presidency of Ellen Johnson- Sirleaf dex.html

28 Example #4 Rhodesia/Zimbabwe Cecil Rhodes: "I contend that we (the British) are the finest race in the world; and that the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race".

29 Rhodesia 1890s natives expropriated and white rule established under Rhodes’ BSAC 1965 Britain refused to grant independence w/o majority rule—white Rhodesian’s declared themselves independent 1980 after 10 years of fighting, Mugabe elected president in internationally supervised elections

30 Mugabe’s Zimbabwe One party rule White farmers’ lands redistributed Economic free-fall

31 Colonial World

32 Post colonial world roughly 50 countries now roughly 200


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