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History 389 Final Test Respond to one question in Part A and Part B. Quote at least 2 sources.  Part A.  1) In the 19 th century, the Ottoman Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "History 389 Final Test Respond to one question in Part A and Part B. Quote at least 2 sources.  Part A.  1) In the 19 th century, the Ottoman Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 History 389 Final Test Respond to one question in Part A and Part B. Quote at least 2 sources.  Part A.  1) In the 19 th century, the Ottoman Empire failed to modernize its political and economic structure. In the 1950s-1970s most of the Middle Eastern states seemingly followed the same path of failure. In your opinion, are the two cases comparable? Support your assertions with specific examples.  2) Comment on the following statement: Support your assertions with specific examples.  2) Comment on the following statement: “Western ideas of individualism, liberalism, constitutionalism, human rights, equality, liberty, the rule of law, democracy, free markets, and the separation of church and state often have little resonance in Islamic culture.” Support your assertions with specific examples.   3) Support your assertions with specific examples.  3) To an informed observer it appears that US policies in the Middle East have been but a series of appalling blunders. In your opinion, is this a fair assessment? Support your assertions with specific examples.  Part B.  1) Most scholars have argued that Turkey has been the only Islamic state in the Middle East, which succeeded in having modernized its society and economy. Do you agree with such assessment? Support your argument with specific examples.  2) Some experts of the Middle East argue that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is at the core of the region’s instability, while others contend that it is but one of many problems. Which argument seems more convincing to you? Support you argument with specific examples.  Since the 1950s a number of the Middle Eastern countries have been governed by dictators. In your opinion, what are the main reasons for such propensity to dictatorship? Support your assertions with specific examples.  3) Since the 1950s a number of the Middle Eastern countries have been governed by dictators. In your opinion, what are the main reasons for such propensity to dictatorship? Support your assertions with specific examples.

2 Write a film analysis (1 single-spaced page) in response to the following: In your opinion, which of the above does the film “Deadline” portray most convincingly? Support your assertions with specific examples. Film analysis 2. Write a film analysis (1 single-spaced page) in response to the following: The war in Lebanon reflected: * the Israeli-Palestinian conflict * the Israeli-Arab conflict *conflicts within and between the different Arab communities * that violence in the Middle East has its own logic, incomprehensible to outsiders In your opinion, which of the above does the film “Deadline” portray most convincingly? Support your assertions with specific examples.

3 Test 3. Part A. Write a comprehensive essay in response to the following (70 points): World War I was a critical period in the history of the Middle East. In your opinion, what episode of this period did the film “Lawrence of Arabia” present most convincingly? Support your assertions with specific examples. Remember to quote at least two sources (internet sources are off limit) Part B. Part B. Identify and explain the significance of (30 points): TanzimatBerlin Congress Armenian genocideColonel Urabi Arab Revolt Zionism Balfour Declaration Mustafa Kemal Sykes-Picot Agreement Mandate System Ibn SaudKing Feisal MaronitesWhite Paper

4 History 386. Test 1 Locate the following countries, identify their modern capitals, dominant religion (Sunni, Shi’a, or other) and the form of government (republic, monarchy, etc.) : History 386. Test 1 Locate the following countries, identify their modern capitals, dominant religion (Sunni, Shi’a, or other) and the form of government (republic, monarchy, etc.) :  EgyptSudanTurkey  SyriaLebanonIsrael  JordanIraqIran  AfghanistanSaudi Arabia  Yemen OmanUAE  KuwaitQatarBahrain

5 Test 1 Respond to the following: Part A. Identify and explain the meaning of the following entries: Sumerians PhoeniciansHellenistic Age ZoroastrianismJudah/JudeaCovenant Five Pillars of IslamSufismShi’ism Part B. In your opinion, what was the most significant legacy of the pre-Islamic 1. In your opinion, what was the most significant legacy of the pre-Islamic societies to the history of the Middle East? societies to the history of the Middle East? Support your arguments with specific examples. 2. In your opinion, how did the emergence and evolution of one of the main monotheistic religions mirror the turbulent history of the Middle East? Support your arguments with specific examples. 2. Analyze the significance of the “Golden Age” of Islam to the evolution of the Middle East. Support your arguments with specific examples.

6 Test 2. Part 1. Identify the following (30 points): Seljuqs Mongols Janissaries Kosovo Ismail I Saladin Tamurlane Abbas I Imaret Millet Part 2. Write a comprehensive essay on the following (70 points). Remember, you must use and quote at least one source! 1. In your opinion, what was the main impact of the Crusades on history the Middle East? Support your assertions with specific examples. 2. In your opinion, what were the main driving forces of the Ottoman expansion? What were the main causes of its successes? Support your assertions with specific examples. 3. In your opinion, what were the most important administrative and social aspects of the Ottoman rule? Support your assertions with specific examples. 4. In your opinion, what were the main administrative and social features of the Safavid empire? Support your assertions with specific examples.

7 History 389 Response Paper 1.   * Use 1 single-spaced page.   * Cite at least two sources (see the sample). Electronic sources are off limits.   * Include the full bibliographical citation on the paper’s backside. According to Bernard Lewis, after the meteoric rise of the Ottoman and Persian Empires something “went wrong.” What exactly? In your opinion, which of the author’s assertions seems most convincing? Support your assertions with specific examples.

8   Thesis (20% of the grade): the essay must have a clear and sharply focused thesis, which offers your opinion and delineates your line of arguments.     Analysis (50%): analyze rather than narrate (respond to “why it happened?” not to “what happened?”). Use specific examples to support your arguments.     Organization, sentence structure, grammar (30%): your essay must be well organized, written in a clear and concise manner, and should be free of misspellings, verbosity, etc. If the reader has difficulty comprehending your arguments, your way of communicating is inadequate. Your essay will be evaluated in accordance with the following criteria:

9 HOW TO WRITE A RESPONSE PAPER (1 typed, single-spaced page)  A response paper is your chance to communicate in writing your personal viewpoint and personal learning as they relate specifically to the book, essay, paper, article, etc. The text, the artifact alone, has no meaning; it is given meaning by you, the writer. In other words, a response paper is your own interpretation of a given source and should demonstrate how deeply you have thought about the concepts, values, and attitudes of the period in question. When analyzing the source, keep in mind that its author tries to make a point and to promote an idea. Your objective, therefore, is:  1. Telling what you think these ideas are.   2. Reflecting on these points and ideas and indicating whether they correspond or conflict with your understanding of a specific historical event.  Important Note: Essay organization, style, and grammar are a crucial part of the assignment and will be graded accordingly.

10 Sample response paper (part 1) Bartoli seems to complain that as a French representative he exercises little influence at the Ottoman royal court. Indeed, if placed in the broader context of the Ottoman-French relations in the 1870s, the letter does reflect the changing political atmosphere in Istanbul. Written three years after France's humiliating defeat in the war against Prussia, the letter indicates that the attitudes of the Ottoman officials, who had previously regarded France as a European superpower, started to shift and the admiration for the French army and navy has changed to a barely concealed contempt (II-34). In the 1870s inebriated by the victories over Austria and France, the German Empire began claiming its position as a world power. Accordingly, German military and diplomatic missions to the Middle East sidelined their French, British, and Russian counterparts. More and more the Ottomans (and the Persians) favored German military experts and engineers over the French and the British. As importantly, the “capitulations” (trade privileges) previously granted exclusively to the French and British merchants, now were extended to the Germans (I-123).

11 Sample response paper (part 2) At the same time, the author is raising an important issue of the sustainability of the Ottoman government, which by this time was ridden with corruption and inefficiency. By the early 19 th century the Ottoman empire was but a bleak image of the once-mighty state. Its armed forces were poorly trained and paid, and its outdated navy was no match for French or British steamboats (II-34). The situation in finances and administration was as appalling. Some provincial governors, who accumulated considerable wealth by mercilessly taxing their subjects, ruled as they pleased in total disregard of the government in Istanbul. Others such as the Governorship of Syria, which elicited Bartoli's complains, had virtually become a safe-heaven for smugglers, pirates, and bandits who ran entire districts unopposed since the administration was on their payroll (I-187). In my opinion, even if the Sultan wanted, his power over his governors had faded, and starting a war against Syria entailed the intervention of the European powers, ever ready to exploit the empire's political instability (II-37-38). For that matter, in 1874 the situation in the Caucasus and in Moldavia required the deployment of the bulk of the Ottoman army against the potential Russian invasion. The Berlin Congress of 1878 would further weaken the centralized power of the Sultan, opening the road to the decline and the eventual collapse of the empire..

12 Bibliography: I. Henry Richards, History of the Middle East, Bibliography: I. Henry Richards, History of the Middle East, II. Sam O’Neel. Merchants and Robbers, 2008.

13 Film response paper Write a short essay (1 single-spaced page), analyzing the film as it supports or contradicts your understanding of a particular period in the history of the Middle East. See the guidelines

14 Film response paper 2 Write a short essay (1 single-spaced page) analyzing the film as it supports or contradicts your understanding of the perseverance of violence in the Middle East: Film response paper 2 Write a short essay (1 single-spaced page) analyzing the film as it supports or contradicts your understanding of the perseverance of violence in the Middle East: Potential topics to pursue: structural factors (socio-economic disparities, ethno-religious animosities, collapse of state-control agencies) as the main causes of violence external factors (regional instability, foreign politics) as the main causes of violence psychology of violence (its visible “normality,” lack of logic, incomprehensibility to an outsider)

15 History 389 Final Test Respond to the following:  1) Most of the Middle Eastern states (outside of Turkey and Israel) have tried, but failed to modernize their societies and economies. Why? Support your argument with specific examples.  2) Some experts of the Middle East argue that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is at the core of the region’s instability, while others contend that it is but one of many problems. Which argument seems more convincing to you? Support you argument with specific examples.  3) Comment on the following statement: Support your assertions with specific examples.  3) Comment on the following statement: “Western ideas of individualism, liberalism, constitutionalism, human rights, equality, liberty, the rule of law, democracy, free markets, and the separation of church and state have little resonance in Islamic culture.” Support your assertions with specific examples.  Since the 1950s a number of the Middle Eastern countries have been governed by dictators. In your opinion, what are the main reasons for such propensity to dictatorship? Support your assertions with specific examples.  4) Since the 1950s a number of the Middle Eastern countries have been governed by dictators. In your opinion, what are the main reasons for such propensity to dictatorship? Support your assertions with specific examples.  Support your assertions with specific examples.  5) To an observer it appears that US policies in the Middle East have been but a series of appalling blunders. In your opinion, is it a fair assessment? Support your assertions with specific examples.

16 History 389. Test 1  Part A. Identify and explain the meaning of the following entries:   Sumerians Hittites   PhoeniciansHellenistic Age  ZoroastrianismJudah/Judea  AbrahamCovenant  MohammedFive Pillars of Islam  JihadShi’ism  Old TestamentSufism  Part B. Respond to the following:  In your opinion, what was the most significant legacy of the pre-Islamic societies to the medieval Middle East? Support your assertions with specific examples.


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