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Ergogenic Aid substance or technique used to improve performance many are placebos.

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Presentation on theme: "Ergogenic Aid substance or technique used to improve performance many are placebos."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ergogenic Aid substance or technique used to improve performance many are placebos

3 Categories of Ergogenic Aids Nutritional aids Nutritional aids Pharmacological aids Pharmacological aids Physiological aids Physiological aids Psychological aids Psychological aids Mechanical or biomechanical aids Mechanical or biomechanical aids

4 Alcohol Social drug, classified as a depressant, use can elicit a paradoxical opposite effect: stimulant Social drug, classified as a depressant, use can elicit a paradoxical opposite effect: stimulant Performance Factor: mental strength, decrease mental stress, e.g., archery Performance Factor: mental strength, decrease mental stress, e.g., archery

5 Theory: although it is a depressant, may relieve the stress and anxiety on motor control in precise sports. Some contend increases self-confidence, improving performance Theory: although it is a depressant, may relieve the stress and anxiety on motor control in precise sports. Some contend increases self-confidence, improving performance Effectiveness: well controlled studies, mixed results. Dart throwers improve at BAC of 0.02 (1 drink), but impaired at 0.05 (~2 drinks). Effectiveness: well controlled studies, mixed results. Dart throwers improve at BAC of 0.02 (1 drink), but impaired at 0.05 (~2 drinks). May impair if sport requires good reaction time, balance, and eye/hand coordination e.g., tennis May impair if sport requires good reaction time, balance, and eye/hand coordination e.g., tennis athletes that consume in moderation 1-2 drinks have no performance impairment, more does impair performance athletes that consume in moderation 1-2 drinks have no performance impairment, more does impair performance Safety: moderation is key, excess can lead to death Safety: moderation is key, excess can lead to death Legal and ethical: use is specifically banned for modern pentathlon. Use for sports in which anxiety may interfere with performance is unethical (skating, diving, ski jumping, etc.) Legal and ethical: use is specifically banned for modern pentathlon. Use for sports in which anxiety may interfere with performance is unethical (skating, diving, ski jumping, etc.) Recommendations: may improve some sports, but its use is banned for those sports. Not recommended Recommendations: may improve some sports, but its use is banned for those sports. Not recommended

6 Anabolic Phytosterols (Plant Sterols) Classification and usage: dietary supplements that may be classified as nutritional ergogenic aid. Extracted from various plants and vegetables. Classification and usage: dietary supplements that may be classified as nutritional ergogenic aid. Extracted from various plants and vegetables. Several of their derivatives are marketed to strength-trained athletes. E.g., gamma oryzanol, smilax, beta-sitosterol, and ferulic acid. Several of their derivatives are marketed to strength-trained athletes. E.g., gamma oryzanol, smilax, beta-sitosterol, and ferulic acid.

7 Other plant extracts, ginseng and yohimbine are also marketed Other plant extracts, ginseng and yohimbine are also marketed dosage depends on packaging dosage depends on packaging Performance Factor: mechanical edge and physical power. Used to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat for enhanced strength and power, or for a more aesthetic physical appearance in sports such as body building Performance Factor: mechanical edge and physical power. Used to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat for enhanced strength and power, or for a more aesthetic physical appearance in sports such as body building Theory: means of stimulating testosterone and GH Theory: means of stimulating testosterone and GH Effectiveness: no evidence they work. Animal studies suggests that gamma oryzanol supplement may suppress testosterone Effectiveness: no evidence they work. Animal studies suggests that gamma oryzanol supplement may suppress testosterone Safety: many herbal products lack safety data. Some preparations can cause health problems and anaphylactic reactions and fatalities Safety: many herbal products lack safety data. Some preparations can cause health problems and anaphylactic reactions and fatalities Legal and Ethical Issues: supplementation is both illegal and unethical Legal and Ethical Issues: supplementation is both illegal and unethical Recommendations: not recommended as an aid. No scientific evidence to support use and may have adverse health effects Recommendations: not recommended as an aid. No scientific evidence to support use and may have adverse health effects

8 Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids (AAS) Classification and usage: Pharmocological. Prescription drugs designed to mimic the effects of testosterone, the natural male sex hormone. Classification and usage: Pharmocological. Prescription drugs designed to mimic the effects of testosterone, the natural male sex hormone. Anabolic: growth and development of many body tissues Anabolic: growth and development of many body tissues

9 Androgenic: growth and development of male secondary sex characteristics, such as facial hair Androgenic: growth and development of male secondary sex characteristics, such as facial hair can be taken orally or injected. Normal therapeutic dose is 5-10 mg/day of oral compounds, many athletes take up to 300 mg/day. can be taken orally or injected. Normal therapeutic dose is 5-10 mg/day of oral compounds, many athletes take up to 300 mg/day. Some take steroids as “staking” use of two or more steroids at once, others cycle Some take steroids as “staking” use of two or more steroids at once, others cycle Sports Performance Cycle: mechanical edge and power. Studied to increase power and muscle mass. May effect mental processes, increasing aggressive behavior Sports Performance Cycle: mechanical edge and power. Studied to increase power and muscle mass. May effect mental processes, increasing aggressive behavior

10 Theory: may influence both physiological and psychological processes associated with performance. Theory: may influence both physiological and psychological processes associated with performance. AAS influence the cell nucleus to enhance muscle protein formation. AAS may help prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue, possibly leading towards a more rapid recovery from an intense workout. AAS influence the cell nucleus to enhance muscle protein formation. AAS may help prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue, possibly leading towards a more rapid recovery from an intense workout. Effectiveness: Use of AAS in conjunction with diet and strength training work will result in increases in lean muscle mass and strength. The effect of AAS on actual performance has not been studied Effectiveness: Use of AAS in conjunction with diet and strength training work will result in increases in lean muscle mass and strength. The effect of AAS on actual performance has not been studied

11 Safety: use might elicit adverse effects ranging from changes in cosmetic appearance, such as acne, to life-threatening disorders such as heart disease. Additionally, black market sources of AAS might contain preparations of unknown quality and composition. May impair liver function (oral are metabolized by the liver) Safety: use might elicit adverse effects ranging from changes in cosmetic appearance, such as acne, to life-threatening disorders such as heart disease. Additionally, black market sources of AAS might contain preparations of unknown quality and composition. May impair liver function (oral are metabolized by the liver) Legal and Ethical Issues: one of the most abused drugs in sports competition. Use is prohibited, is possible to test positive if eat meat that was injected with AAS to promote growth. Legal and Ethical Issues: one of the most abused drugs in sports competition. Use is prohibited, is possible to test positive if eat meat that was injected with AAS to promote growth. Recommendations: research supports effectiveness of AAS, not recommended because it is illegal, unethical, and may increase health risks Recommendations: research supports effectiveness of AAS, not recommended because it is illegal, unethical, and may increase health risks

12 Creatine Classification and usage: classified as a physiological ergogenic, but some regard it as a nutritional ergogenic aid. Classification and usage: classified as a physiological ergogenic, but some regard it as a nutritional ergogenic aid. Is an amine, a natural dietary constituent present in small amounts in animal foods. But it also may be synthesized by the liver and kidney from several amino acids Is an amine, a natural dietary constituent present in small amounts in animal foods. But it also may be synthesized by the liver and kidney from several amino acids

13 most studies use doses of gm/day, consumed in 4-5 doses throughout the day, for 5-7 days. most studies use doses of gm/day, consumed in 4-5 doses throughout the day, for 5-7 days. most common form used is creatine monohydrate powder most common form used is creatine monohydrate powder Sports Performance Factor: physical power and mechanical edge. used in attempts to increase high power and speed in sports that derive energy primarily from the ATP-PC energy system. Also been studied in relation to increased body mass Sports Performance Factor: physical power and mechanical edge. used in attempts to increase high power and speed in sports that derive energy primarily from the ATP-PC energy system. Also been studied in relation to increased body mass Theory: normal dietary requirement and endogenously synthesized creatine approximates 2 gm, amount adequate for generating normal intramuscular creatine phosphate (CP). Supplementation could increase whole body creatine pool, theoretically facilitating the generation of CP. Theory: normal dietary requirement and endogenously synthesized creatine approximates 2 gm, amount adequate for generating normal intramuscular creatine phosphate (CP). Supplementation could increase whole body creatine pool, theoretically facilitating the generation of CP.

14 Effectiveness: Oral supplementation of gm/day for 5-7 days significantly increased intramusclular concentrations of both free creatine and CP during rest and recovery after intense exercise. However, some subjects were non-responders Effectiveness: Oral supplementation of gm/day for 5-7 days significantly increased intramusclular concentrations of both free creatine and CP during rest and recovery after intense exercise. However, some subjects were non-responders Vegetarians (limited dietary creatine) may benefit the most Vegetarians (limited dietary creatine) may benefit the most consuming with glucose may enhance the uptake consuming with glucose may enhance the uptake Consistent findings is increased body mass. ( kg). increase is not necessarily lean tissue, probably water bound to the creatine, decreased urine output (fluid retention) Consistent findings is increased body mass. ( kg). increase is not necessarily lean tissue, probably water bound to the creatine, decreased urine output (fluid retention)

15 Safety: pose no actual health risks yet, but because of filtration by the kidneys, possible to have kidney damage, possible death. Leads to muscle cramping, due to increased water content in muscle, diluting the electrolyte levels Safety: pose no actual health risks yet, but because of filtration by the kidneys, possible to have kidney damage, possible death. Leads to muscle cramping, due to increased water content in muscle, diluting the electrolyte levels Legal and Ethical: currently legal for use, may be unethical and in the future, illegal. Legal and Ethical: currently legal for use, may be unethical and in the future, illegal. Recommendations: may be an effective sports ergogenic for specific exercise tasks depending on the ATP-PC energy system Recommendations: may be an effective sports ergogenic for specific exercise tasks depending on the ATP-PC energy system

16 Carbohydrate Loading Recommended for a major endurance competition (42.2 km marathon, 100-mile bike, 2 or 3 day soccer tournament) Recommended for a major endurance competition (42.2 km marathon, 100-mile bike, 2 or 3 day soccer tournament) Supercompensation of glycogen stores Supercompensation of glycogen stores Traditional method can be very difficult to stomach Traditional method can be very difficult to stomach Modified method is easier to handle Modified method is easier to handle

17 Traditional Method Day 1: moderately long bout of exercise (not exhaustive) glycogen depletes Day 1: moderately long bout of exercise (not exhaustive) glycogen depletes Day 2, 3, & 4: Low CHO intake (deplete CHO), (high protein and fat) tapering exercise Day 2, 3, & 4: Low CHO intake (deplete CHO), (high protein and fat) tapering exercise Day 5, 6, & 7: High CHO, tapering exercise or rest (6 & 7) Day 5, 6, & 7: High CHO, tapering exercise or rest (6 & 7) Day 8: Competition Day 8: Competition

18 Modified Method Day 1: moderately long bout of exercise (deplete glycogen) Day 1: moderately long bout of exercise (deplete glycogen) Day 2, 3, & 4: Mixed diet, moderate CHO intake, tapering exercise Day 2, 3, & 4: Mixed diet, moderate CHO intake, tapering exercise Day 5, 6, & 7: High CHO diet, tapering or rest (6 & 7) Day 5, 6, & 7: High CHO diet, tapering or rest (6 & 7) Day 8: Competition Day 8: Competition

19 Ephedrine Classification and Usage: pharmacological sports ergogenic, sypmathomimetic drug, mimics the effects of natural epi and norepi Classification and Usage: pharmacological sports ergogenic, sypmathomimetic drug, mimics the effects of natural epi and norepi Rx: asthmatic and cold or cough medications, herbal teas (Ma Huang), and dietary supplements marketed for weight loss Rx: asthmatic and cold or cough medications, herbal teas (Ma Huang), and dietary supplements marketed for weight loss

20 Sports Performance Factor: Mental strength and physical power, sports that use any of the energy systems Sports Performance Factor: Mental strength and physical power, sports that use any of the energy systems Theory: By activating the sympathetic response, enhance contractility, increase Q and blood glucose levels. Enhance all performance, especially aerobic activity Theory: By activating the sympathetic response, enhance contractility, increase Q and blood glucose levels. Enhance all performance, especially aerobic activity

21 Effectiveness: limited research, no support for use as an ergogenic aid Effectiveness: limited research, no support for use as an ergogenic aid Safety: Side effects include headache, nervousness, GI distress, seizures, psychoses (death as well) Safety: Side effects include headache, nervousness, GI distress, seizures, psychoses (death as well) Legal Ethical Aspects: Prohibited by IOC, many organizations do not check for use. Can be difficult for those with asthma. Legal Ethical Aspects: Prohibited by IOC, many organizations do not check for use. Can be difficult for those with asthma.

22 Recommendations: not recommended because there is no research to support their effectiveness and it may be associated with severe health risks Recommendations: not recommended because there is no research to support their effectiveness and it may be associated with severe health risks

23 Diet Pills without Ephedra Classification and Usage: pharmacologic, various types of stimulant in different “brands” Classification and Usage: pharmacologic, various types of stimulant in different “brands” Theory: Increase metabolic rate, burn more calories and lose weight Theory: Increase metabolic rate, burn more calories and lose weight Effectiveness: may be effective, depends on the stimulant used. Effectiveness: may be effective, depends on the stimulant used.

24 Safety: Depends on the stimulant, most use caffeine and another sympathomimetic. Safety: Depends on the stimulant, most use caffeine and another sympathomimetic. Legal and Ethical Aspects: Legal, not ethical if the specific stimulants are banned. Legal and Ethical Aspects: Legal, not ethical if the specific stimulants are banned. Recommendations: The amount of weight lost depends on caloric intake and caloric expenditure. Better, healthier ways to lose weight. Recommendations: The amount of weight lost depends on caloric intake and caloric expenditure. Better, healthier ways to lose weight.

25 Caffeine (Trimethylxanthine) Classification: Pharmacological & Nutritional Classification: Pharmacological & Nutritional Theory: CNS stimulant → psychological arousal. Primary theory is enhanced release of FFA, sparing glycogen. Stimulate the release of Ca 2+ in muscle cells →PCr system. Effectiveness: 100 years of research: effective across all energy systems Theory: CNS stimulant → psychological arousal. Primary theory is enhanced release of FFA, sparing glycogen. Stimulate the release of Ca 2+ in muscle cells →PCr system. Effectiveness: 100 years of research: effective across all energy systems

26 Safety: Safe in legal amounts: mg Safety: Safe in legal amounts: mg Research varies 3-15 mg/kg BW Research varies 3-15 mg/kg BW

27 Legal/Ethical: Legal, but classified as a stimulant. IOC allows 12 mcg/ml urine, need ~800 mg for illegal levels Legal/Ethical: Legal, but classified as a stimulant. IOC allows 12 mcg/ml urine, need ~800 mg for illegal levels Recommendations: Effective and safe ergogenic. Some recommend lowering legal level in urine Recommendations: Effective and safe ergogenic. Some recommend lowering legal level in urine Use: 5 mg/kg BW, pills may be better than coffee (2-3 cups) for source. Abstain from caffeine for 2-3 days prior Use: 5 mg/kg BW, pills may be better than coffee (2-3 cups) for source. Abstain from caffeine for 2-3 days prior

28 Nictric Oxide Classification: Physiologic or pharmacologic Classification: Physiologic or pharmacologic Theory: All types of NOS produce NO from arginine with the aid of molecular oxygen and NADPH. Theory: All types of NOS produce NO from arginine with the aid of molecular oxygen and NADPH.

29 NO diffuses freely across cell membranes. NO diffuses freely across cell membranes. Intracellular messenger within adipocytes Intracellular messenger within adipocytes Insulin - stimulated glucose uptake dependent on NO synthesis Insulin - stimulated glucose uptake dependent on NO synthesis NO: suppress leptin secretion (leptin increases eNOS) NO: suppress leptin secretion (leptin increases eNOS) Suppresses lipolysis Suppresses lipolysis There are so many other molecules with which it can interact, that it is quickly consumed close to where it is synthesized. There are so many other molecules with which it can interact, that it is quickly consumed close to where it is synthesized.

30 NO relaxes the smooth muscle in the walls of the arterioles. NO relaxes the smooth muscle in the walls of the arterioles. At each systole, the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels release a puff of NO. At each systole, the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels release a puff of NO.

31 This diffuses into the underlying smooth muscle cells causing them to relax and thus permit the surge of blood to pass through easily. This diffuses into the underlying smooth muscle cells causing them to relax and thus permit the surge of blood to pass through easily. Mice whose genes for the NO synthase found in endothelial cells (eNOS) has been "knocked out" suffer from hypertension. Mice whose genes for the NO synthase found in endothelial cells (eNOS) has been "knocked out" suffer from hypertension. The erection of the penis during sexual excitation is mediated by NO released from nerve endings close to the blood vessels of the penis. The erection of the penis during sexual excitation is mediated by NO released from nerve endings close to the blood vessels of the penis. Relaxation of these vessels causes blood to pool in the blood sinuses producing an erection. Relaxation of these vessels causes blood to pool in the blood sinuses producing an erection.

32 Bodybuilders take it b/c increased blood flow will serve to deliver more nutrients to muscles Bodybuilders take it b/c increased blood flow will serve to deliver more nutrients to muscles And, NO acts to reduce inflammation And, NO acts to reduce inflammation Safety: inhibiting NOS decreases tumor grow growth, not sure if it is absorbed from the gut Safety: inhibiting NOS decreases tumor grow growth, not sure if it is absorbed from the gut Legal/Ethical: ??? Legal/Ethical: ??? Recommendations: Wait for more data Recommendations: Wait for more data


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