Presentation on theme: "David Ausubel David Ausabel is a cognitive psychologist who studied learning theory. Ausabel is credited with the learning theory of advanced organizers*."— Presentation transcript:
1 David AusubelDavid Ausabel is a cognitive psychologist who studied learning theory. Ausabel is creditedwith the learning theory of advanced organizers*. This theory is easily applicable to secondlanguage acquisition, but transcends a singular application, to application across educationaldomains.* Advance Organizer entails the use of introductory materials with a high level of generalitythat introduce new material and facilitate learning by providing an "anchoring idea" to whichthe new idea can be attached .Ausabel, along instructional scientists Robert Gagné, Leslie Briggs, David Merrill,Albert Bandura, Benjamin Bloom, Walter Dick, and others developed the systems approachwhich utilizes research on the conditions of learning required for people to achieve clearlydefined performance outcomes. The model is based upon and has grown out of a thoroughunderstanding of learning theory and research.Ausabel believes that meaningful learning is crucial for classroom instruction. Meaningfullearning, according to Ausabel, entails new knowledge that relates to what one already knowsand that can easily retained and applied.
2 David AusubelCognitive theorists believe that it is essential to relate new knowledge to existing informationlearned. Teachers can facilitate learning by organizing information presented so that newconcepts are easily relatable to concepts already learned. Examples of devices that may beused include: pictures, titles of stories, reviews of previously learned concepts, short videosegments, a paradigm, a grammar rule, etc. (direct quote from David Ausubel's CognitiveLearning Theory).Ausabel broke down the process of learning to three steps: what will the person learn, whatthe person wants to learn, and what did the person learn?Ausabel, along with McLaughlin and Ellis, contend that mental structure or organization ofknowledge highly influences learning. These theorists grounded their research on the workof Jean Piaget. Piaget believed that people actively "organize experience" (online quote fromOmaggio, p. 55). New information must be integrated into the mental structure to be learned.Human learning entails strategies for thinking, understanding, remembering and producinglanguage. Language proficiency depends on understanding, integrating, organizing,practicing, and automizing subskills needed to communicate. Restructuring (reorganizingexisting mental structure to accommodate new knowledge) and automatization (the routineperformance of a skill or subskill without thinking about it) are central to developing languageproficiency (pp ).
3 David Ausubel Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel) Ausubel's theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful materialfrom verbal/textual presentations in a school setting (in contrast to theories developed in thecontext of laboratory experiments). According to Ausubel, learning is based upon the kindsof superordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the receptionof information. A primary process in learning is subsumption in which new material is related torelevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure on a substantive, non-verbatim basis.Cognitive structures represent the residue of all learning experiences; forgetting occurs becausecertain details get integrated and lose their individual identity.A major instructional mechanism proposed by Ausubel is the use of advance organizers:"These organizers are introduced in advance of learning itself, and are also presented at ahigher level of abstraction, generality, and inclusiveness; and since the substantive content ofa given organizer or series of organizers is selected on the basis of its suitability for explaining, integrating, and interrelating the material they precede, this strategy simultaneously satisfiesthe substantive as well as the programming criteria for enhancing the organization strength ofcognitive structure." (1963 , p. 81).
4 David AusubelAusubel emphasizes that advance organizers are different from overviews and summarieswhich simply emphasize key ideas and are presented at the same level of abstraction andgenerality as the rest of the material. Organizers act as a subsuming bridge between newlearning material and existing related ideas.Ausubel's theory has commonalities with Gestalt theories and those that involve schema(e.g., Bartlett) as a central principle. There are also similarities with Bruner's "spiral learning“model , although Ausubel emphasizes that subsumption involves reorganization of existingcognitive structures not the development of new structures as constructivist theories suggestAusubel was apparently influenced by the work of Piaget on cognitive development.Principles:1. The most general ideas of a subject should be presented first and then progressivelydifferentiated in terms of detail and specificity.2. Instructional materials should attempt to integrate new material with previously presentedinformation through comparisons and cross-referencing of new and old ideas.
6 David AusubelBooks:1.The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton, 1963(Italian edition, 1966.) 2. Readings in the Psychology of Cognition. (Co-editor with R. C. Anderson.) New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston, Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, (Germanedition, 1974.) (2nd edition, 1978.) (Spanish edition, 1977.) (2nd German edition, 1980.) (Italian edition, 1978.) (Portugueseedition, 1980.) (Romanian edition, 1981.) (2nd Spanish edition, 1982). 4. School Learning: An Introduction to Educational Psychology. (With Floyd C. Robinson.New York: Holt, Rinehart & WInston, (British edition, 1971.) (Japanese edition, with A. Yoshida, 1984.) (Australianedition, 1972.) (Romanian edition, 1973.) 5. Psychology in Teacher Preparation. (With John Herbert.) Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies inEducation, 1969.Refrences: