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UNIT IV: 1750-1914 Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing,

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT IV: 1750-1914 Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing,"— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT IV: Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing, Czarist Russia, Austro-Hungary)

2 The Two “I’s” 1. INDUSTRIALIZATION: traditional/religious life under immense pressure by industrial life & new scientific discoveries 2. IMPERIALISM: leads to the development of Land AND sea-based empires Nationalism (introduced by the French Revolution) In order to justify imperialism: idea of ‘race’ developed by the West

3 Big Picture Themes Political Revolutions Dominance of the West
Reactions to Imperialism Global Trade New Economic Systems (capitalism, Marxism) Demographic Shifts

4 EXCEPT L. American Independence
Who is Who? The West: W. Europe U.S.A Australia Industrialized societies & militaries Influenced by nationalism & science The “Wannabes”: Russia Japan Ottomans Gov’t programs to industrialize Imported tech & and western ideas Everyone Else: Colonized by West or under “sphere of influence” to West All attempt to throw out the West, but FAIL… EXCEPT L. American Independence

5 Political Rev. & Independence:
Why now? Where? U.S. (1776) France (1789) Haiti (1803) Latin America (1800s)

6 American Rev. No taxation w/out representation
July 4, 1776: Dec. of Independence 7 Years War Britsh vs. French): “1st World War”

7 French Revolution Louis XVI overtaxation
Enlightenment ideas (rights & science) 3rd Estate (lower class): paid all taxes swore a “Tennis Court Oath” for a constitution: Declaration of the rights of Man universal male suffrage July 14, 1789: storming the Bastille prison starts rev.

8 Radical phase led by Maximilen Robespierre (of Jacobin party)
Louis XVI & wife executed during Reign of Terror Final phase of rev.: Napoleon staged a coup of the Directory From France became an empire

9 Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the French Revolution of 1789?
(A) It failed to instill a sense of nationalism in France. (B) Women gained universal suffrage. (C) The revolution turned radical with the involvement of peasants. (D) It succeeded in strengthening France’s economy.

10 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Haitian Revolution Toussaint L’Ouverture

11 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Instability caused by French Rev. Toussaint L’Ouverture organized small military group of slaves & “gens de couluer” LEGACY: Symbol of freedom to slaves Kings/slave owners feared rebellion Toussaint L’Ouverture

12 Latin American Independence
CAUSES Political & Social Inequality Creoles (rebelled the most) Enlightenment Ideas Other Revolutions Napoleon’s invasion of Spain/Portugal

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14 Leaders Father Miguel Hidalgo (1821): Mexican Independence
Simon Bolivar: S. America Dom Pedro: Brazil

15 Causes/Motives: 1800s Rev. Causes:
nationalism peasant unrest food shortages publishing newspapers/newsletters Commercial Revolution (rising middle class) Motive: need to industrialize & “modernize” nations

16 Modern political revolutions were characterized by
(A) the unopposed rule of absolute monarchs (B) the influence of Enlightenment ideals (C) peasants and urban workers refusing to protest (D) the destruction of traditional religion (E) eventual choice of universal democracy instead of autocracy

17 The West At Its Peak 1750-1914: height of Western power
The French Revolution gave birth to idea of nationalism Growth of Nation-states/empires German unification (Bismarck’s realpolitik)

18 New Political Ideas

19 Tech. Advances: Steam engine: most important invention
British textiles: 1st mechanized industry (looms; spinning wheels) Transportation: Canals Railroads Steam ships

20 Industrial Rev. Social Changes:
Innovations in farming & enclosure acts: peasants in countryside out of work…move to cities for factory work Industrial Working Class (poor, unskilled) New Middle Class Roles of women: Working class women outside home Upper Class women: confined

21 “Satanic” Milltown Power loom Fatcat Street children Miner

22 Factory Conditions rigid, boring, long hours, dangerous
NO job security… Women/children/immigrants paid less

23 Living Conditions Urbanization: Cities crowded, dirty, & dangerous
no sanitation no fire/police no running water

24 Rise of Western Dominance
Scramble for Africa: Berlin Conference (1884)

25 2009 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS   WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 1. Using the documents, analyze African actions and reactions in response to the European Scramble for Africa. Identify an additional type of document and explain how it would help in assessing African actions and reactions. Historical Background: In the three decades after the Berlin Conference on Africa (1884–1885), European powers occupied and colonized areas in Africa, a process later termed the Scramble for Africa.

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29 Imperialism: Industrialization: new demand resources & labor
steam power, better guns, immunizations “Social Darwinism” gave West a sense of superiority…justified imperialism (White Man’s Burden)

30 Cecil Rhodes' statement is consistent with which of the following?
“I contend that we are the first race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...I contend that every acre added to our territory provides for the birth of more of the English race, who otherwise would not be brought into existence.” Cecil Rhodes' statement is consistent with which of the following? (A) Mercantilism (B) Social Darwinism (C) Marxism (D) Liberalism (E) Mandate of Heaven

31 CHINA AFRICA JAPAN IMPERIALISM INDIA EUROPE OPIUM WARS
TREATY OF NANJING (1842) TAIPING REBELLION ( ) BOXER REBELLION ( ): anti-British & anti-Qing SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA MEIJI RESTORATION MATTHEW PERRY SINO-JAPANESE WAR SHAKA ZULU (resistance) BERLIN CONFERENCE BOER WAR (Dutch vs. British) IMPERIALISM INDIA EUROPE JEWEL IN THE CROWN NATIONALISM BRITISH EAST INDIA CO. WHITE MAN’S BURDEN. COMPANY MEN SEPOY MUTINY QUEEN VICTORIA INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

32 Reaction to Imperialism?
Organized rebellions all failed from (EXCEPT in L. America) Russia & Japan… Imitating the West

33 The “Wannabes” Japan & Russia

34 Meiji Japan: Arrival of U.S. navy (Commodore Perry): forced industrialization on Japan Led to Meiji Restoration: Emperor began gov’t sponsored modernization plan Created a Parliament: an oligarchy w/ a few businesses (zaibatsu) Japan colonizes Korea & China

35 Late-nineteenth-century Japanese industrialization differed from late-eighteenth-century British industrialization in that Japan’s industrialization (A) was sponsored by the state (B) was not based on fossil-fuel power (C) centered on exporting agricultural goods (D) used women in early factories

36 Russia Peter the Great (1672-1725): began Westernization
Like Japan, industrialization sponsored by gov’t Russifiy: cultural pressure on conquered peoples UNLIKE JAPAN: Russia NOT able to fully industrialize…too many serfs! 1861 (Alexander II ends serfdom)

37 British E.I.C. E.I.C. ran India w/ “Company Men” & Raj
princes until the Sepoy Rebellion (1857) Sepoy: paid Indian soldiers then direct control of crown; Queen Victoria (Disraeli her advisor) “Jewel in the crown” India supplied Britain w/ cotton, indigo, salt, opium & tea.

38 Qing China Lord Macartney attempts to open up Qing (1792)
“Tea Diplomacy”…epic failure China economically/culturally isolated…yet largest economy Qing horded silver causing inflation British fight Opium Wars to open up Qing…Treaty of Nanking begins 100 yrs of British influence (Hong Kong) Taiping Rebellion & Boxer Rebellion (both failed): throw out foreigners

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40 The Islamic Heartland Ottoman Empire: tried to reform its society & industrialize w/ Tanzimat Reforms (too little too late) Janissary Corp very conservative & feared change… Egypt falls under British influence under Muhammad Ali (cotton; Suez Canal)

41 Sub-Saharan Africa Europeans: create tensions between ethnic groups
“Scramble for Africa” about resources: metals, crops, ivory, diamonds (Cecil Rhodes), rubber (Belgian Congo)

42 Global Communication, & Tech
railroad, steam engine, telegraph Suez Canal, Panama Canal

43 Demographic & ENV Changes
New immigration patterns End of Atlantic Slave Trade: caused need for cheap labor (children & immigrants) Better medicine Food Supply ↑

44 Changes in Social/Gender Structure
Changed due to: Political Revolutions Industrial Revolution Enlightenment ideas Emancipation of Serfs and Slaves

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47 Comparisons Industrial revolution in western Europe and Japan (causes and early phases) Revolutions (American, French, Haitian, Latin American, Mexican, and Chinese) Reaction to foreign domination in Ottoman Empire, China, India and Japan.


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