Presentation on theme: "UNIT IV: 1750-1914 Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing,"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT IV:Why 1750 –1914?1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing, Czarist Russia, Austro-Hungary)
2 The Two “I’s”1. INDUSTRIALIZATION: traditional/religious life under immense pressure by industrial life & new scientific discoveries2. IMPERIALISM: leads to the development of Land AND sea-based empiresNationalism (introduced by the French Revolution)In order to justify imperialism: idea of ‘race’ developed by the West
3 Big Picture Themes Political Revolutions Dominance of the West Reactions to ImperialismGlobal TradeNew Economic Systems (capitalism, Marxism)Demographic Shifts
4 EXCEPT L. American Independence Who is Who?The West:W. EuropeU.S.AAustraliaIndustrialized societies & militariesInfluenced by nationalism & scienceThe “Wannabes”:RussiaJapanOttomansGov’t programs to industrializeImported tech & and western ideasEveryone Else:Colonized by West or under “sphere of influence” to WestAll attempt to throw out the West, but FAIL…EXCEPT L. American Independence
5 Political Rev. & Independence: Why now?Where?U.S. (1776)France (1789)Haiti (1803)Latin America (1800s)
6 American Rev. No taxation w/out representation July 4, 1776: Dec. of Independence7 Years War Britsh vs. French): “1st World War”
7 French Revolution Louis XVI overtaxation Enlightenment ideas (rights & science)3rd Estate (lower class): paid all taxesswore a “Tennis Court Oath” for a constitution: Declaration of the rights of Manuniversal male suffrageJuly 14, 1789: storming the Bastille prison starts rev.
8 Radical phase led by Maximilen Robespierre (of Jacobin party) Louis XVI & wife executed during Reign of TerrorFinal phase of rev.: Napoleon staged a coup of the DirectoryFrom France became an empire
9 Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the French Revolution of 1789? (A) It failed to instill a sense of nationalism in France.(B) Women gained universal suffrage.(C) The revolution turned radical with the involvement of peasants.(D) It succeeded in strengthening France’s economy.
11 Toussaint L’Ouverture Instability caused by French Rev.Toussaint L’Ouverture organized small military group of slaves & “gens de couluer”LEGACY:Symbol of freedom to slavesKings/slave owners feared rebellionToussaint L’Ouverture
12 Latin American Independence CAUSESPolitical & Social InequalityCreoles (rebelled the most)Enlightenment IdeasOther RevolutionsNapoleon’s invasion of Spain/Portugal
14 Leaders Father Miguel Hidalgo (1821): Mexican Independence Simon Bolivar: S. AmericaDom Pedro: Brazil
15 Causes/Motives: 1800s Rev. Causes: nationalismpeasant unrestfood shortagespublishing newspapers/newslettersCommercial Revolution (rising middle class)Motive: need to industrialize & “modernize” nations
16 Modern political revolutions were characterized by (A) the unopposed rule of absolute monarchs(B) the influence of Enlightenment ideals(C) peasants and urban workers refusing to protest(D) the destruction of traditional religion(E) eventual choice of universal democracy instead of autocracy
17 The West At Its Peak 1750-1914: height of Western power The French Revolution gave birth to idea of nationalismGrowth of Nation-states/empiresGerman unification (Bismarck’s realpolitik)
19 Tech. Advances: Steam engine: most important invention British textiles: 1st mechanized industry (looms; spinning wheels)Transportation: CanalsRailroadsSteam ships
20 Industrial Rev. Social Changes: Innovations in farming & enclosure acts: peasants in countryside out of work…move to cities for factory workIndustrial Working Class (poor, unskilled)New Middle ClassRoles of women:Working class women outside homeUpper Class women: confined
22 Factory Conditions rigid, boring, long hours, dangerous NO job security…Women/children/immigrants paid less
23 Living Conditions Urbanization: Cities crowded, dirty, & dangerous no sanitationno fire/policeno running water
24 Rise of Western Dominance Scramble for Africa: Berlin Conference (1884)
25 2009 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/31. Using the documents, analyze African actions and reactions in response to the European Scramble for Africa. Identify an additional type of document and explain how it would help in assessing African actions and reactions.Historical Background: In the three decades after the Berlin Conference on Africa (1884–1885), European powers occupied and colonized areas in Africa, a process later termed the Scramble for Africa.
29 Imperialism: Industrialization: new demand resources & labor steam power, better guns, immunizations“Social Darwinism” gave West a sense of superiority…justified imperialism (White Man’s Burden)
30 Cecil Rhodes' statement is consistent with which of the following? “I contend that we are the first race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...I contend that every acre added to our territory provides for the birth of more of the English race, who otherwise would not be brought into existence.”Cecil Rhodes' statement is consistent with which of the following?(A) Mercantilism(B) Social Darwinism(C) Marxism(D) Liberalism(E) Mandate of Heaven
31 CHINA AFRICA JAPAN IMPERIALISM INDIA EUROPE OPIUM WARS TREATY OF NANJING (1842)TAIPING REBELLION ( )BOXER REBELLION ( ): anti-British & anti-QingSCRAMBLE FOR AFRICAMEIJI RESTORATIONMATTHEW PERRYSINO-JAPANESE WARSHAKA ZULU (resistance)BERLIN CONFERENCEBOER WAR (Dutch vs. British)IMPERIALISMINDIAEUROPEJEWEL IN THE CROWNNATIONALISMBRITISH EAST INDIA CO.WHITE MAN’S BURDEN.COMPANY MENSEPOY MUTINYQUEEN VICTORIAINDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
32 Reaction to Imperialism? Organized rebellions all failed from (EXCEPT in L. America)Russia & Japan…Imitating the West
34 Meiji Japan:Arrival of U.S. navy (Commodore Perry): forced industrialization on JapanLed to Meiji Restoration: Emperor began gov’t sponsored modernization planCreated a Parliament: an oligarchy w/ a few businesses (zaibatsu)Japan colonizes Korea & China
35 Late-nineteenth-century Japanese industrialization differed from late-eighteenth-century British industrialization in that Japan’s industrialization(A) was sponsored by the state(B) was not based on fossil-fuel power(C) centered on exporting agricultural goods(D) used women in early factories
36 Russia Peter the Great (1672-1725): began Westernization Like Japan, industrialization sponsored by gov’tRussifiy: cultural pressure on conquered peoplesUNLIKE JAPAN: Russia NOT able to fully industrialize…too many serfs!1861 (Alexander II ends serfdom)
37 British E.I.C. E.I.C. ran India w/ “Company Men” & Raj princes until the Sepoy Rebellion (1857)Sepoy: paid Indian soldiersthen direct control of crown; Queen Victoria (Disraeli her advisor)“Jewel in the crown”India supplied Britain w/ cotton, indigo, salt, opium & tea.
38 Qing China Lord Macartney attempts to open up Qing (1792) “Tea Diplomacy”…epic failureChina economically/culturally isolated…yet largest economyQing horded silver causing inflationBritish fight Opium Wars to open up Qing…Treaty of Nanking begins 100 yrs of British influence (Hong Kong)Taiping Rebellion & Boxer Rebellion (both failed): throw out foreigners
40 The Islamic HeartlandOttoman Empire: tried to reform its society & industrialize w/ Tanzimat Reforms (too little too late)Janissary Corp very conservative & feared change…Egypt falls under British influence under Muhammad Ali (cotton; Suez Canal)
41 Sub-Saharan Africa Europeans: create tensions between ethnic groups “Scramble for Africa” about resources:metals, crops, ivory, diamonds (Cecil Rhodes), rubber (Belgian Congo)
42 Global Communication, & Tech railroad, steam engine, telegraphSuez Canal, Panama Canal
43 Demographic & ENV Changes New immigration patternsEnd of Atlantic Slave Trade: caused need for cheap labor (children & immigrants)Better medicineFood Supply ↑
44 Changes in Social/Gender Structure Changed due to:Political RevolutionsIndustrial RevolutionEnlightenment ideasEmancipation of Serfs and Slaves
47 ComparisonsIndustrial revolution in western Europe and Japan (causes and early phases)Revolutions (American, French, Haitian, Latin American, Mexican, and Chinese)Reaction to foreign domination in Ottoman Empire, China, India and Japan.