Presentation on theme: "UNIT IV: 1750-1914 Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing,"— Presentation transcript:
UNIT IV: Why 1750 –1914? 1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrial revolution, capitalism 1914 – WWI, Decline of Empires (Ottoman, Qing, Czarist Russia, Austro-Hungary)
The Two “I’s” 1. INDUSTRIALIZATION 1. INDUSTRIALIZATION: traditional/religious life under immense pressure by industrial life & new scientific discoveries 2. IMPERIALISM 2. IMPERIALISM: leads to the development of Land AND sea-based empires –Nationalism (introduced by the French Revolution) –In order to justify imperialism: idea of ‘race’ developed by the West
Big Picture Themes Political Revolutions Dominance of the West Reactions to Imperialism Global Trade New Economic Systems (capitalism, Marxism) Demographic Shifts
Who is Who? The West: W. Europe U.S.A Australia Industrialized societies & militaries Influenced by nationalism & science The “Wannabes”: Russia Japan Ottomans Gov’t programs to industrialize Imported tech & and western ideas Everyone Else: Colonized by West or under “sphere of influence” to West All attempt to throw out the West, but FAIL… EXCEPT L. American Independence
Political Rev. & Independence: Why now? Where? U.S. (1776) France (1789) Haiti (1803) Latin America (1800s)
American Rev. No taxation w/out representation July 4, 1776: Dec. of Independence 7 Years War7 Years War Britsh vs. French): “1 st World War”
French Revolution Louis XVI overtaxation EnlightenmentEnlightenment ideas (rights & science) 3 rd Estate 3 rd Estate (lower class): paid all taxes –swore a “Tennis Court Oath” for a constitution: Declaration of the rights of Man –universal male suffrage July 14, 1789: storming the Bastille prison starts rev.
Radical phase Maximilen Robespierreled by Maximilen Robespierre (of Jacobin party) Louis XVI & wife executed during Reign of Terror Final phase of rev.: Napoleon staged a coup of the Directory –From France became an empire
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about the French Revolution of 1789? (A) It failed to instill a sense of nationalism in France. (B) Women gained universal suffrage. (C) The revolution turned radical with the involvement of peasants. (D) It succeeded in strengthening France’s economy.
Haitian Revolution Toussaint L’Ouverture
Instability caused by French Rev. gens de couluerToussaint L’Ouverture organized small military group of slaves & “gens de couluer” Toussaint L’Ouverture Symbol of freedom to slaves Kings/slave owners feared rebellion LEGACY:
Latin American Independence Political & Social Inequality –Creoles (rebelled the most) CAUSES Enlightenment Ideas Other Revolutions Napoleon’s invasion of Spain/Portugal
Leaders Simon Bolivar: S. America Father Miguel Hidalgo (1821): Mexican Independence Dom Pedro: Brazil
Modern political revolutions were characterized by (A) the unopposed rule of absolute monarchs (B) the influence of Enlightenment ideals (C) peasants and urban workers refusing to protest (D) the destruction of traditional religion (E) eventual choice of universal democracy instead of autocracy
The West At Its Peak : height of Western power The French Revolution gave birth to idea of nationalism Growth of Nation-states/empires –German unification (Bismarck’s realpolitik)
New Political Ideas
Tech. Advances: Steam engine: most important invention British textiles: 1 st mechanized industry (looms; spinning wheels) Transportation:Canals Railroads Steam ships
Industrial Rev. Social Changes: Innovations in farming & enclosure acts: peasants in countryside out of work…move to cities for factory work Industrial Working Class (poor, unskilled) New Middle Class Roles of women: –Working class women outside home –Upper Class women: confined
Fatcat Miner Power loom “Satanic” Milltown Street children
Factory Conditions rigid, boring, long hours, dangerous NO job security… Women/children/immigrants paid less
Living Conditions Urbanization: Cities crowded, dirty, & dangerous -no sanitation -no fire/police -no running water
Rise of Western Dominance Scramble for Africa: Berlin Conference (1884)
2009 AP® WORLD HISTORY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS WORLD HISTORY SECTION II Part A (Suggested writing time—40 minutes) Percent of Section II score—33 1/3 1. Using the documents, analyze African actions and reactions in response to the European Scramble for Africa. Identify an additional type of document and explain how it would help in assessing African actions and reactions. Historical Background: In the three decades after the Berlin Conference on Africa (1884–1885), European powers occupied and colonized areas in Africa, a process later termed the Scramble for Africa.
Imperialism: Industrialization: new demand resources & labor steam power, better guns, immunizations Social Darwinism“Social Darwinism” gave West a sense of superiority…justified imperialism (White Man’s Burden)
“I contend that we are the first race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race...I contend that every acre added to our territory provides for the birth of more of the English race, who otherwise would not be brought into existence.” Cecil Rhodes' statement is consistent with which of the following? (A) Mercantilism (B) Social Darwinism (C) Marxism (D) Liberalism (E) Mandate of Heaven
IMPERIALISM INDIA AFRICA EUROPE JAPAN CHINA BOER WAR (Dutch vs. British) OPIUM WARS TREATY OF NANJING (1842) TAIPING REBELLION ( ) BOXER REBELLION ( ): anti-British & anti-Qing MEIJI RESTORATION MATTHEW PERRY SINO- JAPANESE WAR JEWEL IN THE CROWN SHAKA ZULU (resistance) COMPANY MEN SEPOY MUTINY QUEEN VICTORIA WHITE MAN’S BURDEN. BRITISH EAST INDIA CO. NATIONALISM BERLIN CONFERENCE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Reaction to Imperialism? Organized rebellions all failed from (EXCEPT in L. America) Russia & Japan… –Imitating the West
The “Wannabes” Japan & Russia
Meiji Japan: Commodore PerryArrival of U.S. navy (Commodore Perry): forced industrialization on Japan Meiji RestorationLed to Meiji Restoration: Emperor began gov’t sponsored modernization plan zaibatsuCreated a Parliament: an oligarchy w/ a few businesses (zaibatsu) Japan colonizes Korea & China
Late-nineteenth-century Japanese industrialization differed from late- eighteenth-century British industrialization in that Japan’s industrialization (A) was sponsored by the state (B) was not based on fossil-fuel power (C) centered on exporting agricultural goods (D) used women in early factories
Russia Peter the GreatPeter the Great ( ): began Westernization Like Japan, industrialization sponsored by gov’t Russifiy: cultural pressure on conquered peoples UNLIKE JAPAN: Russia NOT able to fully industrialize…too many serfs! –1861 (Alexander II ends serfdom)
British E.I.C. Company MenE.I.C. ran India w/ “Company Men” & Raj Sepoy Rebellion princes until the Sepoy Rebellion (1857) –Sepoy: paid Indian soldiers –then direct control of crown; Queen Victoria (Disraeli her advisor) “Jewel in the crown” India supplied Britain w/ cotton, indigo, salt, opium & tea.
Qing China Lord Macartney attempts to open up Qing (1792) -“Tea Diplomacy”…epic failure China economically/culturally isolated…yet largest economy -Qing horded silver causing inflation Treaty of Nanking British fight Opium Wars to open up Qing…Treaty of Nanking begins 100 yrs of British influence (Hong Kong) Taiping Rebellion & Boxer Rebellion (both failed): throw out foreigners
The Islamic Heartland Tanzimat ReformsOttoman Empire: tried to reform its society & industrialize w/ Tanzimat Reforms (too little too late) –Janissary Corp very conservative & feared change… Muhammad AliEgypt falls under British influence under Muhammad Ali (cotton; Suez Canal)
Sub-Saharan Africa Europeans: create tensions between ethnic groups “Scramble for Africa” about resources: –metals, crops, ivory, diamonds (Cecil Rhodes), rubber (Belgian Congo)
Global Communication, & Tech –railroad, steam engine, telegraph –Suez Canal, Panama Canal
Demographic & ENV Changes New immigration patterns End of Atlantic Slave TradeEnd of Atlantic Slave Trade: caused need for cheap labor (children & immigrants) Better medicine Food Supply ↑
Changes in Social/Gender Structure Political Revolutions Industrial Revolution Enlightenment ideas Emancipation of Serfs and Slaves Changed due to:
Comparisons Industrial revolution in western Europe and Japan (causes and early phases) Revolutions (American, French, Haitian, Latin American, Mexican, and Chinese) Reaction to foreign domination in Ottoman Empire, China, India and Japan.