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Political System Presented by Dr. Kazi Shahdat Kabir E mail:

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1 Political System Presented by Dr. Kazi Shahdat Kabir E mail:

2 Political System Definition of Political System: A political system is a system of politics and government. It is usually compared to the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and other social systems. A political system is a complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law etc.).

3 Political System Definition of Political System: A political system is composed of the members of a social organization (group) who are in power. A political system is a system that necessarily has two properties: ►a set of interdependent components and ►boundaries toward the environment with which it interacts.

4 Political System Definition of Political System: A political system is a concept in which theoretically regarded as a way of the government makes a policy and also to make them more organized in their administration. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions to exercise. Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power" and refers to the regulation of a political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy.

5 Political System Anarchism: Rule by all/no one Anarchism Democracy: Rule by majority Democracy Monarchy. (Rule by monarch) Monarchies are one of the oldest political systems known, developing from tribal structure with one person the absolute ruler. Monarchy

6 Political System Communism (Rule by all citizens) Classless with common ownership and decision making Communism Republic. (Rule by law) The first recorded republic was in India in the 6th century BC (BCE). Republic Sultanates. (Rule by Allah) an Islamic political structure combining aspects of Monarchy and Theocracy. Sultanates

7 Political System Islamic Democracy. (Rule by majority in Islamic context) an Islamic and democratic political structure, which combines aspects of Theocracy (as the framework) and Democracy (as the decision making method under Islam's ethical system). Iran's constitution is based on such a system. Islamic DemocracyIran

8 Political System Theocracy (Rule by alleged representative of God) Theocracy Westminster system (rule by republic and representative democracy through parliament) Westminster system Feudalism (Rule by lord/king) Feudalism

9 Political System Democracy The word democracy derives from the ancient Greek dēmokratia (literally, ruled by the people) formed from the roots dēmos, "people," "the mob, the many" and kratos "rule" or "power". Democracy is a system of government in which citizens give teams of political leaders the right to rule in periodic elections. Democracy is government by discussion which contend the laws and policies should be based upon reasons that all citizens can accept.

10 Political System Democracy A common feature of democracy as currently understood and practiced is competitive elections. Competitive elections are usually seen to require freedom of speech, freedom of the press and some degree of rule of law. Characteristics of Democracy: ►Civilian control of the military, ►Principle of equal rights, ►Majority rule is a major principle of democracy, ►The most common mechanisms of democracy is election,

11 Political System Forms of democracy: ▶ Representative- Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. Two types here- a)Parliamentary democracy Under a parliamentary democracy government is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review, checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people. b) Liberal democracy- A Liberal democracy is a representative democracy in which the ability of the elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law.

12 Political System Forms of democracy: ▶ Direct Democracy- Direct democracy is a political system where the citizens participate in the decision making personally, contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives. ▶ Socialist Democracy- Social democracy/ democratic socialism, and the dictatorship of the proletariat (usually exercised through Soviet democracy) are some examples. ▶ Anarchist Democracy- The only form of democracy considered acceptable to many anarchists is direct democracy. Some anarchists oppose direct democracy while others favour it.

13 Political System Autocracy An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler. The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autocratic (lit. "self-ruler", or to: "rule by one's self"). Compare to oligarchy (literally means rule by the few) and democracy (rule by the majority) the autocrat needs some kind of power structure to rule. Very few rulers were in the position to rule with only their personal charisma and skills without the help of others.

14 Political System Islamic Political System The political system of Islam is based on three principles: Tawhid (unity of Allah), Risalat (Prophethood) and Khilafat (vicegerency). Tawhid means that only Allah is the Creator, Sustainer and Master of the universe. The medium through which we receive the law of Allah is known as Risalat. We have received two things from this source. Khilafat- it means ‘representation’. Man, according to Islam, is the representative of Allah on earth, His vicegerent.

15 Political System Democracy in Islam Every person in an Islamic society enjoys the rights and powers of the caliphate of Allah and in this respect all individuals are equal. No one can deprive anyone of his rights and powers. The agency for running the affairs of the state will be established in accordance with the will of these individuals and the authority of the state will only be an extension of the powers of the individual delegated to it.

16 Political System Purpose of the Islamic State The Holy Qur’an clearly states that the aim and purpose of this state, built on the foundation of Tawhid, Risalat and Khilafat, is the establishment, maintenance and development of those virtues which the Creator of the universe wishes human life to be enriched by, and the prevention and eradication of those evils which are abhorrent to Allah.

17 Political System Fundamental Rights Although an Islamic state may be set up anywhere on earth, Islam does not seek to restrict human rights or privileges to the geographical limits of its own state. Islam has laid down universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be observed and respected in all circumstances irrespective of whether a person lives on the territory of the Islamic state or outside it and whether he is at peace with the state or at war.

18 Political System Executive and Legislature The responsibility for the administration of the Government in an Islamic state is entrusted to an Amir (leader) who may be likened to the President or the Prime Minister in a Western democratic state. All adult men and women who accept the fundamentals of the constitution are entitled to vote in the election for the leader.

19 The basic qualifications for the election of an Amir are that he should command the confidence of the largest number of people in respect of his knowledge and grasp of the spirit of Islam; he should possess the Islamic attribute of fear of Allah; he should be endowed with the quality of statesmanship. In short, he should be both able and virtuous.


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