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International West Lake Symposium on Fusion Plasma Physics 2011 Jinlin Xie on behalf of KTX team Dept. of Modern Physics, School of Physical Sciences University.

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Presentation on theme: "International West Lake Symposium on Fusion Plasma Physics 2011 Jinlin Xie on behalf of KTX team Dept. of Modern Physics, School of Physical Sciences University."— Presentation transcript:

1 International West Lake Symposium on Fusion Plasma Physics 2011 Jinlin Xie on behalf of KTX team Dept. of Modern Physics, School of Physical Sciences University of Science and Technology of China Hefei, Anhui, China New possible RFP project in China Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX)

2 Outline  Motivation of the new RFP program in China –Energy diversity: Fusion is necessary for China –Fusion diversity: Toroidal Alternate Configuration  The KTX program in USTC –The emergence of KTX –The KTX concept design –The Goals and Scientific Issues for KTX

3 China Tops U.S. in Energy Use “Asian Giant Emerges as No. 1 Consumer of Power, Reshaping Oil Markets, Diplomacy.” -The Wall Street Journal JULY 18, 2010

4  Coal: 70%  Oil: 20%  Hydroelectric sources: 6%  Natural gas: 3%  Nuclear power: 1% We need an effort to diversify our energy supplies! Nuclear fusion — the process that powers the sun, offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. China’s energy consumption requirements

5 Diversity during the early days in China fusion progam (starting from 1958):  Z pinch, Ө pinch, FRC, reversed field pinch  Focus, mirror device  Stellarator  Tokamak An early stellarator in China Stellarator “LinYun”: designed in1965, capacitor bank energy: 800kJ plus ICRF heating

6 Tokamaks in China SouthWestern Institute of Physics HL-2A at SWIP Huazhong University of Science & Tech Joint-TEXT at HUST Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences EAST & HT-7 at ASIPP University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) Qinghua University ST: SUNIST

7 Current Fusion research platforms in China Currently, four Tokamaks are running in ASIPP, SWIP and HUST respectively. Fusion program in China is focusing on Tokamak research. The tradition of diversified fusion research has been lost!

8 China needs RFP research program  It is not as yet clear which configuration will ultimately lead to the most attractive fusion reactor –Diversity is part of the nature, so is fusion research. –Ancient Chinese philosophy “Let a hundred schools of thought contend” (BC 770)  Five scientific and technical research areas –Burning Plasmas in ITER –Creating Predictable, High-performance, Steady-State Plasmas –Taming the Plasma-Material Interface –Harnessing Fusion Power –Optimizing the Magnetic configuration  No related projects (issue 5 th ) have been launched in China fusion program Ref: Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW), Bethesda, Maryland – June 8-12, 2009; Report of the FESAC toroidal alternates panel, November 26, 2008

9 Reversed Field Pinch: an important toroidal alternate concept Tokamak RFP Three major configurations of MCF  Stellarator: magnetic field is generated totally by the external coils  Tokamak: magnetic field is generated primarily by the external coils  RFP: magnetic field is generated primarily by the plasma current Main advantages of RFP: Reversed Field Pinch  Small externally applied field:  the use of normal magnets, high engineering beta, high mass-power-density, efficient assembly  The safety factor q<1, higher helical twist, enhanced magnetic shear  Large plasma current density: Ohmic heating for a burning plasma  Fascinating phenomena of magnetic self-organization and nonlinear plasma physics:  test bed for the understanding derived at high field, good platform to investigate the transport, link between the fusion energy science and astrophysics

10 MST, John Sarff, 2010 USTC Hefei workshop

11 TITAN an RFP reactor 1990 VS. ITER TITANITER TITANITER Major radius(m) Minor radius(m) Plasma current(MA)1815 Toroidal field(T) Energy-confinement time(s) Poloidal Beta 23 % 3% Fusion Power(GW) Neutron wall load(MW/m 2 )180.5

12 Present RFP experiments RFX-Mod (Italy) R/a = 2 m / 0.46 m MST (UW-Madison) R/a = 1.5 m / 0.5m Extrap-T2R (Sweden) R/a = 1.24 m / 0.18m RELAX (Japan) R/a = 0.5 m / 0.25m  Italy Plasma current~2MA, the biggest RFP device, Active feedback control, high current operation  U.S. One of the four major MCF devices, plasma current ~0.8MA, current drive & confinement improvement  Sweden Active feedback control of the MHD modes  Japan Smale aspect ratio R/a~2 MST: improved confinement achieved via modification of the current profile RFX: self-organized Single Helical Axis state come with electron transport barriers Recent achievements in RFP

13 The RFP proposal in USTC Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX)  In USTC, We have kept fusion research, small-scale but steadily growing, for almost forty years –Tokamak physics and diagnostic –Fundamental research in small devices: magnetic reconnection experiment, chaos, turbulence… –Space plasma research: data analysis and numerical simulation of reconnection phenomena… –Theory and numerical simulation: tearing mode, kink mode  RFP naturally fits our current status –The diversity of Chinese fusion research KTX will not only address the relative important scientific issues of Tokamak, but also improve the understanding of toroidal confinement in general –The richness of physics: dynamo, magnetic self organization, RWM –Training of fusion talents is the priority of university The easy operation, compared with Tokamak; daily running The KTX project is a nature extension of China MCF program!

14 The former RFP research in China  Construction from 1985 running from 1989 Shutdown in 1997  R=0.48m, a=0.1m air core  Al shell: d=1cm stainless steel liner: d=0.4mm  plasma pulse < 2ms, I p ~150kA(max) Te~100eV The first RFP device in China :SWIP-RFP

15 Concept design of Keda Torus eXperiment Major radius: 1.4 m Minor radius: 0.4 m Aspect ratio 3.5 Wall thickness: 6 mm (stainless steel) 1.5mm (copper shell) Plasma current: 0.5 MA / 1MA Plasma Pulse: 10 ~ 30 ms 100ms (with feedback) Loop Voltage: 10 ~ 50 V Plasma inductance: ~ 4 μH Poloidal flux: 5 V٠S Te: 600 ~ 800 eV Plasma density (1 ~ 2) m -3 Ohmic heating coils Toroidal coils Equilibrium coils Modular shell: Stainless steel for vacuum chamber (6mm/2ms), plus one thin copper layer (1.5mm /20ms)

16 Active control configuration in KTX  RWM control methods –thick layer with good conductivity, act as an ideal conductive shell –Rotation to suppress the RWM mode; need to control the plasma rotation or metal wall rotation –Active feedback with External coils: open loop & closed loop T2R Coil system(s) toroidal direction poloidal direction Active coils: twice the width of the sensor coils 4 (poloidal) x 16 (toroidal) positions 50% surface coverage top inboard outboard bottom Br sensor coils 4 (poloidal) x 64 (toroidal) positions full surface coverage (limited acquisition) ˚ 0˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚

17 KTX 主体真空及壳结构  采用衬套薄壳加导体厚壳的复合 结构 – 衬套不锈钢真空室,电磁场自由渗 透,不开水平缝,真空性能好 – 铜导体稳定等离子体,水平开缝, 利纵场快速调制  双 C 结构 – 人可进真空室内( RFX 用机械手, MST 真空室 10 年未开)  真空抽气采用小孔集成方式

18 Similar scheme as T2R device T2R Coil system(s) toroidal direction poloidal direction Active coils: twice the width of the sensor coils 4 (poloidal) x 16 (toroidal) positions 50% surface coverage top inboard outboard bottom Br sensor coils 4 (poloidal) x 64 (toroidal) positions full surface coverage (limited acquisition) ˚ 0˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚

19 The unique features of KTX  The advanced RFP device –Significant parameters –advanced real-time feedback control –Thin shell: close proximity to the plasma Linear stability for m=0 tearing could be critical (sensitive to wall proximity) –Optimized aspect ratio for the realization of SHAs (single helical mode), also good for the research of scaling of RFP confinement –Optimized coil configuration for potential research of OFCD & PPCD –Stainless steel inwall: good if accommodates advanced plasma-facing materials, e.g., lithium –Part of the Vacuum chamber can be moved out: to ensure the maximum accessibility to interior

20 RC, LZ, EM – TF4 – 22 - I Preliminary remark #2: the right R/a ● A chance for the helical divertor, with pumping sections with the same periodicity of the SHAx. ● There could be room for helical coils for SH equilibria. ● An EVEN dominant mode is a must !! (RFX is 7/12… ) ● Maximum 1/q=4, but there is no practical space for the PM coils. 1/q = 6  R/a = 3.6 * … which would nice fit in the RFX 12*4=48 structural periodicity. r/a in SHAx we trust … ● the main resonant mode may become an helical divertor … ● lower mode, easier control 1/q T2R RFX Relax MST ?

21 RFP research RWM control High Beta confinement Current drive Anomalous ion heating Momentum transport Magnetic helicity & turbulence Magnetic reconnection Dynamo The Goals and Scientific Issues for KTX Reconnection in space physics The disk momentum transport problem  ITER & Tokamak related –RWM in high Beta; stochastic magnetic field & active MHD control; high beta tokamak mode with low toroidal field  Fundamental issues in space & astrophysics –Dynamo, magnetic resonnection, anomalous ion heating, momentum transport  Training talents for MCF program –Rich physics of RFP, easy operation, daily running, direct impression of MCF research

22 Ohmic coils: minimize stray field R(m) The distribution of the poloidal magnetic field (Green circle: the cross section a=0.4m Blue dot circle: area occupied by plasma, with a radius of 0.3m ) Gauss Collaborated with EAST team

23 Vacuum field of equilibrium coils (B vertical ) Equilibrium Magnetic Surface IpLibetapRmaxisRoutRgapiRgapo 500 kA m1.398 m 2.4 mm 6.2 mm

24 The milestones of KTX project  We have tried to seek an appropriate experimental platform for high-temperature plasma research for almost 10 years. –Spherical Tokamak, Stellarater(CHS), FRC, RFP  2009 Nov, Atalanta, U.S. –discussion about the possibility of RFP with Piero and Weixing during the APS meeting  2010 April, RFX, Padova, Italy –the 14th Workshop of the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on RFP –The concept design of KTX (thick shell) –The first literation of USTC RFP project, with RFX group, John (MST), Sadao (Relax), James (Extrap-T2R) and Weixing, Chijin.  2010 August, MST, Madison, U.S. –The name of USTC RFP project: KTX –The second literation of USTC RFP project, with MST group, Weixing, Chijing and RFX members (via video conference): change from thick shell to thin shell  2010 October, USTC, Hefei, China –USTC international RFP workshop, including MST, RFX, Relax members  2011 June, USTC, Hefei, China: issues of construction, with MST, Relax & EAST group

25 2010 April, Padova, Italy the 14th Workshop of the IEA on RFP 2010 Oct, Int RFP workshop, USTC The RFP family is growing and thus welcomed a delegation from USTC, one of the top Chinese universities, is planning to construct a new RFP device. The new RFP will contribute towards meeting the need for a strong research program on alternate concepts, which is considered essential for the success of the Chinese domestic fusion programme in the ITER era August, MST, Madison, U.S

26 Future of KTX  天时 –Right time, ITER era  地利 –Right place, USTC, Hefei, close to other MCF facilities  人和 –Human harmonic environment –Support from international RFP community and domestic MCF community Conclusion: KTX must have a bright future

27 Thanks, and Welcome to USTC!


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