2Overview Natural Condition of Mankind Prisoner’s Dilemma The Bronze RuleA Hobbesian SovereignAutonomy and Authority
3IV. The State of NatureFirst condition of the state of nature is scarcityNot enough of the good things to go aroundThen we get:“From this equality of ability, ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of our ends…”
4IV. The State of Nature“And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their end, which is principally their own conservation, and sometimes their delectation only, endeavour to destroy, or subdue one another”
5IV. The State of NatureIn other words, the scarcity creates competition sinceIf we recognize the equality between two people thenA necessary condition of either “A” or “B” getting good “X” is preventing the other party from getting that goodCreates feelings of diffidenceRise of pre-emptive strikesLeads to a “war of each against all”
6IV. The State of Nature Where “war” consists: “not in battle only, or the act of fighting; but in a tract of time, wherein the will to contend by battle is sufficiently known: and therefore the notion of time, is to be considered in the nature of war… so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting; but in the known disposition thereto, during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary” (p. 287).Consequences?
7IV. The State of Nature In the state of nature, then: “In such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing, such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death…
8IV. The State of Nature“and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
9IV. The State of Nature Why? Why won’t people be able to get along? Why will the scarcity lead to this nasty situation?
10Prisoners’ Dilemma Generalized Form: Rank Outcomes, from most preferred to least preferred1 = first choice2 = second choice3 = third choice4 = fourth choiceChoice is “cooperate” or “not cooperate”
13Prisoners’ DilemmaProblem for Hobbes, indeed for any political or moral philosophy, is how do we stabilize the cooperative outcome?Hobbes does not develop the language of the P.D., but he is the first both to recognize the difficulty and consider fully the implications
14Prisoners’ DilemmaPeople in Hobbes’ state of nature are in Prisoners’ Dilemma situationsSolution?We need a sovereignWhat kind?Why obey?
15“Do unto others as they do unto you” I. The Bronze RuleFor Hobbes, the rule governing our moral relations in the state of nature is:As long as other people are not free riding, then don’t free rideBut if free riding is a problem, then free rideIn other words, something like“Do unto others as they do unto you”
16I. The Bronze Rule Laws of Nature Clarifying terms Right of Nature – each individual is in a moral position to do whatever is necessary to stay aliveLiberty: absence of external impedimentsFree to do as you please since have no moral, political, physical, cultural, social constraintsLaw of Nature – rules governing our actions which can be discovered by reason and reason alone
17I. The Bronze RuleRight = libertyLaw = obedience
18I. The Bronze Rule First Law of Nature: In state of war of each against all, seek peace if others seek peaceThat is, morality cannot restrict you from saving your own lifeThus state of nature is basically amoral, in that everyone is acting in self defenseThe war of each against all results not because we are all evil, but because we each want to stay alive
19I. The Bronze Rule Second Law of Nature Be willing to cede rights, if others are also so inclinedWhy?
20II. The Social ContractRenounce rights to kill each other (in self defense)Recall conditions of the state of natureSituation where pre-emptive strikes are rationalHow to solve the Prisoner’s Dilemma?Whenever we have a public good, each of us must renounce our right of self government and give it to the sovereignNote: you can’t give up the right of nature (protect yourself) but you do cede all other rights
21II. The Social ContractObey the sovereign so long as it keeps the peaceBecause we can’t agree as individuals, simply cede authority to sovereign and accept the legitimacy of that sovereignEach of us promises each other to obey the sovereign and therefore
22II. The Social ContractEach of us is morally obligated to obey the sovereignThis is necessary since it prevents us from slipping back into the State of Nature and the war of each against allSovereign can do anything short of taking our lifeThere is no such thing as an unjust law
24The obligations we make in the terms of the social contract are to each other, and as such bind each of us, not the sovereign.Sovereign
25SovereignThe sovereign is not part of the contract.
26III. Autonomy and Authority Hobbes’ solution is practical when our autonomy is threatened by a lack of authorityIt solves the problem of incompatible wants.Authority means allowing something to have unequivocal will to do whatever it wants
27III. Autonomy and Authority If sovereign has authority, this means we are under moral obligation to others to obey the sovereignWe cede the right to do anything we want to do (our liberty) in exchange for doing anything the sovereign does not forbid
28III. Autonomy and Authority On Socrates and other foolsRecall Socrates and the position of the philosopher in the cityPhilosopher thinks for himself, so we have the problem of trying to retain autonomy and resist authorityFor Socrates, this was an irreconcilable conflict as authority means giving to others the ability to make my moral choices/objections
29III. Autonomy and Authority Hobbes sees this as no problem, inasmuch as – given the baseline (the state of nature), it is always better to recognize authorityThrough moral sympathy and imagination – we can put ourselves in the position of other people – we can recognize that if I disobey, then others will, and we’re right back in the state of nature and the war of each against all.
30III. Autonomy and Authority And only a fool would want thatSo..