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SOUTH AMERICA (CHAPTER 5. REGIONS OF THE REALM BRAZIL NORTH  COLOMBIA  VENEZUELA  GUYANA  SURINAME  FRENCH GUIANA SOUTH  ARGENTINA  CHILE  URUGUAY.

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Presentation on theme: "SOUTH AMERICA (CHAPTER 5. REGIONS OF THE REALM BRAZIL NORTH  COLOMBIA  VENEZUELA  GUYANA  SURINAME  FRENCH GUIANA SOUTH  ARGENTINA  CHILE  URUGUAY."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOUTH AMERICA (CHAPTER 5

2 REGIONS OF THE REALM BRAZIL NORTH  COLOMBIA  VENEZUELA  GUYANA  SURINAME  FRENCH GUIANA SOUTH  ARGENTINA  CHILE  URUGUAY  PARAGUAY WEST  PERU  ECUADOR  BOLIVIA

3 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES PHYSIOGRAPHY IS DOMINATED BY THE ANDES MOUNTAINS AND THE AMAZON BASIN. POPULATION IS CONCENTRATED ALONG THE PERIPHERY. CULTURAL PLURALISM EXISTS IN MOST COUNTRIES AND IS EXPRESSED REGIONALLY.

4 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

5 PRECIPITATION

6 POPULATION CARTOGRAM Pg 253

7 THE INCA EMPIRE CULTURE HEARTH -INTERMONTANE BASIN AROUND CUZCO ( A.D.) ALTIPLANOS WERE KEY TO SETTLEMENT PATTERNS (ELONGATED BASINS IN THE HIGH ANDES). SEE PG MILLION SUBJECTS AT ITS ZENITH TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS AND INTEGRATION EFFORTS WERE MOST IMPRESSIVE. A HIGHLY CENTRALIZED STATE

8 INDIGENOUS PEOPLES & COLONIAL DOMAINS

9 SOUTH AMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES

10 SOUTH AMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES Tropical-plantation European-commercial Amerind-subsistence Mestizo-transitional Undifferentiated

11 CULTURE SPHERES Tropical-plantation Resembles Middle America’s Rimland Locations, soils, & tropical climates favor plantation crops, especially sugar. Initially relied on African slave labor

12 CULTURE SPHERES European-commercial The most “Latin” part of South America Includes the Pampas - temperate grasslands Economically most advanced Transportation networks and quality of life are excellent.

13 CULTURE SPHERES Amerind-subsistence Correlates with the former Inca Empire Includes some of South America’s poorest areas Subsistence agriculture must contend with difficult environmental challenges.

14 CULTURE SPHERES Mestizo-transitional Surrounds the Amerindian- subsistence region A zone of mixture- culturally & agriculturally

15 CULTURE SPHERES Undifferentiated Characteristics are difficult to classify. Sparsely populated Isolation and lack of change- notable features Development of Amazonia may prompt significant changes.

16 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Supranational Organizations: MERCOSUR  LAUNCHED IN 1995  INCLUDES BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, URUGUAY, AND PARAGUAY ANDEAN COMMUNITY  INITIALLY FORMED IN 1969 (ANDEAN PACT)  RESTARTED IN 1995  MEMBERS ARE VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, PERU, ECUADOR, AND BOLIVIA

17 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (CONTINUED) GROUP OF THREE (G-3)  FORMED IN 1995  INCLUDES MEXICO, VENEZUELA, AND COLOMBIA  A FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION WHICH AIMED TO PHASE OUT ALL TARIFFS BY 2005 NAFTA  LAUNCHED BY THE US, MEXICO, AND CANADA IN 1994  SEEKING TO EXPAND INTO SOUTH AMERICA TO INCLUDE CHILE

18 POLITICAL DIVISIONS

19 URBANIZATION THE MOVEMENT TO AND CLUSTERING OF PEOPLE IN TOWNS AND CITIES THE PERCENTAGE OF A COUNTRY’S POPULATION LIVING IN CITIES 79% - CONTINENT-WIDE IN SOUTH AMERICA (HIGHER THAN EUROPE’S 75%) SOUTH AMERICA’S INCREASE BASED ON RATE OF “NATURAL INCREASE” AND INTERNAL MIGRATION THE “LATIN AMERICAN CITY” MODEL, PG 254. How does it differ from American (U.S.)?

20 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial CBD Commercial Spine

21 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector CBD

22 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity CBD

23 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity Zone in Situ Accretion CBD

24 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity Zone in Situ Accretion Zone of peripheral squatter settlements CBD

25 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity Zone in Situ Accretion Zone of peripheral squatter settlements CBD Disamenity

26 Contrasts within S/American cities – rich versus poor


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