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Jews, Christians a nd Muslims in History Marek Čejka.

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Presentation on theme: "Jews, Christians a nd Muslims in History Marek Čejka."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jews, Christians a nd Muslims in History Marek Čejka

2 Middle East today gives the impression that it is a place of mutual hatred and conflict of the three great religions Middle East today gives the impression that it is a place of mutual hatred and conflict of the three great religions Middle East disputes are often presented as an interfaith intolerance, "clash of civilizations", etc. Middle East disputes are often presented as an interfaith intolerance, "clash of civilizations", etc. But these are simplistic argument, the reality is far more complex But these are simplistic argument, the reality is far more complex Until the early 20th century were among Muslims, Jews and Christians in the Middle East no major problems Until the early 20th century were among Muslims, Jews and Christians in the Middle East no major problems

3 The common basis of three "Abrahamic" religions JUDAISM is the foundation - the oldest of the three religions JUDAISM is the foundation - the oldest of the three religions 70. AD beginning of the Jewish Diaspora - Jews expelled by the Romans 70. AD beginning of the Jewish Diaspora - Jews expelled by the Romans CHRISTIANITY was established initially as an offshoot of Judaism, and later separated and significantly changed CHRISTIANITY was established initially as an offshoot of Judaism, and later separated and significantly changed Christianity started to be dominant in the Middle East Christianity started to be dominant in the Middle East ISLAM - the last in line - his birth linked to the life of Prophet Muhammad ( ) ISLAM - the last in line - his birth linked to the life of Prophet Muhammad ( ) Islam is considered to be the heir of Judaism and Christianity, but it also considers itself the most perfect of the whole series. Islam accepts both previous religion, but considers them to be imperfect and attributed a different meaning for many phenomena (Jesus) Islam is considered to be the heir of Judaism and Christianity, but it also considers itself the most perfect of the whole series. Islam accepts both previous religion, but considers them to be imperfect and attributed a different meaning for many phenomena (Jesus)

4 Similarities Common for Judaism - Christianity - Islam Monotheism Monotheism The worship of the patriarchs, kings and prophets of the Old Testament - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Elijah, David and Solomon The worship of the patriarchs, kings and prophets of the Old Testament - Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Elijah, David and Solomon Common for Islam - Judaism The similarity between is apparently higher than between Judaism and contemporary Christianity The similarity between is apparently higher than between Judaism and contemporary Christianity kosher-halal, kosher-halal, systems of law (Halacha-Shari`ah) systems of law (Halacha-Shari`ah) clothing, beards, skullcaps clothing, beards, skullcaps circumcision circumcision

5 The similarities of Christianity and Islam prayer, fasting, alms, pilgrimages prayer, fasting, alms, pilgrimages The Quran in many places recognizes Jesus and his teachings The Quran in many places recognizes Jesus and his teachings Sura 19 of Koran is devoted to the Virgin Mary Sura 19 of Koran is devoted to the Virgin Mary Contentious issues: Mohammed, Holy Trinity, the Incarnation of Christ and his resurrection Mohammed, Holy Trinity, the Incarnation of Christ and his resurrection

6 Islam and Jesus Muslims contend that crucifixion did not occur. The basis of all of these beliefs is the following verse in the Qur'an: Muslims contend that crucifixion did not occur. The basis of all of these beliefs is the following verse in the Qur'an: That they said (in boast), "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah"- but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not: Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise Qur'an, sura 4 (An-Nisa) verses Qur'an, sura 4 (An-Nisa) verses

7 Situation in the Middle East until emergence of Christianity The presence of monotheism - Judaism, Zoroastrianism The presence of monotheism - Judaism, Zoroastrianism The presence of various religions and polyteistic cults The presence of various religions and polyteistic cults Egypt, the Assyrian Empire (9th to 7th century BC is) Egypt, the Assyrian Empire (9th to 7th century BC is) Biblical Jewish State of Israel ( BC) Biblical Jewish State of Israel ( BC) Babylon (from 1900 BC) Babylon (from 1900 BC) Persian Empire ( BC) Persian Empire ( BC) Empire of Alexander the Great (from 330 BC) Empire of Alexander the Great (from 330 BC) The Roman Empire (70 BC – 395 AD) The Roman Empire (70 BC – 395 AD) Byzantine Empire (395 AD – 1453 AD) Byzantine Empire (395 AD – 1453 AD)

8 Christianity in the Middle East the Byzantine Empire from 4. to 7. Century

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10 The expansion of Islam and the emergence of the Caliphate (since the 7th century)

11 Islamic Caliphate

12 Polytheism is inhibited by Muslims, but Abrahamic monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity) are usually recognized and their supporters usually not forced in the Muslim environment to convert. Polytheism is inhibited by Muslims, but Abrahamic monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity) are usually recognized and their supporters usually not forced in the Muslim environment to convert. Tolerance especially in the so-called "golden age of Islam" (8th- 13th cent.) Tolerance especially in the so-called "golden age of Islam" (8th- 13th cent.) Christians and Jews in subordinate position of Islam - the dhimmi status Christians and Jews in subordinate position of Islam - the dhimmi status Some restrictions: special taxes special taxes could not wear a certain color of clothing, special signs could not wear a certain color of clothing, special signs not allowed to marry Muslim women not allowed to marry Muslim women limited ability of their testimony in court limited ability of their testimony in court Could not hold some offices. Could not hold some offices. Hundreds of thousands of Jews and Christians living in the Muslim Middle East

13 Quran and tolerant relationship to „the People of the Book" Do not argue with the people of the scripture (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) except in the nicest possible manner - unless they transgress - and say, "We believe in what was revealed to us and in what was revealed to you, and our god and your god is one and the same; to Him we are submitters. Do not argue with the people of the scripture (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) except in the nicest possible manner - unless they transgress - and say, "We believe in what was revealed to us and in what was revealed to you, and our god and your god is one and the same; to Him we are submitters. Quran - Sura 29: Spider,verse 46

14 The status of other religions in Islam is usually better than that of the Muslims and Jews in Christianity Christian antisemtism and antijudaism Basic charges: murder of Jesus and the resulting collective responsibility of Jews for his crucifixion. Basic charges: murder of Jesus and the resulting collective responsibility of Jews for his crucifixion. pogroms, torture, accusations of ritual murder, desecration of hosts, poisoning wells pogroms, torture, accusations of ritual murder, desecration of hosts, poisoning wells Anti-Semitism is particularly strong in the Catholic lands, Protestants are usually more moderate Anti-Semitism is particularly strong in the Catholic lands, Protestants are usually more moderate Forced conversion of Jews and Muslims in Spain Forced conversion of Jews and Muslims in Spain After the "Reconquista" (1492) Jews flee from Spain to Muslim North Africa After the "Reconquista" (1492) Jews flee from Spain to Muslim North Africa

15 Exspulsion of Jews

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17 The intellectual foundations of Christian Antisemitism Some maintain that a number of early and influential works by the Church Fathers — such as the dialogues of Justin Martyr, the homilies of John Chrysostom, and the testimonies of Cyprian — are anti-Jewish. Others, like Augustine, argued that the Jews should be left alive, to suffer as a perpetual reminder of their murder of Christ. T homas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) "as the laws say, the Jews by reason of their fault are sentenced to perpetual servitude and thus the lords of the lands in which they dwell may take things from them as though they were their own — with, nonetheless, this restraint observed that the necessary subsidies of life in no way be taken from them...[and that] the services coerced from them do not demand things that they had not been accustomed to do in times gone by. " Reforma tion : Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) in his book „On the Jews and their Lies“: „Jews are … venomous beasts, vipers, disgusting scum, canders, devils incarnate. Their private houses must be destroyed and devastated, they could be lodged in stables. Let the magistrates burn their synagogues and let whatever escapes be covered with sand and mud. Let them force to work, and if this avails nothing, we will be compelled to expel them like dogs in order not to expose ourselves to incurring divine wrath and eternal damnation from the Jews and their lies."

18 Christianity versus I sl a m The Crusades ( ) Christianity versus I sl a m The Crusades ( )

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20 Reconquista of Spain ( finished 1492)

21 Tur kish expan sion Ottoman empire, 1299–1922

22 Ottoman Empire The peak during reign of Suleiman I. Magnificient ( ) The peak during reign of Suleiman I. Magnificient ( ) At the same time the first symptoms of stagnation - Empire loses in many aspects breath to Europe, the effort to modernize At the same time the first symptoms of stagnation - Empire loses in many aspects breath to Europe, the effort to modernize Conflict with Persia and Russia, the defeat at Vienna (1683) Conflict with Persia and Russia, the defeat at Vienna (1683) The loss of European territory in the Balkans The loss of European territory in the Balkans The alliance with European superpowers (France, Britain) and later with Germany The alliance with European superpowers (France, Britain) and later with Germany "Sick man on the Bosphorus" "Sick man on the Bosphorus" Politically – the harsh centralization, repression, bureaucracy Politically – the harsh centralization, repression, bureaucracy From a religious perspective relative tolerance From a religious perspective relative tolerance

23 The Middle East on the eve of the WW1

24 For more see: Marek´s books: Judaism and politics in Israel (2002, 2009) Judaism and politics in Israel (2002, 2009) Israel and Palestine (2005) Israel and Palestine (2005) Encyclopedia of the Middle Eastern Terrorism (2007) Encyclopedia of the Middle Eastern Terrorism (2007) Rabbis of our Time (2010, co-author) Rabbis of our Time (2010, co-author) History of Modern Israel (2011) History of Modern Israel (2011)


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