A. Desire for Self-Sufficiency Industrialization = demand for raw materials Standards of living rose w/ “luxury items” Industrialized nations did NOT depend on their own kind for raw materials? Gain control of sources of raw material
B. Need for New Markets Factories produced surplus of goods Euros. & U.S. consumers could not buy all goods Needed new markets to maximize profits Industrialists wanted exclusive rights in colonies Also, wanted protective tariffs at home
C. Nationalism Colonies added to a nation’s strength Colonies = source of troops Colonies required a large navy “from coal to coal” (tiny islands used for this)
D. Outlets for Population 1800-1900: world’s pop. doubled Economy could not support growing pops. Euros left in 1880s
E. Missionary Motives 1500-1600s: spread Christianity Roman Catholic & Prots. Imperialism encouraged missionaries Education Medicine Knowledge of medicine, hygiene, & sanitation spread w/Christianity
F. Cultural Motives Industrialized Western nations had a duty to spread ideas & culture across globe Euros = BEST CULTURE IN WORLD!! Eurocentrism Racism Social Darwinism: “survival of the fittest” Non-Euros = lower scale of development?
Cecil Rhodes: I contend that we (Britons) are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.
Rudyard Kipling – “The White Man’s Burden” Expressed Euro. attitude towards non- industrialized nations Euros = obligated to carry Western civ. to those less fortunate Real burden = colonial wealth?
II. The Nature of Imperialism Imperialism = bitter rivalries Early imp. = merchants, explorers, missionaries Then, Euro soldiers & govt. officials to protect THEIR citizens Opened mines, built roads & RRs Region was developed for benefit of developers Euros had surplus cash to invest Economic development led to political control
A. Related “Terms” Colony: an area in which a foreign nation gained complete control over a given region & its local pop. Became part of an empire Protectorate: foreign power ruled thru local ruler Sphere of Influence: region where a nation had exclusive economic & political privileges Economic Imperialism: less-developed country controlled by private business interests
B. Methods of Management 1. Indirect Control: Relied on existing political rulers (Brit colonies) Limited self-rule Also, had legislative council (colonial officials) Goal: train local leaders in Brit method of govt. Would eventually govern selves
2. Direct Control: Africans unable to govern? Paternalism: Euros governed in a parental way provided for needs, but did not give rights Euro bureaucrats ruled, NOT LOCALS (France) Goal: assimilation: eventually, locals would adopt Fr. culture (schools, courts, business = French)