Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

SOUTH AMERICA. POLITICAL MAP REGIONS OF THE REALM Brazil Caribbean North  Colombia  Venezuela  Guyana  Suriname  French Guiana Southern Cone  Argentina.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "SOUTH AMERICA. POLITICAL MAP REGIONS OF THE REALM Brazil Caribbean North  Colombia  Venezuela  Guyana  Suriname  French Guiana Southern Cone  Argentina."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOUTH AMERICA

2 POLITICAL MAP

3 REGIONS OF THE REALM Brazil Caribbean North  Colombia  Venezuela  Guyana  Suriname  French Guiana Southern Cone  Argentina  Chile  Uruguay  Paraguay Andean West  Peru  Ecuador  Bolivia

4 MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES Physiography Dominated by the Andes mountains and the amazon basin. Population Concentrated along the periphery. Cultural pluralism Exists in most countries and is expressed regionally. Regional economic interaction Has been minimal in the past. Acute Financial Problems External debts and default

5 PLATE TECTONICS

6 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

7 PRECIPITATION

8 THE INCA EMPIRE Culture hearth- Basin around Cuzco ( a.D.) Altiplanos were key to settlement patterns. 20 million subjects at its zenith Transportation networks and integration efforts were most impressive. A highly centralized state

9 INDIGENOUS PEOPLES & COLONIAL DOMAINS

10 SOUTH AMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES

11 Tropical-plantation Resembles Middle America’s Rimland Locations, soils, & tropical climates favor plantation crops, especially sugar. Initially relied on African slave labor

12 CULTURE SPHERES European-commercial The most “Latin” part of South America Includes the Pampas - temperate grasslands Economically most advanced Transportation networks and quality of life are excellent.

13 CULTURE SPHERES Amerind-subsistence Correlates with the former Inca Empire Feudal socioeconomic structure persists Includes some of South America’s poorest areas Subsistence agriculture must contend with difficult environmental challenges.

14 CULTURE SPHERES Mestizo-transitional Surrounds the Amerindian- subsistence region A zone of mixture- culturally & agriculturally Transitional -- economic connotations

15 CULTURE SPHERES Undifferentiated Characteristics are difficult to classify. Sparsely populated Isolation and lack of change- notable features Development of Amazonia may prompt significant changes.

16 SOUTH AMERICA’S CULTURE SPHERES Tropical-plantation European-commercial Amerind-subsistence Mestizo-transitional (mixed) Undifferentiated

17 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION MERCOSUR LAUNCHED IN 1995 A SOUTHERN CONE COMMON MARKET INCLUDES BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, URUGUAY, AND PARAGUAY ANDEAN GROUP INITIALLY FORMED IN 1969 (ANDEAN PACT) RESTARTED IN 1995 MEMBERS ARE VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, PERU, ECUADOR, AND BOLIVIA

18 ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (CONTINUED) GROUP OF THREE (G-3) FORMED IN 1995 INCLUDES MEXICO, VENEZUELA, AND COLOMBIA A FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION WHICH AIMS TO PHASE OUT ALL TARIFFS BY 2005 NAFTA LAUNCHED BY THE US, MEXICO, AND CANADA IN 1995 AIMS TO INCLUDE CHILE

19 BARRIERS TO INTEGRATION A hollow continent - why? Physiographic barriers Non-complementary economies Lack of developed infrastructure Individual countries oriented towards Europe and the us – not towards each other

20 URBANIZATION The movement to and clustering of people in towns and cities The percentage of a country’s population living in cities 78% - continent-wide in south america South america’s increase based on rate of “natural increase” and internal migration The “latin american city” model

21 GENERALIZED MODEL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CITY Commercial/Industrial Elite Residential Sector Zone of Maturity Zone in Situ Accretion Zone of peripheral squatter settlements CBD Disamenity

22 GLOBAL URBANIZATION Urban Population as a Percentage of Total Population in Different Areas of the World,

23 BRAZIL  South America’s Giant  World rankings  Population size - 5th  Territory - 5th  Economy - 8th  Industrial base - 8th

24 BRAZIL CONTAINS HALF THE CONTINENT’S LAND AND PEOPLE A FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF 26 STATES ETHNIC DIVERSITY - MIXTURE OF EUROPEAN, AFRICAN, AND AMERINDIAN PEOPLES PORTUGUESE - SPEAKING & ROMAN CATHOLIC ADHERENTS SUBSTANTIAL MINERAL RESOURCES: IRON, ALUMINUM ORE, MANGANESE, OIL, AND GAS

25 A Two Class System?  GNP per capita-$4,630  Largest income gap in the realm  Wealthiest 10% of the population...  own 2/3 of the land  control over 50% of the country’s wealth  Poverty has increased by 50% since 1980

26 BRAZIL (CONTINUED) GREAT CITIES  RIO DE JANEIRO - CULTURAL FOCUS  SAO PAULO - INDUSTRIAL HUB  BRASILIA - A “FORWARD CAPITAL” DEVELOPING THE AMAZON  “GROWTH POLE” CONCEPT  ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

27  Is the capital city positioned in a contested or potentially contested territory?  Is it near an international border?  Does it confirm the state’s intent to maintain its presence in the territory under contention? FORWARD CAPITAL - BRASILIA

28 GROWTH POLE THEORY AIMS TO PROMOTE GROWTH IN THE HINTERLANDS AUGMENTED BY INVESTMENT SUPPORT IN AN ATTEMPT TO SPREAD ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND BENEFITS  CREATE JOBS IN DEPRESSED AREAS  REDUCE UNEVEN CONCENTRATIONS OF WEALTH  DECENTRALIZE INDUSTRY SETS OFF “RIPPLES” OF DEVELOPMENT

29 Sao Paulo 24% All Others 76% Sao Paulo 3% All Others 97% Sao Paulo 45% All Others 55% Sao Paulo 43% All Others 57% TOTAL LAND AREA POPULATION GDP INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT

30 THE NORTH (CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA)

31 VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, GUYANA, SURINAME, FRENCH GUIANA REGIONAL CHARACTER: COASTAL LOCATIONS EARLY EUROPEAN PLANTATION DEVELOPMENT FORCED MIGRATION OF BLACK LABORERS

32 VENEZUELA MILLION PEOPLE  OIL FROM LAKE MARACAIBO IS CHIEF RESOURCE  CARACAS & VALENCIA - KEY CITIES

33 CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA (CONTINUED) COLOMBIA MILLION PEOPLE  COFFEE, OIL & COAL - MAJOR EXPORTS  COCAINE - LEADING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY  TORN BY INTERNAL VIOLENCE  BOGOTA & MEDELLIN - KEY CITIES

34 CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA (CONTINUED) THE GUIANAS (FRENCH GUIANA, GUYANA, SURINAME) - POPULATIONS< 1.5 MILLION  ETHNICALLY DIVERSE  POVERTY STRICKEN  FACE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

35 THE WEST (ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA)

36 THE WEST (ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA)  PERU, ECUADOR, BOLIVIA  REGIONAL CHARACTER: AMERINDIAN POPULATIONS, SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE, MOUNTAINOUS ENVIRONMENTS, POVERTY  PERU MILLION PEOPLE  LIMA IS ITS PRIMATE CITY  ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES - FISHING, IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE, SUGAR, COTTON, RICE, FRUIT, OIL, MINERALS (AN EMERGING ECONOMY!)

37 ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA (CONTINUED) ECUADOR MILLION PEOPLE  MAIN EXPORTS: OIL, COFFEE, CACAO, BANANAS  GUAYAQUIL - LARGEST CITY AND COMMERCIAL CENTER  QUITO - CAPITAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER BOLIVIA MILLION PEOPLE (DISPERSED)  LANDLOCKED  MAIN EXPORTS: TIN AND ZINC

38 THE SOUTH (SOUTHERN CONE)

39 THE SOUTH (MID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA) THE SOUTHERN CONE: ARGENTINA, CHILE, PARAGUAY, URUGUAY HEART OF EUROPEAN-COMMERCIAL CULTURE SPHERE

40 THE SOUTH (MID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA) ARGENTINA 37.8 MILLION PEOPLE  90% URBANIZED, PERIPHERAL  BUENOS AIRES (12.9 MILLION) - A CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY  EXPORTS: CEREALS, MEATS, VEGETABLE OILS

41 THE SOUTH: MID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA (CONTINUED) URUGUAY MILLION PEOPLE  MONTEVIDEO - CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY  MOST EUROPEAN OF SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES  EXPORTS: HIDES, MEATS,TEXTILES PARAGUAY MILLION  95% MESTIZO  LANDLOCKED LOCATION CHILE- AN “ELONGATED STATE”  EXPORTS: COPPER AND NITRATES


Download ppt "SOUTH AMERICA. POLITICAL MAP REGIONS OF THE REALM Brazil Caribbean North  Colombia  Venezuela  Guyana  Suriname  French Guiana Southern Cone  Argentina."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google