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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter 14 - 0 Pluralism in Society:

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Presentation on theme: "© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter 14 - 0 Pluralism in Society:"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Pluralism in Society: Creating Unity in a Diverse America Section 4 Chapter 14 Understanding Human Differences Multicultural Education for a Diverse America 3rd Edition By Kent L. Koppelman This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a networkAny public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesPreparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease, or lending of the programAny rental, lease, or lending of the program

2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter

3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter According to psychologist Howard Gardner, what is “The Respectful Mind” A mental ability to accept and respect others A critical skill for the 21st century

4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How does the federal government PROMOTE pluralism President Kennedy’s executive order called for “affirmative action” in hiring for federal jobs The Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated that employers who had federal contracts had to develop plans with hiring goals demonstrating commitment to hiring women and minorities Federal Government

5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do detractors OPPOSE pluralism Critics say affirmative action has produced “reverse discrimination” White male applicants claim they are rejected in favor of less qualified applicants who are women or people of color

6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What changes illustrate PROGRESS toward pluralism A 1995 study by the National Employment Lawyers Association reported that affirmative action had: significantly reduced job discriminationsignificantly reduced job discrimination improved job opportunities for women and people of colorimproved job opportunities for women and people of color

7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What CHALLENGES to pluralism need to be addressed Affirmative action plans must not appear to establish racial quotas (e.g., the Bakke case, City of Richmond case)Affirmative action plans must not appear to establish racial quotas (e.g., the Bakke case, City of Richmond case) Courts have consistently ruled against such plans California passed Proposition 209 in 1996 ending affirmative action in the stateCalifornia passed Proposition 209 in 1996 ending affirmative action in the state Other states (e.g., Oregon) have passed or are considering similar legislation Other states (e.g., Oregon) have passed or are considering similar legislation

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do advocates PROMOTE pluralism Colleges and universities aggressively recruit students and faculty of color because they believe diversity enhances the education of ALL students Colleges and universities aggressively recruit students and faculty of color because they believe diversity enhances the education of ALL students Curricular changes have tended to be more inclusive of the experiences of women and people of color Curricular changes have tended to be more inclusive of the experiences of women and people of color Higher Education

9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do detractors OPPOSE pluralism Critics say… students of color are admitted to colleges who are less qualified than white students who are not admittedstudents of color are admitted to colleges who are less qualified than white students who are not admitted the influence of “multiculturalism” in the curriculum has resulted in diminished academic rigorthe influence of “multiculturalism” in the curriculum has resulted in diminished academic rigor

10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What CHALLENGES to pluralism need to be addressed Students of color are often stigmatized on campuses as white students assume that they were accepted because of affirmative actionStudents of color are often stigmatized on campuses as white students assume that they were accepted because of affirmative action Courts will rule against colleges and universities if their affirmative action plans give the appearance of establishing racial quotas (e.g., the University of Michigan case)Courts will rule against colleges and universities if their affirmative action plans give the appearance of establishing racial quotas (e.g., the University of Michigan case)

11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter Source: The Daily Cardinal, University of Wisconsin

12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do advocates PROMOTE pluralism Advocates have used anti-discrimination laws to bring lawsuits against corporations that were perceived to discriminate against women or people of colorAdvocates have used anti-discrimination laws to bring lawsuits against corporations that were perceived to discriminate against women or people of color Successful lawsuits resulted in large cash awards that motivate corporations to monitor their practicesSuccessful lawsuits resulted in large cash awards that motivate corporations to monitor their practices Corporate and Small Business

13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do detractors OPPOSE pluralism Anti-discrimination lawsuits suggest that many employers reject diversity and continue to favor white males in hiring and promotion decisionsAnti-discrimination lawsuits suggest that many employers reject diversity and continue to favor white males in hiring and promotion decisions Critics insist that employers should only have to hire and promote the best qualified candidates regardless of gender or raceCritics insist that employers should only have to hire and promote the best qualified candidates regardless of gender or race

14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What changes illustrate PROGRESS toward pluralism The workforce and consumers have become increasingly diverse The workforce and consumers have become increasingly diverse Corporations have become more active in: Corporations have become more active in: Promoting diversity training for workersPromoting diversity training for workers Designing diversity advertising to appeal to consumers of colorDesigning diversity advertising to appeal to consumers of color

15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What CHALLENGES to pluralism need to be addressed Many managers of color believe that managerial assignments are influenced by raceMany managers of color believe that managerial assignments are influenced by race Many employees of color believe they have to work harder than their white peers to be respectedMany employees of color believe they have to work harder than their white peers to be respected Women constitute almost half of those in managerial positions, but there appears to be a “glass ceiling” allowing few to be promoted to top managementWomen constitute almost half of those in managerial positions, but there appears to be a “glass ceiling” allowing few to be promoted to top management

16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do advocates PROMOTE pluralism Mass media is committed to diversity as evidenced by increased representation of people of color: in news programs in news programs in television programming in television programming in advertisements in advertisements Mass Media

17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do detractors OPPOSE pluralism Programming decisions reveal racial biases and prejudices: People of color are often stereotyped in media representationsPeople of color are often stereotyped in media representations Some minority groups are underrepresented (e.g., Latinos)Some minority groups are underrepresented (e.g., Latinos)

18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What changes illustrate PROGRESS toward pluralism Positive images of people of color and other groups (e.g., Levi’s wheelchair ad) appear to promote positive perceptions by viewersPositive images of people of color and other groups (e.g., Levi’s wheelchair ad) appear to promote positive perceptions by viewers Of all students majoring in journalism or mass communication, 61% are women and 27% are students of color (predicted to be 40% in 2035)Of all students majoring in journalism or mass communication, 61% are women and 27% are students of color (predicted to be 40% in 2035)

19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What CHALLENGES to pluralism need to be addressed Media jobs behind the camera are still largely held by white employeesMedia jobs behind the camera are still largely held by white employees Programs still tend to be segregated with token minority charactersPrograms still tend to be segregated with token minority characters Shows featuring actors of color are limited primarily to cable networks (e.g., BET)Shows featuring actors of color are limited primarily to cable networks (e.g., BET)

20 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do advocates PROMOTE pluralism The army’s 16-week race relations training program is equivalent to 23 undergraduate college creditsThe army’s 16-week race relations training program is equivalent to 23 undergraduate college credits All branches of the military have aggressive affirmative action policies for recruitment and promotionAll branches of the military have aggressive affirmative action policies for recruitment and promotion Military Services

21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter How do detractors OPPOSE pluralism Critics contend that women should be given limited roles in the military; particularly, they should have no roles in combatCritics contend that women should be given limited roles in the military; particularly, they should have no roles in combat Critics contend that there is no place for gays and lesbians in the militaryCritics contend that there is no place for gays and lesbians in the military

22 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What changes illustrate PROGRESS toward pluralism The military was previously racially segregated, but that is no longer trueThe military was previously racially segregated, but that is no longer true Prior to the volunteer army, women represented less than 2% of recruits (90% had medical or administrative assignments)Prior to the volunteer army, women represented less than 2% of recruits (90% had medical or administrative assignments) Today one 1 in 5 army recruits is female and half of them are African- Americans

23 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What CHALLENGES to pluralism need to be addressed Gender discrimination (e.g., 66% of female Air Force Academy cadets experienced discrimination)Gender discrimination (e.g., 66% of female Air Force Academy cadets experienced discrimination) Most female soldiers want combat assignments (they are supported by 60% of ROTC cadets and 53% of civilians, but opposed by 62% of military leaders) Most female soldiers want combat assignments (they are supported by 60% of ROTC cadets and 53% of civilians, but opposed by 62% of military leaders) Gay men and women continue to demand the opportunity to be openly gay and still serve in the military Gay men and women continue to demand the opportunity to be openly gay and still serve in the military

24 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter What is the future for DIVERSITY in the United States In the beginning, Americans chose the motto “e pluribus unum,” which means “out of the many, one”In the beginning, Americans chose the motto “e pluribus unum,” which means “out of the many, one” Many states came together to create one nationMany states came together to create one nation Today, the challenge is to bring diverse groups together to form one nation while maintaining multiple perspectivesToday, the challenge is to bring diverse groups together to form one nation while maintaining multiple perspectivesAfterword

25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc Understanding Human Differences 3rd Edition - Koppelman Chapter CULTURAL PLURALISM offers the best means to achieve this goal


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