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Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny How We Classify and Why! How We Classify and Why!

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Presentation on theme: "Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny How We Classify and Why! How We Classify and Why!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny How We Classify and Why! How We Classify and Why!

2 ONTOGENY DEVELOMENT DEVELOMENT

3 VARIATION, CHANGE, SELECTION, SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION WHAT IS A SPECIES? WHAT IS A SPECIES? A SPECIES IS A GROUP OF ORGANISMS THAT BREED TOGETHER UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS AND HAVE VIABLE OFFSPRING. THEY ARE ISOLATED IN SOME WAY FROM OTHER SUCH GROUPS. A SPECIES IS A GROUP OF ORGANISMS THAT BREED TOGETHER UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS AND HAVE VIABLE OFFSPRING. THEY ARE ISOLATED IN SOME WAY FROM OTHER SUCH GROUPS.

4 DIFFERENT SPECIES

5 THERE IS NO SUCH CATEGORY CALLED SPECIE. THE WORD SPECIES IS USED IN A SINGULAR FASHION, AS WELL AS FOR MORE THAN ONE. – ONE SPECIES, TWO SPECIES, ETC. THERE IS NO SUCH CATEGORY CALLED SPECIE. THE WORD SPECIES IS USED IN A SINGULAR FASHION, AS WELL AS FOR MORE THAN ONE. – ONE SPECIES, TWO SPECIES, ETC.

6 ALL MEMBERS OF A SPECIES FORM A POPULATION. A POPULATION IS A GROUP OF ORGANISMS REPRESENTED BY A SINGLE SPECIES. ALL MEMBERS OF A SPECIES FORM A POPULATION. A POPULATION IS A GROUP OF ORGANISMS REPRESENTED BY A SINGLE SPECIES.

7 POPULATION

8 POPULATIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANISMS MAKE UP A COMMUNITY. POPULATIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANISMS MAKE UP A COMMUNITY.

9 COMMUNITY

10 ORGANISMS IN NATURE HAVE A TOUGH LIFE ORGANISMS IN NATURE HAVE A TOUGH LIFE THEY MUST FACE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES THEY MUST FACE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES THEY MUST CONTEND WITH PREDATION AND PARASITISM THEY MUST CONTEND WITH PREDATION AND PARASITISM THEY MUST UNDERGO CHANGE - THROUGH MUTATIONS THEY MUST UNDERGO CHANGE - THROUGH MUTATIONS THROUGH ALL OF THIS, THEY MUST STRIVE TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE THROUGH ALL OF THIS, THEY MUST STRIVE TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE

11 YES, IT’S TRUE. THERE IS NO ONE EXACTLY LIKE YOU. YOU ARE AN INDIVIDUAL THAT IS UNLIKE ANY OTHER INDIVIDUAL. YES, IT’S TRUE. THERE IS NO ONE EXACTLY LIKE YOU. YOU ARE AN INDIVIDUAL THAT IS UNLIKE ANY OTHER INDIVIDUAL. Dr. H.R.Hermann Dr. H.R.Hermann

12 SOME TYPES OF VARIATION SOME TYPES OF VARIATION ANATOMICAL ANATOMICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORAL BEHAVIORAL

13 CHANGES ARE CONSTANTLY OCCURING IN THE PHYSICAL WORLD GLOBAL WARMING – OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME, CHANGES SEA LEVEL AS WELL AS CLIMATES GLOBAL WARMING – OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME, CHANGES SEA LEVEL AS WELL AS CLIMATES GLOBAL COOLING GLOBAL COOLING CONTINENTAL DRIFT – SEPARATES SOME GROUPS OF ORGANISMS AND BRINGS OTHERS TOGETHER CONTINENTAL DRIFT – SEPARATES SOME GROUPS OF ORGANISMS AND BRINGS OTHERS TOGETHER CHANGING WIND CURRENTS CHANGING WIND CURRENTS CHANGING OCEAN CURRENTS CHANGING OCEAN CURRENTS CHANGING CLIMATE – ALTERS COMMUNITIES CHANGING CLIMATE – ALTERS COMMUNITIES POLAR SHIFTS POLAR SHIFTS VOLCANIC ACTIVITY – DESTROYS ENVIRONMENTS VOLCANIC ACTIVITY – DESTROYS ENVIRONMENTS EARTHQUAKES – QUICKLY CHANGES AN ENVIRONMENT EARTHQUAKES – QUICKLY CHANGES AN ENVIRONMENT MOUNTAIN FORMATION – PROGRESSIVE, LONG-TERM CHANGES THAT OFTEN RESULT FROM CONTINENTAL DRIFT MOUNTAIN FORMATION – PROGRESSIVE, LONG-TERM CHANGES THAT OFTEN RESULT FROM CONTINENTAL DRIFT EROSION – NEW CHEMICALS ARE ADDED TO THE ENVIRONMENT EROSION – NEW CHEMICALS ARE ADDED TO THE ENVIRONMENT RAINFALL – PROVIDES WATER, FACILITATES LIFE, FACILITATES DECOMPOSITION, CHANGES ENVIRONMENTS – HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES OFFERS CERTAIN FEATURES THAT ARE USED BY ORGANISMS, E.G., SPIDERS, INSECTS, LIZARDS, ETC. RAINFALL – PROVIDES WATER, FACILITATES LIFE, FACILITATES DECOMPOSITION, CHANGES ENVIRONMENTS – HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN WATER MOLECULES OFFERS CERTAIN FEATURES THAT ARE USED BY ORGANISMS, E.G., SPIDERS, INSECTS, LIZARDS, ETC. RIVERS, LAKES, PONDS, LAKES FORM AND DISAPPEAR RIVERS, LAKES, PONDS, LAKES FORM AND DISAPPEAR

14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES

15 THESE CHANGES IN OUR EARTH PUT PRESSURES ON POPULATIONS OF ORGANISMS, SUBJECTING THEM TO STRESSES THAT WILL MAKE POPULATIONS CHANGE. THESE CHANGES IN OUR EARTH PUT PRESSURES ON POPULATIONS OF ORGANISMS, SUBJECTING THEM TO STRESSES THAT WILL MAKE POPULATIONS CHANGE.

16 ALONG WITH THESE CONSTANT CHANGES, VARIATION WITHIN ALL POPULATIONS TENDS TO CHANGE THE POPULATIONS OVER TIME. FEATURES POSSESSED BY CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS WITHIN A POPULATION MAY HELP THEM SURVIVE BETTER THAN OTHERS. THOSE INDIVIDUALS THAT ARE BEST SUITED TO THE CURRENT CONDITIONS ARE THE ONES TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE. ALONG WITH THESE CONSTANT CHANGES, VARIATION WITHIN ALL POPULATIONS TENDS TO CHANGE THE POPULATIONS OVER TIME. FEATURES POSSESSED BY CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS WITHIN A POPULATION MAY HELP THEM SURVIVE BETTER THAN OTHERS. THOSE INDIVIDUALS THAT ARE BEST SUITED TO THE CURRENT CONDITIONS ARE THE ONES TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE.

17 THIS IS WHAT NATURAL SELECTION IS ALL ABOUT – THE POSSESSION OF CERTAIN TRAITS THAT HELP AN INDIVIDUAL SURVIVE AND PASS ON ITS GENES TO SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS. THIS IS WHAT NATURAL SELECTION IS ALL ABOUT – THE POSSESSION OF CERTAIN TRAITS THAT HELP AN INDIVIDUAL SURVIVE AND PASS ON ITS GENES TO SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS.

18 SUMMARY OF SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES IN POPULATIONS SUMMARY OF SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES IN POPULATIONS VARIATION – ALL POPULATIONS SHOW VARIATION VARIATION – ALL POPULATIONS SHOW VARIATION CHANGE – CHANGES ARE CONSTANTLY OCCURING. NOTHING IS STATIC. CHANGE – CHANGES ARE CONSTANTLY OCCURING. NOTHING IS STATIC. SELECTION OF INDIVIDUALS THAT BEST SUIT THE ENVIRONMENT – NATURAL SELECTION – BIOLOGISTS SPEAK OF MAXIMIZATION. SELECTION OF INDIVIDUALS THAT BEST SUIT THE ENVIRONMENT – NATURAL SELECTION – BIOLOGISTS SPEAK OF MAXIMIZATION.

19 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY BEFORE THE 1700S, BOTH SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY WERE INFLUENCED BY RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. BEFORE THE 1700S, BOTH SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY WERE INFLUENCED BY RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. DURING THE 1500S, PHILOSOPHERS BEGAN TO THINK ON THEIR OWN AND BEGAN TO LOOK CRITICALLY AT THE NATURAL WORLD. DURING THE 1500S, PHILOSOPHERS BEGAN TO THINK ON THEIR OWN AND BEGAN TO LOOK CRITICALLY AT THE NATURAL WORLD. IT WASN’T UNTIL THE 1800S THAT SCIENCE BEGAN TO TAKE OFF AND MAKE IMPORTANT BREAK-THROUGH DISCOVERIES. IT WASN’T UNTIL THE 1800S THAT SCIENCE BEGAN TO TAKE OFF AND MAKE IMPORTANT BREAK-THROUGH DISCOVERIES. BY THE MID 1800S EARLY 1900S, BIOLOGY HAD BECOME INTERESTING TO NATURALISTS. BY THE MID 1800S EARLY 1900S, BIOLOGY HAD BECOME INTERESTING TO NATURALISTS. SINCE THAT TIME, BIOLOGISTS AND OTHER SCIENTISTS HAVE BECOME SPECIALISTS SINCE THAT TIME, BIOLOGISTS AND OTHER SCIENTISTS HAVE BECOME SPECIALISTS Dr. H. R. Hermann Dr. H. R. Hermann

20 Evolution, Genetics Embryo's and our Common Ancestor's c0 c0


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