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IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE”. I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV (1547-1584)

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Presentation on theme: "IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE”. I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV (1547-1584)"— Presentation transcript:

1 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE”

2

3 I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( )

4 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY

5 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY B. HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT LARGELY NEGATIVE

6 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY B. HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT LARGELY NEGATIVE 1. IN GENERAL SEEN AS CRUEL TYRANT AT BEST OR INSANE AT WORST

7 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY B. HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT LARGELY NEGATIVE 1. IN GENERAL SEEN AS CRUEL TYRANT AT BEST OR INSANE AT WORST 2. BUT EVEN HIS EPITHET OF “TERRIBLE” IS SOMEWHAT MISLEADING

8 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY B. HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT LARGELY NEGATIVE 1. IN GENERAL SEEN AS CRUEL TYRANT AT BEST OR INSANE AT WORST 2. BUT EVEN HIS EPITHET OF “TERRIBLE” IS SOMEWHAT MISLEADING a. RUSSIAN GROZNY BETTER TRANSLATED AS “AWE- INSPIRING”

9 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) A. FIGURE OF GREAT CONTROVERSY B. HISTORICAL ASSESSMENT LARGELY NEGATIVE 1. IN GENERAL SEEN AS CRUEL TYRANT AT BEST OR INSANE AT WORST 2. BUT EVEN HIS EPITHET OF “TERRIBLE” IS SOMEWHAT MISLEADING a. RUSSIAN GROZNY BETTER TRANSLATED AS “AWE- INSPIRING” b. HAS CONNOTATIONS OF RESPECT FROM FEAR RATHER THAN MONSTROSITY

10 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS

11 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS 1. THOSE WHO CONDEMN HIM OUTRIGHT FOR CRUELTY, OPPRESSION, AND SENSELESS BLOODSHED

12 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS 1. THOSE WHO CONDEMN HIM OUTRIGHT FOR CRUELTY, OPPRESSION, AND SENSELESS BLOODSHED a. SOME DESCRIBE HIM AS PATHOLOGICALLY MAD, DWELLING ON HIS TORTURE OF OTHER PEOPLE

13 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS 1. THOSE WHO CONDEMN HIM OUTRIGHT FOR CRUELTY, OPPRESSION, AND SENSELESS BLOODSHED a. SOME DESCRIBE HIM AS PATHOLOGICALLY MAD, DWELLING ON HIS TORTURE OF OTHER PEOPLE b. POSITIVE RESULTS OF HIS REIGN DUE TO INFLUENCE OF FIRST WIFE ANASTASIA AND ADVISORS ON CHOSEN COUNCIL, SYLVESTER AND ADASHEV

14 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS 1. THOSE WHO CONDEMN HIM OUTRIGHT FOR CRUELTY, OPPRESSION, AND SENSELESS BLOODSHED a. SOME DESCRIBE HIM AS PATHOLOGICALLY MAD, DWELLING ON HIS TORTURE OF OTHER PEOPLE b. POSITIVE RESULTS OF HIS REIGN DUE TO INFLUENCE OF FIRST WIFE ANASTASIA AND ADVISORS ON CHOSEN COUNCIL, SYLVESTER AND ADASHEV 2. THOSE WHO REGARD HIS EFFORTS AS MORE POSITIVE AND RATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO PROCESS OF STATE-BUILDING

15 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) C. MANY HISTORIANS SPLIT IN 2 CAMPS 1. THOSE WHO CONDEMN HIM OUTRIGHT FOR CRUELTY, OPPRESSION, AND SENSELESS BLOODSHED a. SOME DESCRIBE HIM AS PATHOLOGICALLY MAD, DWELLING ON HIS TORTURE OF OTHER PEOPLE b. POSITIVE RESULTS OF HIS REIGN DUE TO INFLUENCE OF FIRST WIFE ANASTASIA AND ADVISORS ON CHOSEN COUNCIL, SYLVESTER AND ADASHEV 2. THOSE WHO REGARD HIS EFFORTS AS MORE POSITIVE AND RATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO PROCESS OF STATE-BUILDING a. DEFEND IVAN’S EXTREME ACTIONS AS NEEDED TO CONTROL TURBULENT AND FRACTIOUS BOYARS

16 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS

17 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA

18 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA 2. THE “BAD” PERIOD – DURING WHICH HE SEEMED TO HAVE LOST EMOTIONAL BALANCE

19 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA 2. THE “BAD” PERIOD – DURING WHICH HE SEEMED TO HAVE LOST EMOTIONAL BALANCE E. HE WAS STALIN’S FAVORITE TSAR

20 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA 2. THE “BAD” PERIOD – DURING WHICH HE SEEMED TO HAVE LOST EMOTIONAL BALANCE E. HE WAS STALIN’S FAVORITE TSAR 1. DURING STALINST PERIOD, SOME HISTORIANS PROCLAIMED IVAN AS A NATIONAL HERO

21 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA 2. THE “BAD” PERIOD – DURING WHICH HE SEEMED TO HAVE LOST EMOTIONAL BALANCE E. HE WAS STALIN’S FAVORITE TSAR 1. DURING STALINST PERIOD, SOME HISTORIANS PROCLAIMED IVAN AS A NATIONAL HERO 2. PRAISED HIS EFFORTS IN BUILDING STATE POWER AND CENTRALIZING AUTHORITY

22 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) D. SOME SCHOLARS SPLIT HIS RULE INTO 2 PERIODS 1. THE “GOOD” PERIOD – UP TO 1560 & DEATH OF WIFE ANASTASIA 2. THE “BAD” PERIOD – DURING WHICH HE SEEMED TO HAVE LOST EMOTIONAL BALANCE E. HE WAS STALIN’S FAVORITE TSAR 1. DURING STALINST PERIOD, SOME HISTORIANS PROCLAIMED IVAN AS A NATIONAL HERO 2. PRAISED HIS EFFORTS IN BUILDING STATE POWER AND CENTRALIZING AUTHORITY 3. BUT AFTER STALIN’S DEATH, HIS RULE WAS ASSESSED MORE CRITICALLY

23 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE

24 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE”

25 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN

26 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE

27 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE b. ZEMSKII SOBOR (ADVISORY COUNCIL)

28 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE b. ZEMSKII SOBOR (ADVISORY COUNCIL) c. STRELTSY (PALACE GUARD)

29 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE b. ZEMSKII SOBOR (ADVISORY COUNCIL) c. STRELTSY (PALACE GUARD) 3. ALSO POSITIVE ABOUT HIS FOREIGN POLICY

30 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE b. ZEMSKII SOBOR (ADVISORY COUNCIL) c. STRELTSY (PALACE GUARD) 3. ALSO POSITIVE ABOUT HIS FOREIGN POLICY a. CONQUEST OF KAZAN AND ASTRAKHAN

31 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 1. OFTEN PORTRAYED AS “HERO OF THE PEOPLE” 2. MOST FAVORABLE IMPRESSIONS CENTER ON DOMESTIC REFORMS OF EARLY PART OF HIS REIGN a. CREATION OF NEW LAW CODE b. ZEMSKII SOBOR (ADVISORY COUNCIL) c. STRELTSY (PALACE GUARD) 3. ALSO POSITIVE ABOUT HIS FOREIGN POLICY a. CONQUEST OF KAZAN AND ASTRAKHAN b. ANNEXATION OF SIBERIA

32 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA

33 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA

34 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA a. COMMON PEOPLE INTERPRETED IT AS BEING DIRECTED CLASS ENEMIES – BOYARS

35 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA a. COMMON PEOPLE INTERPRETED IT AS BEING DIRECTED CLASS ENEMIES – BOYARS b. INDICATED TSAR’S SYMPATHY FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE

36 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA a. COMMON PEOPLE INTERPRETED IT AS BEING DIRECTED CLASS ENEMIES – BOYARS b. INDICATED TSAR’S SYMPATHY FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE 5. TERROR ALSO DIRECTED AGAINST TRAITORS AND ENEMIES OF RUSSIA, REAL OR IMAGINED

37 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) F. REPRESENTATION OF IVAN IN FOLKLORE OFTEN POSITIVE 4. SOME EVEN PRAISE CREATION OF OPRICHNINA a. COMMON PEOPLE INTERPRETED IT AS BEING DIRECTED CLASS ENEMIES – BOYARS b. INDICATED TSAR’S SYMPATHY FOR ORDINARY PEOPLE 5. TERROR ALSO DIRECTED AGAINST TRAITORS AND ENEMIES OF RUSSIA, REAL OR IMAGINED a. SAW IVAN AS ACTING IN WHAT HE THOUGHT WERE BEST INTERESTS AND DEFENSE OF STATE AND OF RUSSIA 6. BUT SOME FOLKLORE PORTRAYALS NEGATIVE

38 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) G. IVAN IV PLAYED ACTIVE PART IN THE CREATION OF HIS OWN SELF-IMAGE

39 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) G. IVAN IV PLAYED ACTIVE PART IN THE CREATION OF HIS OWN SELF-IMAGE 1. HAD HABIT OF TURNING TO CROWD FOR APPROVAL OF HIS ACTIONS

40 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) G. IVAN IV PLAYED ACTIVE PART IN THE CREATION OF HIS OWN SELF-IMAGE 1. HAD HABIT OF TURNING TO CROWD FOR APPROVAL OF HIS ACTIONS 2. HE CONSCIOUSLY WORKED TO CREATE AND SUSTAIN IMAGE AS “THE PEOPLE’S CHAMPION”

41 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” I. IMAGES OF IVAN IV ( ) G. IVAN IV PLAYED ACTIVE PART IN THE CREATION OF HIS OWN SELF-IMAGE 1. HAD HABIT OF TURNING TO CROWD FOR APPROVAL OF HIS ACTIONS 2. HE CONSCIOUSLY WORKED TO CREATE AND SUSTAIN IMAGE AS “THE PEOPLE’S CHAMPION” 3. WOULD REPENT PUBLICALLY FOR OVER-HASTY JUDGEMENTS OR LOSS OF HIS VIOLENT TEMPER, AND OTHER MISTAKES

42 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN

43 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SPARSE AND UNRELIABLE

44 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SPARSE AND UNRELIABLE 1. RUSSIAN CHRONICLES STRANGELY SILENT ABOUT HIS REIGN

45 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SPARSE AND UNRELIABLE 1. RUSSIAN CHRONICLES STRANGELY SILENT ABOUT HIS REIGN 2. MANY ACCOUNTS BY FOREIGNERS HOSTILE TO HIM

46 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SPARSE AND UNRELIABLE 1. RUSSIAN CHRONICLES STRANGELY SILENT ABOUT HIS REIGN 2. MANY ACCOUNTS BY FOREIGNERS HOSTILE TO HIM B. MANY WRITINGS, BOTH CONTEMPORARY AND THOSE AFTER, IMBUED WITH MUCH EMOTION

47 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN A. CONTEMPORARY SOURCES SPARSE AND UNRELIABLE 1. RUSSIAN CHRONICLES STRANGELY SILENT ABOUT HIS REIGN 2. MANY ACCOUNTS BY FOREIGNERS HOSTILE TO HIM B. MANY WRITINGS, BOTH CONTEMPORARY AND THOSE AFTER, IMBUED WITH MUCH EMOTION C. ESTIMATES OF IVAN’S CHARACTER AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS HAVE FLUCTUATED WILDLY

48 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE

49 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA

50 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS

51 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS 3. HE WAS INTELLIGENT, WELL-READ, HAD VERY GOOD MEMORY

52 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS 3. HE WAS INTELLIGENT, WELL-READ, HAD VERY GOOD MEMORY E. BUT ALONG WITH THIS IMPRESSIVE IMAGE, MANY NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS

53 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS 3. HE WAS INTELLIGENT, WELL-READ, HAD VERY GOOD MEMORY E. BUT ALONG WITH THIS IMPRESSIVE IMAGE, MANY NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS 1. HAD SHARP TEMPER - QUICK TO BE ANGERED AND INCLINED TOWARD VIOLENT REACTIONS

54 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS 3. HE WAS INTELLIGENT, WELL-READ, HAD VERY GOOD MEMORY E. BUT ALONG WITH THIS IMPRESSIVE IMAGE, MANY NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS 1. HAD SHARP TEMPER - QUICK TO BE ANGERED AND INCLINED TOWARD VIOLENT REACTIONS 2. ACCOUNTS FULL OF TALES OF SADISTIC CRUELTY

55 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN D. ALL OBSERVERS AGREE HE WAS IMPOSING FIGURE 1. PRESIDED OVER COURT CEREMONY IN MAGNIFICENT REGALIA 2. COULD BE INTENSELY RELIGIOUS 3. HE WAS INTELLIGENT, WELL-READ, HAD VERY GOOD MEMORY E. BUT ALONG WITH THIS IMPRESSIVE IMAGE, MANY NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS 1. HAD SHARP TEMPER - QUICK TO BE ANGERED AND INCLINED TOWARD VIOLENT REACTIONS 2. ACCOUNTS FULL OF TALES OF SADISTIC CRUELTY 3. SOME GROSS EXAGGERATIONS, OTHERS TRUE (SUCH AS MURDER OF HIS SON)

56

57 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” II. REAL PICTURE OF IVAN HARD TO OBTAIN F. OVERALL, SEEN AS A STRONG-WILLED, OFTEN CRUEL MAN WHO EXCERSIZED REAL POLITICAL AUTHORITY IN MUSCOVY, FOR GOOD AND FOR ILL

58 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN

59 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS

60 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED

61 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED 2. SOME SURMISE HE HAD SYPHALLIS – WHICH CAN CAUSE INSANITY AS IT PROGRESSES

62 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED 2. SOME SURMISE HE HAD SYPHALLIS – WHICH CAN CAUSE INSANITY AS IT PROGRESSES B. MUCH PSYCHO-ANALYSIS DONE BY THOSE FASCINATED BY HIS PERSONALITY

63 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED 2. SOME SURMISE HE HAD SYPHALLIS – WHICH CAN CAUSE INSANITY AS IT PROGRESSES B. MUCH PSYCHO-ANALYSIS DONE BY THOSE FASCINATED BY HIS PERSONALITY 1. CHILDHOOD USED TO PROVIDE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CRUELTY

64 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED 2. SOME SURMISE HE HAD SYPHALLIS – WHICH CAN CAUSE INSANITY AS IT PROGRESSES B. MUCH PSYCHO-ANALYSIS DONE BY THOSE FASCINATED BY HIS PERSONALITY 1. CHILDHOOD USED TO PROVIDE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CRUELTY a. BECAME TSAR AT YOUNG AGE

65 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN A. MAN OF IMPOSING STATURE BUT SUFFERED FROM DEFORMITY OF SPINE IN LATER YEARS 1. SUFFERING LED HIM TO TAKE MEDICATION FOR PAIN AND MADE HIM SHORT-TEMPERED 2. SOME SURMISE HE HAD SYPHALLIS – WHICH CAN CAUSE INSANITY AS IT PROGRESSES B. MUCH PSYCHO-ANALYSIS DONE BY THOSE FASCINATED BY HIS PERSONALITY 1. CHILDHOOD USED TO PROVIDE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CRUELTY a. BECAME TSAR AT YOUNG AGE b. BUT REAL POWER IN HANDS OF GROUP OF BOYARS WHO TREATED HIM BADLY

66 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD

67 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT

68 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT e. LIKED TO PARTICIPATE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES

69 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT e. LIKED TO PARTICIPATE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES C. OTHERS REJECT PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS

70 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT e. LIKED TO PARTICIPATE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES C. OTHERS REJECT PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS 1. NOT CONVINCED HIS CHILDHOOD WAS SO BAD

71 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT e. LIKED TO PARTICIPATE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES C. OTHERS REJECT PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS 1. NOT CONVINCED HIS CHILDHOOD WAS SO BAD 2. VERY FEW SOURCES ON TOPIC – MOSTLY WHAT IVAN HIMSELF WROTE MANY YEARS LATER

72 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN c. WITNESSED BITTER QUARRELS AND STUGGLES BETWEEN RIVAL FACTIONS IN ROYAL HOUSEHOLD d. ALSO WITNESSED VIOLENT ACTS, TORTURE, EXECUTIONS, AND HIS OWN MOTHER PROBABLY POISONED BY ENEMIES AT COURT e. LIKED TO PARTICIPATE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES C. OTHERS REJECT PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS 1. NOT CONVINCED HIS CHILDHOOD WAS SO BAD 2. VERY FEW SOURCES ON TOPIC – MOSTLY WHAT IVAN HIMSELF WROTE MANY YEARS LATER 3. LATER, COMMENTATORS EXAGGERATED THINGS AND BLEW THEM OUT OF PROPORTION

73 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN D. DOES SEEM LIKELY THAT HE WAS PARANOID AND SOMEWHAT UNBALANCED

74 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN D. DOES SEEM LIKELY THAT HE WAS PARANOID AND SOMEWHAT UNBALANCED

75 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN D. DOES SEEM LIKELY THAT HE WAS PARANOID AND SOMEWHAT UNBALANCED 1. HAD FEELINGS OF PERSECUTION

76 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” III. IVAN THE MAN D. DOES SEEM LIKELY THAT HE WAS PARANOID AND SOMEWHAT UNBALANCED 1. HAD FEELINGS OF PERSECUTION 2. GIVEN TO FITS OF WILD RAGE

77 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY

78 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE

79 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM

80 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS WERE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING RUSSIA’S PATH

81 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS WERE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING RUSSIA’S PATH B. MANY NON-MARXISTS AGREE WITH THIS BUT SAY PROCESS MAY HAVE BEEN LESS DESTRUCTIVE

82 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS WERE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING RUSSIA’S PATH B. MANY NON-MARXISTS AGREE WITH THIS BUT SAY PROCESS MAY HAVE BEEN LESS DESTRUCTIVE C. SOME EVEN SAY HE WAS RESPONDING TO POPULAR DEMAND TO CREATE STRONG CENTRALIZED STATE AND LIMIT POWER OF NOBILITY

83 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS WERE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING RUSSIA’S PATH B. MANY NON-MARXISTS AGREE WITH THIS BUT SAY PROCESS MAY HAVE BEEN LESS DESTRUCTIVE C. SOME EVEN SAY HE WAS RESPONDING TO POPULAR DEMAND TO CREATE STRONG CENTRALIZED STATE AND LIMIT POWER OF NOBILITY 1. BUT HIS SPREAD OF SERFDOM DOES NOT SUPPORT THIS – HIS LAWS GAVE RICH MUCH POWER OVER POOR

84 IVAN IV “THE TERRIBLE” IV. IVAN’S PLACE IN HISTORY A. MARXIST HISTORIANS DOWNPLAY HIS ROLE 1. CONTEND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA WOULD HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME WITHOUT HIM 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS WERE MORE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING RUSSIA’S PATH B. MANY NON-MARXISTS AGREE WITH THIS BUT SAY PROCESS MAY HAVE BEEN LESS DESTRUCTIVE C. SOME EVEN SAY HE WAS RESPONDING TO POPULAR DEMAND TO CREATE STRONG CENTRALIZED STATE AND LIMIT POWER OF NOBILITY 1. BUT HIS SPREAD OF SERFDOM DOES NOT SUPPORT THIS – HIS LAWS GAVE RICH MUCH POWER OVER POOR 2. DESTRUCTION OF NOVGOROD ALSO CRITICIZED


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