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Chapter 4 Managing Multiple Access. Introduction Look at: –Design Issues (4.1) –Implementation Issues (4.2) –Centralized Access (4.3) –Distributed Access.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Managing Multiple Access. Introduction Look at: –Design Issues (4.1) –Implementation Issues (4.2) –Centralized Access (4.3) –Distributed Access."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Managing Multiple Access

2 Introduction Look at: –Design Issues (4.1) –Implementation Issues (4.2) –Centralized Access (4.3) –Distributed Access (4.4) –Hardware Addressing (1.5)

3 Introduction Multiple access allows more than one device to communicate Network data congestion is a consistent issue Several types of multiple access links are available, such as point-to-point, broadcast, and switched

4 Design Issues Based on network architecture, networks can be logically divided into two classes: –In a distributed design, all nodes have approximately the same kinds and amounts of information –In a centralized design, there is a central node or a manager, which manages all communication decisions

5 Design Issues Circuit mode is used to send steady streams of data at a continuous bit rate Circuit mode provides a physical, dedicated path called a time slot for the data Because this time slot is dedicated, no other node can use its path

6 Design Issues Packet-mode design provides increased network efficiency by providing system resources to system users only when the user has data to send –With packet mode, the nodes contend for every packet to avoid wasting bandwidth –Packet mode is shared, the network media serves many more users with the same system resources

7 Implementation Issues Implementation issues that need to be addressed where multiple access is concerned: –The first is spectrum scarcity –The next issue is the properties that radio links possess – In wireless systems it is very difficult to receive data when the transmitter is sending data

8 Implementation Issues Implementation issues that need to be addressed where multiple access is concerned: –When a node is transmitting data, a large fraction of the signal energy leaks into the receive path –There also has to be a method devised for communication that can help control errors, fading, and interference

9 Implementation Issues The four factors that affect performance are: –Normalized throughput in which a fraction of the link capacity is used to carry non- retransmitted packets –Mean delay which is the amount of time a node has to wait before it successfully transmits a packet

10 Implementation Issues The four factors that affect performance are: –Stability to counter when a load becomes heavy and the majority of time is spent on resolving contentions –Fairness so that each contending node receives an equal share of the bandwidth and an equal chance to send data

11 Implementation Issues Base technologies isolate data from different sources A base technology uses a line driver to introduce voltage shifts in digital signals onto a channel The channel acts a a transport mechanism for the digital voltage pulses as they travel through the channel In general, only one communication channel is available at any given time

12 Implementation Issues The wireless industry began to explore converting the existing analog network to digital as a means of improving capacity Currently there are three choices : –FDMA –TDMA –CDMA

13 Implementation Issues FDMA works by dividing the frequency spectrum allocated for wireless cellular telephone communication into channels of equal bandwidth TDMA is analog’s FDMA with a built-in, time-sharing component

14 Implementation Issues CDMA combines spread spectrum technology with analog-to-digital conversion –Audio input is first digitized into binary elements –The data is then scattered across the frequency band in a random pattern

15 Centralized Access A centralized design, there is a central node or a manager that keeps important information and makes all decisions Centralized access is simple, and the master controller provides a single point of management and synchronization The master is the single point of failure and it needs a re-election protocol

16 Centralized Access The master controller is involved in every single data transfer, causing added delay and slowing the network Several different methods of centralized control include: –circuit-mode –polling or packet mode –reservation based

17 Centralized Access The way circuit-mode data transfer works is as follows: –When a station wants to transmit data, it sends a message to the master –The master allocates transmission resources to the slave –The slaves use the allocated resources until it completes transmission

18 Centralized Access Radio link protocols for circuit-mode data transmissions on cellular systems are based on the premise that the error- prone link must be reliable The first protocol, Protocol S, uses a flexible segmentation and recovery sub layer to package data frames into multiplexed physical layer bursts

19 Centralized Access The second one, Protocol T, consists of two levels of recovery Because the partial recovery provided by the first level usually recovers the data, the second recovery level is seldom used This type of centralized access is used primarily in cellular home systems

20 Centralized Access In polling- or packet-mode access, a user's data stream is broken down into smaller segments, called packets Each packet then has network control information added before it is transmitted through the network Once the packet transmission is complete, that resource becomes available for use by other nodes to transmit packets

21 Centralized Access Polling is the process in which the master broadcasts a query to every node in the network asking each node in turn whether it has anything to communicate Polling can be thought of as a combination of broadcasting and gathering information from the nodes To ensure that only one message is transmitted at any time, the master either polls or selects each terminal connected to the line in a specific sequence

22 Centralized Access The poll control message is used to request a specific terminal to send any waiting data message it may have Usually, the master polls all the nodes in round-robin fashion, but in some circumstances some nodes may get more than one poll per cycle On half-duplex lines each poll requires two line turnarounds, one for the master to send, and one for the node to send

23 Centralized Access Polling is considered an inefficient method especially if only a few stations are active Because it is centrally controlled, the network will slow down if the system has many terminals The overhead for polling messages is high because all nodes have to be polled and will cause network performance to suffer when the controllers on the link become overloaded

24 Centralized Access If it takes a long time for the data to reach the farthest station, the master coordinates access to links using reservations The master assigns slots that are devoted to sending just these reservation messages The nodes either contend for a slot or they own one Packet collisions are limited only to slots, so the overhead on contention is reduced

25 Distributed Access The premise behind distributed access is similar to that of a distributed design There is no central node or manager; all nodes have equal access A distributed scheme is more reliable, has lower message or propagation delays, and often allow higher network bandwidth utilization

26 Distributed Access Almost all distributed access methods are packet mode In distributed access, a station starts transmission after it satisfies a set of network requirements by using a random access Media Access Control (MAC) low-level protocol This is the preferred method of access for LANs and many WANs also use it

27 Distributed Access There are several methods of distributed access: –Decentralized polling –Carrier sense multiple access –Busy tone multiple access –Multiple access collision avoidance –Token passing – ALOHA

28 Distributed Access The principle behind decentralized polling is similar to centralized polling except there is no master to control the transmitting and collection of packets All stations must share a time base The access time is divided into slots and then each station is assigned a slot which it uses for transmissions

29 Distributed Access Ethernet networks use carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) to improve performance and reduce traffic When a node has data to transmit, it first listens on the cable by using a transceiver to check and determine if a signal is being transmitted by another node If the channel is sensed as idle, it transmits. If the channel is sensed as busy, it holds off the transmission until it can sense that the medium is idle

30 Distributed Access There are two types of CSMA: –Persistent: The transmission is immediately retried based on a probability (p) of when the transmission medium will become available –Non-Persistent: The transmission is retried after random intervals

31 Distributed Access Due to propagation delay, two nodes may not hear each other's transmission The role that distance and propagation delay play in collisions is important because these factors determine the probability of a collision When a collision occurs, the entire packet transmission time is wasted Obviously if a collision happens, we want to detect and resolve it

32 Distributed Access In carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD), if a node observes a collision, it stops transmission immediately Instead, it sends a random 32-bit pattern for a short period of time, referred to as jam sequence or a jam signal This causes the other nodes to discard the frame and assures that all stations are aware of a collision so that they can increment the timeout range

33 Distributed Access When two or more transmitting nodes each detect a collision, each responds in the same way by transmitting the jam sequence CSMA/CD uses exponential backoff When a collision occurs, a timeout is randomly chosen from a doubled range The backoff range then adapts to number of contending stations

34 Distributed Access In a wireless environment, it is very important that the number of collisions be limited to the absolute minimum This can be achieved by a protocol called carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) CSMA/CA is actually a variation of CSMA/CD The idea behind CSMA/CA is to prevent collisions at the moment they are most likely to occur

35 Distributed Access In collision avoidance, when a node wants to send a data packet, it sends a message called a Request to Send (RTS) to the destination device If the node receives a Clear to Send (CTS) message back from the device, it sends its data When the data packet has been received, the receiving device sends an acknowledgement (ACK) packet

36 Distributed Access Packet-radios or stations use the MAC protocol for sharing a common broadcast channel Busy tone multiple access (BTMA) is designed for station-based networks and divides the channel into two categories: –Message channel –Busy-tone channel

37 Distributed Access Multiple access collision avoidance (MACA) attempts to detect collisions at the receiver by establishing a request-response channel between the sender and receiver Instead of using two channels like BMTA, it uses a single frequency band, and uses explicit messages to tell others that the receiver is busy This protocol was designed to solve the hidden and exposed terminal issues, but it doesn't completely eliminate them

38 Distributed Access Other distributed access protocols: –MACAW uses a message exchange that consists of five steps and includes a backoff algorithm –The floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) protocol is used when a station acquires control of a channel before sending a packet, yet it ensures no collisions happen at the receiver

39 Distributed Access Other distributed access protocols: –In the DBTMA protocol, two narrow- bandwidth tones are implemented in a single channel –DBTMA resolves the hidden and exposed terminal issues, but extra hardware is required

40 Distributed Access Token passing is an alternative to CSMA/CD Ethernet networks Possession of the token allows exclusive access to the network for transmission When the transmission is finished, the node passes the token to next station Every computer in the network is responsible for either passing the token or creating a new one

41 Distributed Access Token-passing networks, also called token Ring networks, are either single or double rings With a single ring, the failure of a single link or station breaks the network With a double ring, if there is a failure on one ring, the second ring can be used to avoid a single point of failure

42 Distributed Access ALOHA is one of the earliest multiple access schemes It is a simple communications scheme where each transmitter in a network sends data whenever there is a frame to send If the frame successfully reaches the receiver, the next frame is sent If the frame is not received, it is sent again

43 Distributed Access There are several variants of ALOHA: –Pure ALOHA can work well when the medium has a low bandwidth utilization –Slotted ALOHA is commonly used in cellular phone uplinks –Reservation ALOHA is a combination of a slot reservation design with slotted ALOHA

44 Hardware Addressing Most network technologies have a unique physical address scheme that identifies computers on the network This unique physical address is called a hardware address or Media Access Control (MAC) address This address is the MAC hexadecimal address of the system's network interface card (NIC) and is 48 bits long

45 Hardware Addressing A MAC address looks like this: A4-A8-DA-D0 IEEE designates an addressing scheme and assigns unique blocks of addresses to NIC manufacturer The NIC transmits outgoing data in frames and accepts incoming data The NIC is a link between a computer and a network


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